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Full text of "New first Latin book [microform]"

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Microfiche 
Series 
(IVIonographs) 



ICI\/IH 

Collection de 
microfiches 
(monographies) 




Canadian tnttitut* for Historical Microraproducti '<ni / Institut Canadian da microraproductions historiquas 




1996 



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NEW 



FIRST LATIN BOOK 



JOHN HENDERSON, M.A. 

I'RisaPAi., CoitraiATi! IxsT.TiT., St. Cathakish, 



R. A. LITTLE, B.A. 

Cl,A»»lCAL MaSTKR, COM.K0IAT1 IXBTITITr. I.(,s„„» 



TORONTO 
THE COPP, OLARK COMPANY, LIMITED 



ph:i^iy 



Entcreii acconiitiu to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousanil 
nine hundred and six, by Titic Con*, Clark Compant, Liuitsd, Toronto 
Ontario, in the Office of the Miniater of Agriculture. 



PREFACE 



Th.8 book .8 a revised editi,,,, „f ,|,e F.ust Latin- Book, ori<.i„alI, 
pubh,hed.„1892. The favor witl. winch ,he laHer ...s rJl-ei^d 
by the tenehers of the Province has been .steadily retained. 
The progress of the years, h„„ever, rendered a careful revision 

excZT t'"' : P"*''-'«™ "f the original book, n.any 
excellent works on Latin have appeared in both Britain and 
America, and the authors have striven to combine the resultsof the 
latest research with the most modern mefh.Kls in Latin toachin- 
hxperience. too, from the use of the First Lati.v Book in the 

stalnne, of the le..d,u,j f.rts of Latin Gr,n,u,u,r ,n,.,-e sin,j,le and 
~«,a. «.,««„ be found in the ori,in.d ,rorl:, „.„,, desLue in 
consequence of the pressure of other studies that now claim the 
attention of both teacher and pupil. While the more important 
features of the FmsT Latik Book have been retained, in the Nkw 

Zl ,^"'^''T "'" '- f'"""' '-ny «'-.«es in the order in 
which the subjects are taken up, as well as new methods in the 
presentation of these subjects to the pupil. 

The /»>o^V,„., have been dealt with gradmlUj and /•„«„, in the 
belief that It ,s only by proceeding slowly at the beginning and by 
m;«tenng thoroughly the forms of the language, that subsequent, 
progress can be made with pleasure and profit to the pupil In 
dealing with the IiiBeetions of the Noun and AdjeCive, le have 
discarded entirely the use of stnn as altogether lo nnceitai, , 
Ih ^ '-"" '"'yi'««^t™l use to a beginner, and have a.lopted a 
method which we believe to be much easier ami more rational. 

The acquiring of a Vocabulary is always a more or less difficult 
matter. This difficulty will be greatly lessene.. if the piq^i ' 

the teacher to c„,„„./ the „.«„„■„, „/,. Latin n-ord .Jtl,\ *■, , 

denmn. ^n En,jli.,, If this bo done, the meaning of the La 
word ,,, „,„„^, ,^^., .„ ^,^^ __ ._^^, ^^ ^^_^. ^^ ... 

- ver, f the pupil ,s trained to extend the scope of the English 

derivatives from a single word in Latin, he will enlarge his Knglisl. 

iii 



Vocabulary •■iiul tlu, «ui<l» of l,ia mother tciiguo will have a 
meaning they never h;v(l before. Tlii.s principle hius been a.lopted 
ni tlie initial st:ig.!8 of this hook, and the pupil is reconunended 
to carry out the metho,!, as far as practicable, in all 8ubse,,uent 
exercises. Only the most ..l)vious Kngli.sh derivatives are given. 
With regard to the extent and chaiacter of the V<K;abulary, wo 
may .say that it has been taken chiefly, though not exclusively, 
from Cae.s/.r, and especially fnim that part of Caesar prescribed 
for Pass University Matriculation. 

The value of Sufhl Tnimlulkm has been keiit steadily in view. 
Ace. rdingly, olmut f,„hj pas,s,iges, selected to suit the progress 
of the pupil, liavo been given throughout the bo,,k. These" are 
varied in character, and are specially chosen to awaken an interest 
in the leijemh, hislanj, miiColuij!/, <"i(' Hfi of the Jiomiiii.i. 

In the treatment of Syntax, mch im,mtanl princijtie ia pmeded 
h[l >in e.mmi,l,- clearly explained. Indu-t on has a plac. in the 
teaching of languages, but its pro|)er jilace is in dealing, not with 
.Accidence, but with Syntax, after the forms of the language have 
been thoroughly mastered. The Sj utax of the Subjunctive Mood 
has been fully explained, for one can sel.lom find a page of a 
Latin author, especially of Caesar, without meeting numerous 
ex.nnples of this mood. Since in Caesar certain uses of the 
Sul)junctive are m.)ro frecpuuitly found than others, these have 
been more fully treated, in view of the fact that they have been 
regarded by the authors as more important. 

Throughout the book wo have aimed at Imrity iit exjiression am- 
sistent with simi)licity and clearness, and especially have we 
adhered to tlie principle that should, as far as possible, prevail 
in all teaching, viz., of iu,(xfnin>j ime thimj (if a time. 

This lio..k is intended t.) be a thommjh pnpumtion fw the 
ren,l!H,i of (hem,; an author that is likely to have a permanent 
place in the course in Latin in Secondary Schools. 

.John Henuerson, 
R. A. Little. 



Jan 



.nani .'ml, 1900. 



TAULK (JF CONTKxNTS 



IntEODUCTIOX— Piioj 

The Latin Unguayo-Ali.hiihet ... , 

Pronunciation ... ' 

Syllables. '" ' ' " 

Qilanfity— Accent.. '' 

Lrsson 4 

'■ ''o'f Ito ^™J"«'"'™-I'-'™t In,lic.ative Active 

II. The Verb-Present Tense'.' f 

III. TheXou„_I*.,ie„.,io„_Cases....: Z 

IV. Gender " 

V. First Declension. !!.!!.''.'''' '" 

VI. Subject and Direct Object '' 

Vm' T'7n "' ''"'■'™' Object-.'To'C; K-'r','.: ' 

vm. The Ablative-' With '-'By' 

IX. The Ablative-' From -'In' '^ 

X. Imperfect and Future Indicative Acu'v'e Vir'st'con: 

Jiigiition: Amo 

XI. Second Declension : No„„s in'.',« '.[ f. 

Xtll. SecondDeclension: Neuter Nouns.. f 

XIV. Review-Special Points . ^ 

XV. Adjectives of the First and s;;„nd'D«:ie;,si„n,:: " 
tsonuH 

xxn pi^^H °' ? '^^ ;' ■'■''' ^™'^'^-''-'"--'- 3« 

of 1,™ "■'■ ' ''"'''™' I"*™'i™ Active 

XVin. I"UH>-tive'jWl-I„,[«.ativeActi™of'X,:„::''-' !' 

4S 



XXII. 
XXIII. 
XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 
XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XX .X. 



XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 
XXXV 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 



XXXIX. 

XL 

XLI. 



XLII. Nil 
XLIII. Th 

XLIV. Th 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Thiril Declension : Class I : Labial Baaes fll 

'I'liiicl Declension : Class I : Denial Bases 53 

Third Declension : Class I : Palatal Bases 55 

Thinl Declension : Class I : Liquid, Nasal, and 

iSibilant liases —Reailing Lesson : Akneas 57 

Third Declension : Class I : Neuter Nouns 60 

Thinl Declension : Class II : Masculine and Femi- 
nine Nouns g2 

Third Declension : Class II : Neuter Nouns 64 

Third Declension : Mixed Nouns 65 

Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension— Rules for 
(tender of the Third Declension— Reading Lesson: 

Rome gy 

Second Conjugation : Indicalive and Imperative 

Active of Mtineo 70 

First Conjugation : Passive Voice : Indicative and 

Imperative of A mo 74 

Second Conjugation : Passive Voice : Indicative and 
Imperative of j»/o««)_Reading Ix'sson : The 

Sevkn Kings of Rome jg 

Adjectives of the Third Declension ; Acer: Furlin: 

Fortivr g [ 

Adjectives of the Thinl Declension : FtlU: Prtideiis: 
Aiimiis: I'rfMi .• /V«s— CoUoqiii am : ViR KT Pbeb 84 

Comparison of Adjectives 87 

Irregular Comparison go 

Irregular Comparison— Adjectives that take the 
D'tive, Genitive and Ablative- ' Time When '— 
' Dui..tion of Time '—Reading Lesson : Britain 92 

Adverbs — Comparison of AiKcilw 96 

Fourth Declension : FruHm 99 

Fifth Declension: Hen: /)ie« — Reading Lessou : 

Han.vib.al and Scifio 101 

Numerals -' Kxtent of Space '—Partitive t;cnitive 105 
-nnjugation ; Indicative and Iiuiwrative 

"f llfilo 108 

ii.jugatioii : Indicative anil Imperative Pas- 
sive 01 /?«/o— Predicate Accusative— Pi, licative 
Nominative— Reading Lesson : Ekoulus l\\ 



CONTENTS 



L188ON 
XLVI. 



Kuli 



"t .SvjUax- 



XLIX. 



L. 

LI. 

UI. 

LIII. 

LIV. 
LV, 

LVI. 
LVII. 



mill ImiHTiitivu 



Ini|K,'iiitivu 
TiiK Datti.k 



Time : Rules for Time . 
Plac-e: The Lix^ative oiae '• 

XLVnr ^'""'<^°"J»«''"''»^ Verbs ,■„.,„, 
XLVIII. Fourth Conjugation: In.licativ. 

Active of v(u(/;o 

f™rth Conjusatiou: iLuii.^ativo'ana' 

Passive of v(,„«o_Rea,li„g Less, 

OP MarA'-'IIOX.. 

Ueponent Verbs : In,lica«ve andln.perative '. 

Dep.>„ent V erbs : Thinl Conju,.uio„ Verbs in.',. ; 
fionouiw: Personal: Refiesive 
Uenionstrative Pronouns-Keacliilj, ' LessonV F.kst 
Expedition ok Ca,:sar to Bkit,!. 

Intensive or Kmphatic Pronouns 

The Relative Pronoun - Reading Lesson." The 

OEOIiRAI'lIY OF GaII 

The Interr„y....ve Pr-onouri . .' 

IiHlefinite Pronouns-Reading Lesson : Dki r;;„ax 



I'AOK 
ll« 



IIS 



12s 
i;)-_' 

I. -13 
137 

140 
US 

143 
148 



LVIIL 

LIX. 

LX. 

LXI. 



Reading Lesson : 
Participle, : Participles of' theAetive V.' 
Ihe Perfect Participle Pa.ssive-,Schen,eof Participle, i5"4' 



140 
152 



LXIL 
LXIU. 
LXIV. 



LXVL 
LXVn. 

Lxvni. 

LXIX. 
LXX. 



Jiiig Lesson : Caks 



sailing Lesson : The 



13!) 
165 
I6S 



Participles of Deponent Verbs 
Ablative Absolute — Read 

IlEfKATS the BkiTO\s 
Review on Particples-Special Points. . " ,",■:., 

Inhiufve : Forn.ation of Infinitiv, ' 

Accusative with Infinitivc-R, 
Fates 

LXV. A.»,sativo with Infinitive :Deponent hianitiv.^ 
ffope, pmuMe, ,iml,rl„W, m;ir 
Wbstluu govern, he Dative and Geni;;™; ;:: ' ' " ' \j 

Supines— Reading Lesson 

BOY siK.vns HIS dav 

Gerund 

The (^nuudiveJiemndKeciuistru;:;;™ instead of 
the (,eruMd- The Gerund Construction 
opeeial I'oints 



How a Roman Schooi.. 



179 
182 



1 necessary- 



184 



Vlll CONTENTS 

LXXI. Tile (Jerunilivii .ienoling Duty, Obligation, Neces- 
sity —«lt!ruii(liviil Infinitive -Keiuliiig Lesson: 
DiFPKii.TY OF Caksaks Lamiin(; in Britain 187 
LX.XIl. The Siilijunctive MixkI : .Subjunctive uf Sum : 
Subjunctive Active of Aiiio, Aluneo, Heijo, Capio, 

Audio — Meaning and Use 191 

LXXIII. The Subjunctive in Simple Sentences 193 

LXXIV, Subjunctive Passive of A mo, Moneo, llnjn, Cu)ho, 

^Miiio— Reading Lesson : HokatiisatthkBkidue 194 
LXXV. The Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses: Final 

Clauses --Sequence of Tenses 197 

LXXVI Subjunctive of Deponent Verljs— Indirect Questions 
—Sequence of Tenses— Reading Lesson : Second 

Kxi'EDiTioN TO Britain 199 

LXXVII. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses; Consecutive 
Clauses— C«W( with Subjunctive; Reading Lesson; 

Death of Kpamixondas 20S 

LXXVIII. Irregular Verbs: Poxsum: /"iwui/i— Lonipounds of 

*«»' 207 

LXy^X. Volo, Nolo, Jfato— Reading Lesson The Battle 

OF Cannae 2io 

LXXX. /V?'o— Compounds of fero 213 

LXXXI. /Vo— Coinpouiuis of /aci'o -Readii.g Lesson : How 

Troy was Taken 213 

LXXXII. Eo — Compounils of po 217 

LXXXIII. Defective Verbs : Meuihii, Coeiii, OUi, A'ofi — 

Reading Lesson : Death or Caesar 219 

LXXXIV. Impersonal Verbs; Coaitat, Licet, Aeeiilil, Emnit— 
How to translate May, Might, Ought, Should, 

Must 223 

LXXXV. Impersonal Verbs: Verbs of Feeling _ //i(fr<!.»(— 

0/)iM e-ii— Reading Lesson : RoMCLrs •<;>a 

LXXXVl. Dative of Purpose -Dative with Compounils 228 

LXXXVII. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses ; Sunnnary of 

Clauses— Reading Lesson : Nrjn Pomi'ILII'S .... 230 

LXXXVIII. Final Cku-ses 2,32 

LXXXIX. Indirect Questions : Adaptation— Reailing Lesson : 

Tli.i.its Hostii.u's 234 

XC. Consecutive Clauses 236 



CONTENTS ijj 

Lmtmn p 

XCI. riausfs of CliHriiLtiTintic — IJoiuling Le««oii : FlcllT 

IIETWKKN TllK HoKATII AM> ClUIATlI 237 

X(JU. Hulwtiiiitive Clauses of I'liriiosu 'r Iii.lintt Ci.iii- 
iiiamis — Kt'juliiig Lessuri : Kicht bkt\\ kkv thk 

HOKATII AND ClKIATII (contiiiiieil) 2X9 

XCIII. SuhataiKlvc Clauses with Wrba of Fearijiy 24-J 

XCl V. fSubstantivu Cla.isua (if Result -Clauses witli :/«,„l 

Keailing Lessuji ; TiiK Dkatii of Sekviis Tn.i.ns 244 

XCV. Clauses «ith (Jiim anil Quumiiiiu 047 

XCVJ. Coiulitioual Clauses -Reading Lesson; A Wki.i, 

Desehvki) Kebike 249 

XCVII. Causal Clauses : </i,oil, quia, quomam—On:liu ItiHii 

ami Oratio OhUqila defined 252 

X( A'lll. Ciineeasive Clauses— Clauses of Wish or Provis 2')4 

-CIX. Clauses of Comparison— Reading Lesson: CVR.sli.us 236 
C. Temporal Clauses: poKlquaiii : dam, <l,,im, qioml : 
antequam, j>ri(i.iqvam — Reading Lesson : Tun 

Gekmaxs OiTwiT THE Mesami 258 

JL Temporal Clauses— C«in— Repeated Acts 261 

ClI. Inilii-ect Narration : Omlio Obliqua 263 

(;in. ^l)■atio Ohliqtm (eontinued)— Conditional Clauses in 

Oratio Od&yua- Reading Lesson : Roman Hoxok 267 

Reading Lesson : AiTGUSTtis 271 

Appendix ; — 

Table of Numerals 074 

Conjugation of Regular Verbs 27G-281 

Summary of Rules for Cases : 

Accusative 0^0 

native 284 

Oenitive 0^7 

Ablative 291 

List of Abbreviations og« 

Latin- English Vocabulary 207 -H^H 

Knglish-Latin Vocabulaiy 329-351 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



The Roman Forum . e. . . 

~, „ , Frontispiece 

ilic Colosseum ^ . 

(Jppositc page I 

Arch of Constaiitiiie ^''" 

Plan of Ancient Rome "' 

Roman Figures 

The Gladiator 

Jupiter 

^ 2 KA 

The Three Fates 

171 

The Chariot Race 

Caius Julius Caesar o. 

Death of Servius Tullius .... "" 

. a4C 

Augustus ^^ 



NEW FIRST UTIN BOOK 



IXTK(;i)UCTI()X 



THE LATIN LANGUAGE 
Latin was the languiige of tlie I.olini w Latins, a race of 
west-central Italy, who inhal)ited Latiuin, a plain south o: 
the moutli of the Tiber. The cliief city of I^tiuiu was 
Rome. With the comjuests of Home, Latin spread first 
over the Italian peninsula, and subsequently over the greater 
portion of the notions around the Jlediterranean. When tlie 
^^tins, under the leadership of Rome, oon(iuered the varior . 
t.ibes of Italy, the native dialects, as the Oscan, Unibrian 
and Etruscan, were gradually supplanted by the Latin. 
When Rome spread her conquests Iwyond the Italian penin- 
sula the same process went on, and, accordingly, Latin became 
the principal language throughout the Roman Empire. Latin 

has passed into the so-called Romance languages such as 

French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. 

Alphabet 

The Latin Alphabet i.s the same as the English, except that 
It has no w. Originally it did not have eitlier j or u. These 
letters were added in the Middle Ages, j to represent i when 
a consonant, and u to represent v when a vowel. For 
convenience these forms have been retained. 
1 



INTRODUCTION 



Pronunciation 

There are two methods of pronouncing Latin :— 

(1) The Roman Method; 

(2) Tlie Englisii Method. 

The Roman Method 

VoWELH 

The mark " over a vowel indicates that it is long, and " 
that it is short. 



a ..1 tlie Ia.«t a of rdid 

e as in ijivi/, ilifij 

i a,'* ill mm'hinf. 

6 nw in notf, hone 

u .as 00 in vioon, or n in 

ritiU 

y, y like till! IJiTinan « or t 



4 ii-s the fir.1t a of aha 

€ as in nH, sited 

I as in pin. Jit 

6 a.s in not, omit 

ii as oo in foot, or « in /nil, puC 

Frencli ji. 



DiPHTHONOo 



■e either as iii in (ii.«fe or 

a in /f(re 
au as on in Ao»w 
ei as ei in sifin, «';;A( 



eu US m in /««d 
oe as oi in oi^ 
ui as we 



Consonants 

Consonants are sounded as in Kiif 
exceptions : — 



lisli, with the following 



c and g are always hard, as in ,•„„, ,jft 

j (consoniuit i) like i/ in i/rt 

s is always sharp, aa in gun, liUx 

t always as in ti„, never like «» as in oratiott 

V is like w in wine 

chis like i in kin 

X always like ta 



INTKODUCTlOir 

The English Method 



a as a in fate 
e as e in riiete 
i as i in pint 
o as in noU 
u as u in Iv)k 
7 as y in ty^ie 



Vowi 



& as a in /ai 
4 as e in ntet 
I as i in pin 

6 as o in not 
ti as » in tub 

7 Hs // in viytfL 



DlPHTHOSCls 

ae as ae in Caamr eu as e« in feud 

au as an in author oe like ,v i„ „,,rt 

ei as ei in height ui lilie «•;, cui = hn 

Consonants 

Consonants are sounded largely as in Knglish. 

c and g are hard before a, o, and n as in cat, got. and soft before <- 
and », as lu een^, (/i'm. 

Syllables 

A Latin word has as many syll,il^lcs as it lias vowels or 
diphthongs : — 

co-ro-na, a-ma-ba-tur, mi-li-tes. 
In dividing words into syllables :— 

(o) A single consonant except x goes with the following 
vowel : — 

a-ma-bam, do-mi-nus, sax-um. 

(6) Doubled consonants are separated : 

mit-to, pel-lo. 
(c) When two or more consonants stand together, as 
many as may begin a word usually gcrwilh the 
following vowel : — 
ma-gnus, co-gno-sco, cor-pus. men-sa. 

('/) Compound words are divided into their component 
parts : — 

•d-ett, dis-ce-do. 



'I 



llill 



» IHTKODUCTION 

Quantity 

The quantity of a vowel or syllable is the time taken in 
pronouncing it. There are two degrees of quantity, long and 
short. A long vowel or syllable takes twice as long to pn^ 
nounce as a short one ( - = ^ ^ ). 

Quantity of Vowels. 

Vowels are either long or .short by nature :— 

(o) A vowel before another vowel or h is short, 

via, n hii. 
(A) Diphthongs, vowels derived from diphthongs, and 
vowels resulting from contraction are long, 
mensae, include, (claudo), cogo (cfi-Ago). 
(c) A vowel before^-, ««, „/; an.l often before .jn is long, 

ejus, mensa, infans, magnus. 
(rl) A vowel before ml, nl is regularly short, 
amandus, amant. 

In thi., book vowels long are marked ; sl.ort vowels are unmarked 
except ma few eases where mistakes are liable to bo n.ade. Long 
vowels tefore ,„, „/, g„, are not so marked. Inasmuch as these are 
long ,n scansion, it was not tliought wise to interfere with the tra- 
Uitional sliort pronunciation of vowels in tliese cases. 

Accent 

The last syllable of a word is called the ultima ; the next to 
the last, the penult; and the syllable before the penult, the 
antepenult. 

Words of two syllables are accented on the penult, as, 

bdnus, r^go. 
Words of more than two syllables are accented on the 
penult if that is long; otherwise on the antepenult. 
poeta, amicus, amabat, amabatur, 
insula, inimm, rigitur, amabitur, aedificabitur. 



LESSOX I 
THE FIRST CONJUGATION 

1. The iiillection of verbs to denote voice, moo.I, tense, 
number ami person is cilled Conjugation. 

The verb is aai<l to Ix; emijiigaleil. 

2. There are in Latin Four Regular Conjugations .Us- 
tinguished by the ending of the Present Infinitive Aetive. 

Inpinitivk Knijiso 



Co;jjL'r..vrios 
Fii 

See<i.i(l 

Third 

Fourth 



iNFINlTrVK 

nm are, to lir^ 
mini ere, to mlri^' 
reg 4re, to rule. 
iuul ire, t'> hem- 



-are 
-ere 
-^re 

-ire 



All verbs whose I'n.sent I„ti„itiv„ e.uls i„ -are hdo,,.. to the Kir.t 
Conjugation of which aniare, to loiv, is the typ,. 

3- First Conjugation 

Activk VoicK Tndicativk Mooi, 

Prksknt Tkn.sk 

^'^•'"'"" IVrKAi. 

■• '""°' ^ '""" .-nna mus, ,„r h.,r 

- *'"» »• """' '"'«' .-.,„a tis, .,..„ fo,„ 

3. a.ua t, he, «he, it loves ,i,„a nt, (/,.;, luue 

4. Observe: — 

The part ama- to whi,h the emliuH, "re .nllaol,,,! is calU.,1 the 
Prt'sent Stt'iri. 



Amo represents an ori-inal amao, tin 
before 6. 



su-ni-vowrl a iM-tu' lost 



The en,lin,-s or i,,noc.i„„s „d„. ,l„. ,,l,.,.,. „f ,„.„„.,„„„ ,, ,,;„,,,.,, „,.,, 
uirtioatc ]ierson anil uuriiliir. 

Ama5 = love thou : -s -= .l.o„ : -mus ^ w. : -tis - vm. (pi.): 





S Inflect like amo iji Ihu I'rcsuiit Tense 



aro, plough 
clamo, shout 
laudd, praise 
porto, carry 



canto, sing 
pugno, fight 
specto, look at, gaze at 
voco, call 



EXERCISE 
A 

1. arat, clamat, pugnat; laudas, portas, spectas, 

2. cantamus, pugnamus. aramus ; spectatis, vocatis, laudatis. 

3. laudant, pugnant, cantant, portant, arant 

4. arair.us, laudatis, yocas, pugnat, porto. 

B 

1. Thou singest, thoii callest, he shouts, he fights. 

2. We praise, we carry, we look at, we sing. 

3. You plough, . -lu call, you right, you carry. 

4. They praise, they shout, they sing, they call. 
6. Wo plough, he praises, *hey carry, you shout. 



LESSON II 
THE VERB 

1. aDl5, I love, I am loving, or, I do love. 
Cur laudat? Why iloi's ho praise! 
Quis clamat? Wlio is shouting? 

E.ich form in the present tense represents the Indefinite, 
Proi;ressive and Emphatic forms of the English present. 

2. Distinguish:— 

araas, ./..« Inn; rrfcrrin^' to one person. 

amatis, i/im Iwv, referring to nioie than one person. 



THE VKRB 



^ dS, / gim ; Present Tiifiuitive dftre, tn yitv, is (*onjuj,'ated 
thus : — 

do dftmus 

das dAtis 

dat dant 

Observe the short a iti d3.re, d&mus, d&tis. 
These short forms ai« quite ext;t'iJtioiia]. 

4> Ag^cola arat. The farmer pUmght^. 
Agricolae arant. The farnu-rs plough. 

Ir the third person, the Subject may be a noun and 
80 expressed. 

S specto, I l<»ok at, I gaze at, I view. 

exspecto, I hjijk for, I wait for, I oxiject. 
Quem spectas? At wliom are you looking? 

A verb in Latin may represent an English verb-phrase. 

The Intransitive verb ' fook ' + tlie Preposition * <o ' or 
*forf forms a Transitive Verb-Phrase. 

6. Vocabulary 



Verbs 
ombulo, walk 

exspecto, wait for, look for 
omo, aiioni, decorate 
postulo, demand 
sto, stand 

jNTKKRO(;A'riVl-;S 

quis? who? 
cur? wliy? 
ubi? wiiere? 

There is no article in Latin. 
ag^coUi farmer, a furmer, or, the farmer. 



Nouns 
agricota, farmer 
agricolae, fatmern 
nauta, sailor 
nautae, sailors 



quem ? whom ? 
quando? when? 
quo? whither? 



8 



THE NOUN 



EXERCISE 

A 

1. Areola clamat ; agricolae stant ; nauta ambulat. 

2. Nautae cantant; quis cantat? cantatis. 

3. Quis arat? quern vocamus? quis clamat? quem exspectat? 

4. Ubi stas ? quo ambulatjs ? quando ambulant t 

5. Quem spectatis? cur das? cur vocant? 

6. Nautae postulant ; agricolae portant ; cur ambulas? 

B 

1. We are Bulking. You are singing. He is ploughing. 

2. Whom <lu yi>u praise ? Who is demanding 1 

3. Whither are tlioy walking 1 The faiiner.s are walking. 

4. Where are they standing ? I am carrying. We are adorning. 

5. He is standing. They are giving. The sailors are standing. 

6. Who is giving ? You are giving. Whom are you praising 1 

7. They are shouting. Ho is figliting. We are singing. 

8. For whom are you waiting ? At whom are you looking ? 



LESSON III 

THK NOUN 

Declension The Cases 

1. The inflection of nouns t« denote gender, number and 

case is called Declension. 

A noun is said to be ■/ecliiied, 

Latin lias six eases. 

mensa, a ;n)Ae, has the followii.g forms : 



NOMINATIVR 
(iKSlTlVB 

Dative 

accl'sativk 

Vocative 

Ablative 



SiM;ri,AK 
mens a, talile (us Siilij 
mens ae, of a t.il.lo 
mens ae, to, for a table 
mens am, talilf (as Olijin 
mens &, O tuhle 
mens a, with. Ii,- a tahli 



FH7KAL 

t ) mens ae, tables 

mens arum, of tables 
mens is, to, for tables 

i-t) mens as, tables 
mens ae, O tables 
mens is, with, by tables 



Observe : — 

Relations are indicivted by case-endtngS. These case- 
endings tiike the phioe of prepositions in English in the 
Genitive, i^ative, and Ablative cases. 

These case-endings are appended to a base mfn:i which 
remains unchanged in the iiillection. 



2. Cases Chief Uses and English Equivalents 

NoMiNATivK (1) as Subject. 

el) as Predicate Xominative. 

Genitive = English Possessive with 's or s' 

or Objective with of. 

Dativb as Indirect Object. 

= Objective with ' tit ' or \fm-' with verbs 
of yiriny, saying and ditiny. 

Accusative (1) as Direct Object. 

(2) used after many prepositions. 
Vocative = Nominative of Address. 

Ablative (1) to denote Separation, Cause, Manner 

Means, Instrument. 
= Objective with from by, in, irith. 
("2) often used with prepositions. 

EXERCISE 

Tell in what case ynu would ex[ireas in Latin tlie nouns in the 
following sL'Utfnces : 

1. The queen's mother gave a prosent ti) lior daughter. 

2. The son of the king gave thu luiy a huok. 

3. The man was struck witli a stick. 

4. O boy, bring the man a cli;i i-. 

5. The eagle lifted tlie stone with its claws. 



10 



QENDEB 



6- Tl,„ man ,,rai,e,l ,„y hther'. houw 
7.The„„.,.ah.,tth«bird,,vi,ha„arro,. 

^- „'""''"'""••' l-™''«-l"'ei.oef.wo,U 
»■ He built a l,„„8e f„r his son 

il. Tl.e8h.p,,veresl,atter«dl,ya,t„r.„. 



LESSON IV 

(explanatory only) 

GENDKH 

Feminine in Kuji^"-^', """""^ ""I:' "^ *^--''ne and 
Neuter in English. " """^'"^ '" """"^ tl'at are 

All noun. ,„...e„H„e i„ English are „.,«„„„, ;„ j,,;^ 
All noun. fe.„i„i„e i„ Engii... are fen.i„i„e in Latin 

pHncipie. that do not ap;;'":^,: rtii:^ ^"« *" 

Natural Gender 

2. The gender of nouns is natural when ,> ; K ^ 
sex as in English. " " •'*^ed "pon 

It applies only to names of persons. 

(1) ^•■''"esof maIes.rema.souIine 

naut.. a. sailor; r«.aki„g, p„er, a bo,. 

(2) Names of females are feminine. 

'^go, a maiden ; reeina i n„„ 

regina, a queen ; pueUa, a girl 



11 



OEKDER 

Grammatical Gender 

3. Grammatical gender is Imse.l not upon sex, l.,.t upon 
(«) the general meaning „f t).e noun, or 
(A) the ending of the noininntive singular. 

A tlKNDKK BasKI) ri(IN llKAMN.i 

lying gender Imsed upon meaning :_ 

I. Masculine 

Names of River.., Winds, Months an,l Mountains - 

^I""'"' "'' ; E"™». K.«t \Vm,l; Mi.m, Mav ■ 

Olympus, (Jlynipus. ' y- 

II. Feminine 

Names of Countries, Towns, Islan.ls, Trees, Gems 
and most Abstract Qualities:— ' 

''^^r'?' ^°"''*^'"' C-in.h, Sicilia, Sicilv; mgu^ 
beecl. tree; margarita, a pead ; Veritas, t.ulh. 

III. Neuter 

Indeclinable Nouns, Infinitives, and Phrases used as 
nouns : — 

Ss. fight; neSs, wron^ ; nihil, „,„|,i„j,. 

S B tir.Sl,EH DCTEKMlNKr. BY TriK K.ShIN,: „K 'niF. 
NoMINATIVK Sl.Mill.AK 



mensa, table 
aqua, water 
insula, islam] 
corona, crown 



■ are Feminine. 



IS, garden \ 
"•"^l a,. 



hortus, 
oculus, 

mums, wall j 
campus, plain j 



■e MastMiline. 



^L^^JZT''' '' ^"''"«^ ^'" '- ^"""^ -'- "- 



13 



riRST DECLINSION 

LKSSOX V 
KIK.ST DKCLENSrON 

1. Nominative ..„,li„«, ., ,:,,„jti^^ ^,„|j„^ ^ 



menMi, uhlt! 



UllMf' 



SlNliULAR 
NOMIMATIVK „,„,„ ,_ ,,,l,le ,,,, TOhjoct) 

"»^i'» «e, of a tiihio 
mi!.is «e, ((>, for a. table 
nifiis am, tttlile (as objwl) 
mens a, O, table 
iiieiLf a, Willi, by a table 



Oenitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

VocATIVK 

Ablative 



h.tIRAL 

mens ae, tables 
nuns arum of tablea 
menu is, t.i, for tables 
niejis as, tables 
>i"im ae, O, tables 
■neiis is, witli, by table. 



Gender 

3. Nouns of the First Declension are /W«i„i,„. 
f;.Te,,ti„ns. -.youn. masculine by signification, as 

n.uta, sailor; agricola. farmer; also Hadria, the Adriatic. 

4- Peculiarities of Declension 

-abus for -is 

Vocabulary 

S Decline like inensa : _ 

Lati.n WoRli 



agricola 

aqua 

insula 

Itina 

nauta 

puella 

rosa 

Stella 

umbra 

victoria 



••iSASINO 

farmer 

water 

island 

niiKjii 

sailor 

girl 

rose 

star 



victory 



' The Baae in that pnrt of the nniiii 



Grqlibh Dkrivativh 
agriciiitnre 
aquatic, lujiieous 
insular, peninsula 
lunar 
nautical 



stellar, constellation 

nnibrella 

victorious 



or aHJe.live that is uiieh.„„d ■„ inflection: 



8UBJICT A.VD DIRECT OBJECT IJ 

EXERCISE 

A 
Give case and iiieanin<,' of: 

1. «qui, aquam, iniulam, insulas, insuUnun. 

2. victoria, victoriam, victorias, victoriia. 

3. roiam, roaa, rosas, rosis, agricolarum. 

4. nautae, nautis, stellam, Stellas, nautanim. 

B 

1. Of the sailor ; of the snilors. Of the girl ; of the (rjrls. 

2. By (he victory of the sailors. With the ro»fs of the girl. 

3. Of the moon ; of the farmer. By the slmdow; with t\w rose. 

4. By the slmdow of the moon. With the rose of the farmer 

5. The victory of the sailor. The girl's roses. The girls' roses. 

6. With water ; with a rose ; with roses ; by victories. 

7. To the girls ; to the sailors ; to the farmers. 

8. To the daughters ; to the goddesses ; to the daughter of the 

farmer. 

LESSON VI 
SUBJECT AND DIRECT OBJECT 
I. Examine:— 

(1) Agricola arat The farmer plough.s. 

(2) Agricolae arant. The farintr.s plough. 

Questions :— 

In what case is the subject of a verb put J 

In the JVorn. case. 

In what two inflections iloes a verb agree with its subject? 

In Number and Person. 

2. Examine:— 

(1) Puella rosam laudat. The girl prai.sea the rose. 

(2) Puellae rosas laudant. The girls piaise the- nwes. 
Observe tliu forms rosam in (I) ami rosas in (-J). 

In what case are tliey i 



u 



VOCARULARV^EXEHCISB 

Rule of Syntax 



The Direct OInn-t ..f ., * 
Aa:.,ati.e. ' " "■'■""*'"^« ^<"'' » put in the 

4. «'««"■« tl.«onW,.f the wools :_ 



Vocabulary 



Decline each ,„„„. like mensa. 

Tell the geniler of each „„„„. 

Intiect eaili vitIi in il„. ,. . • ,. 

the ,„,.«,,t .n.hcative active like amo 



I>*'1» VVoBii 

epistola 

peciinia 

terra 

patria 

regina 

aedifico 

delects 

habito 

nuntio 

paro 



liltir 
nicmey 
I:iri,l, earth 
"ativu land 
queen 
hiiiM 
delight 
<lwell 

tell, report, aunouncB 
prepaie 



KvuLWii DjiaivATiri 
epiatle 
peeuniary 
terrestrial 
patriot 

ediiice 
delectation 
inhabit 
enunuiato 



EXERCISE 
A 

- Patnam amamns. Umbram amo si^- 

e::spectat, ' «eg:>na epistolanj 

3. Agricolae terrain arant T,rr.™ - 
*■ Nautae patriae amant NaZ eollr ' 
■■5. Epistolae puella, dilectant r1„ ' !' ."'P«='"t. 
B- Quis terr,-,ni arat? Cr,7^ - ■ *"='<'"»'" "-nUat. 

7. Quando emstl™ "^ """" P"*»««si. 

«• Mens.. r.,..e ,a„d. J. ^Rorp^Zt' ip'r^: 



DATIVE OF THE INDIRECT OBJFXT 

B 



16 



1. We give roses to the queen. TI.e sailor is praising the girl. 

2. The sHilors pniiso the girl.-. ''r.„ p,-,iise the .sailur.s 

3. The queen a,l„rns th< ,■,1,,. V,,,, ..'..m the queen's tables. 

4. The sailor is calling th, f,v ,„or. Th ■ .armor calls the sailor 

5. The farmers call the sa, .-.,. Tlu- fai aer demands money 

6. The farmers demand mo....y. 1^;. 'ueen praises the land 

7. The sador loves (his)' native land. The sailors love (their) 

native land. ' 

8. Why do the sailors carry water ? 

9. '"hen does the queen announce the victory / 

10. \\ ) is praising the girl's letter I 

11. Where do they dwell? Why do the farmers demand money? 
IJ. You are givnig water to the .[ueen's daughters 

13. They give roses to the sailors. Who is demanding money? 



LESSON VII 

DATIVE OF THE INDIRECT OBJECT 

' To ' and ' For ' 
I. Examine :— 

( 1 ) Nauta puellae ) The sailor gives a rose to the girl. 

rosam dat. ) The sailor gives the girl a rose. 
Poeta puellae ) The p„et t.Us a storv to the girl, 
fabulamnarrat. j Tlie p,iet tells the girl a story. 

(2) Aquam ad agri- ^ 

— 1 L-i r He carries water to the farmer. 



island, 



colam portat/ 
Ad insulam \ 

navigat,/ """'''»'"""''"'' 

(1) 'To' is translated Iiy the Dative with verbs of 
'giving' and ' mying.' 

The noun in tlie dative is the Indirect Object. 
' To' is sometimes not e.xpres,s(>d in Knglisli. 
' The poueuive pronoun in Utln may l« omittodTl,™ the re^rence I. clei^" 



16 



DATIVE OF THK INDIHKCT OBJECT 



(2) !•() not use the dative to express ' Motion tO.' 

' Motion to' or 'towards' is expressed by the preposition 

ad iiiid tlie Accusative. 
2. Examine : — 

(1) Aericolis terrain aramus. We are plowin;; the land for the 

farmers. 
Nauta deae aram aedificat. The sailor ia Imildinf- an altar for 

tlie goddess. 
(■2) NauUe pro patria pug^nant. The sailors are (iglitiiig for (their) 

native land. 

(1) In (1) 'for' is translated l)y the Dative of the 

Indirect Object. 

(2) When 'for' means 'in ile/ence of,' 'in behalf of,' 
translate hy 'pro' and the Ablative. 



3. 





Vocabulary 




Latin Word 


-Mkaninu 


Enolish Pkrivatitb 


ara 


altar 




copia 


Iilenty, fertility 


eopious 


copiae pi. 


for-ces, troops 




corona 


erown, garland 


coronet, coronat 


poeta 


poet 




via 


way, road 


viildlirt 


porta 


gate 


portal, porter 


Italia 


Italy 




Britannia 


Britain 




Gallia 


( laul 




fabula 


tide, story 


faWe 


narro 


tell, I'elate 


narrative 


culpo 


hlame.Hnd fault with 


eul|>;d)le 


navigo 


sail 


navigation 



ad (prep, with a('e. ) to 
pro (prep, withahl.) for 

4. Note the usual unjer of the words in the above 
examples : — 

Snhjnt - / wntvvl Ohjn-l - trmcl Oiiject— Vnii. 



.HE AlllATIVK- 



I,' 'by' 



17 



EXERCISE 



1. Nauta agricolae pecuniam dat. Regina nautis victoriam 

nuntiat. 

2. Copiam terrae laudamus. Puellis coronas ditis. 

3. Portas Romae laudat. RSsas ad reginam portat. 

4. Poetae filiabus fabulas narrant. Nautae ad Britanniam 

navifant. 

5. Reginae copias parant. Ad portas Romae ambulant. 

6. Cur ad Italiam navigatis? Poeta reginae rfisas dat. 

B 

1. You are figliting for (yiiur) native laud. 

2. We are building ivlliirs for tlie goddesses. 

3. The sailor anuouuecs the victory to tliu queen. 

4. The poet is telling stories to the iiueen's daughters. 

5. Why do you carry roses to the gate ? 

6 The sailors hlauie the farmers. The farmers lil.anio the sailors. 

7. He is sailing to Britain. The girls are walking to the gates. 

8. We are carrying letters to the (|ueeu. 

9. Fariuers praise the fertility of the land. 

10. Who blames the poet ? Wlioni do jou blame! 



LESSOX VIII 
THE AJ5LATIVH 'WITH,' 'BY' 

I. Tlio Ablative is used to express Caiiee., Mannfr, Mrans 
or Instrument. 

'With,' 'from,' 'lit/' ami in' repre.sent tlie foron of the 
Ablative only in a general wiiy. They must no! in all eases 
be translated by the simple ablative. 

Very many words of all parts of speech liave two or more 
distinct values, and .so nmsl l)e translated into Tjitin according 
to their meaning. 



18 



THE ABLATIVE — 'WITH,' ' BY ' 

' With • 



(1) Aquilam sagitta vulcerat. H. wn„,„ls the ea«lc with an ,nv,w. 
(-) Cum nauta ambulat. Ho walk» w,th ,i„ company with) 

the sailor. 
(1) 'with 'may denote the means or instrmmnt, and is 
then translated by the Ablative msr ahme. 

Ablative of Means or Instrument. 

(-')' with 'may mean 'along with' or 'in company with' 
and denote accompaniment, -ynA is then translate,! by'c«,«' 

ana the Ablative. Ablative of Accompaniment. 
3- By' 

(1) victoria nautarum. By the victory «f the sailors. 

fabulis. By tales. 
(2)a_miutis. By the .sailors. ab agricolis. By the fanners. 

(1) 'by may denote the cau.se or means (a thing), and is 
then tran.,lated by the ^Afa^i.. alone. Ablative of Cause. 

(2) 'by' may express the agent (a person) by whom a thin- 
.s done, and is then translated hy ',V or 'ab' and th^ 

Ablative. Ablative of Agent. 

'ab ' must he u.sed Iwfore vowels or h 
_^Be,o. ..onsonants '. ■ „,.y he used. a,,.. .any eases 'ab' is aUo 



Latin Woro 
aquila 
fuja 
funda 
sagitta 
vita 

oppugno 

supero 

vulnero 



Vocabulary 

•Meaniko 



EnHLlSEI DIRIVATITI 



eagje 
flight 
sling 




aquiline 
fugitive 


arrow 






life 




vital 


atta. k, 


assail 




conquer, 
wound 


, prevail (over) 


vulnerable 



IHE ABLATIVE — ' FROH,' ' IN ' 

EXERCISE 
A 

TRANSUTR 'with' DBHOTIIfO MKANS OR InSTRUJIBKT. 

1. With an arrow ; with water ; with a crown ; with a rose. 

2. With arrows ; with crowns ; with roses. 

TkANSLATE ' WITH ' DENOTINU ACCOHPAMHRNT. 

.3. With the girl ; with tlie farmer ; with the queen. 

4. With sailors ; with letter; : with poets ; with the forces. 

TRANBLATK 'BV' DKN-OTINQ TIIR CirBR OR MRANK. 

5. By a letter ; by money ; l)y the shade ; by victory. 

fi. By victories ; by rose.s ; liy water ; by stories ; by flight. 

TRAN'RLATE ' BV ' DRNOTIIfO THR AOKNT. 

7. By the girl ; by the poets ; l)y the farmer ; l)y the sailors. 

B 

1. They wound eagles with arrows. 

2. You are fighting for the (jueen's life. 

3. We attack the eagles with slings. 

4. Thou art conquering. We couiiuer. You conquer. 

5. Why do the girls adorn the tables with roses I 

6. The poets are delighting the girls with stories. 



19 



LESSON IX 
THE ABLATIVK 'FROM,' 'IN' 

!• ' From ' 

(1) Ab insula navigat. Hh sails from (away from) the island. 

(2) Ex silva ambulat. Ho walks from (out of) the woo<l. 

(1) 'from.- 'away from. off/rom' = i, or ab nnd tlif Ablative. 

(2) •from: 'ojU of =§ or ex and the Ablative. 
' ex ' must be used before vowels or h. 

Before consonants sometimes 'e,' Rometimes 'ex,' is used. 



20 



VOCABULARY — EXEKC'ISK 



H 



2, *in* and *into* 

* on * or • upon ' 

in aqua = in the water. in aquam = into the water. 

'in' is translated into Latin by ' in ' and the Ablative. 

'hito^ is translated into Latin by 'in' and the Accusative. 
in ora = on, or, upon the shore, implyiny 'rest.' 
in dram = on, or, upon the shore, iinplyintj ' motion." 



Aeross = trans ] 

ThroUjj'h = per I 

Against = contra I 

On account of - ob cv propter J 



All govern the Accusative. 





Vocabulary 




LATUf Word 


Mraninq 


Enolish Dbrivatiti 


inopu 
on 


want, scarcity 
shore 




ripa 
silva 


hank 
wtKxl, forest 


riparian 

silvan 


sententia 


vote, opinion 


sentiment 


hiemd 


winter, pass thi- wii 


ter 


pfopcro 


hasten 




rogo 
▼asto 


ask 

lay waste, drvastati 


interrogate 



EXERCISE 
A 

1. Out of the water ; out of the woml ; nut of fJaul. 

2. Out of the island ; out of native land. 

.3. From Italy ; from the islands ; from the moon. 

4. In Oaul ; in the water ; in Italy i in the island. 

■). Into Britain ; into the islands ; into the earth. 

6. Through Gaul ; across Britain ; tlirough the islands. 

7. Aorosa the road ; against the queens ; against the farmer. 

8. On account of the letter ; on accoiint of the crowns. 



IMPEKFECT AND FCTUKK INDICATIVE ACTIVE 21 

B 

1. He wounds the eagle with an arrow. He hastens into Gaul. 

2. They attack the forces with slings. We ask the poet's opinion. 
•i. They are passing the winter in the wood. You lay waste the 

shores. 

4. They hasten to the bank. We fight in defence of (our) lives. 

5. The sailors fight for the queen's life. They are ccnquering. 

6. On account of scarcity of arrows they tight with felings. 

7. They stand on the banks. We stand on the shore. 



LESSON X 

IMPERFECT AND FUTURE INDICATIVE ACTIVE 
FIRST CONJUGATION 



I. 



HlKOULAR 

1. ama ba m, / was lovinij 

2. ami ba s 

3. ama ba t 



Imperfect 

Plokai. 
ama ba mus, lae were loving 
ama ba tis 
ama ba nt 



2. Future 

1 . ama bo, / ukall love ama bi mus, we shall love 

2. ama bi s, thou wilt love ama bi tis, you imll love 
%. ama bi t, he will love ama bu nt, they will love 

3* The Imperfect and Future rndicative Aotivi' of the First 
Omjugation are formed by adding endings to ama, the present-stem, 
as follows 1— 

Stkm Tknsk 

l^esENT ama amo = amao (see Lenmn 1.4) 

Imi-kbfect ama ba' ama ba m 

FiTTiTKE ama bi (bo, bu) ama b5 

' In the Imperfect ba •■=' was, and m the proper endintf to represent the Ant person 
xingular (compare English my, me) is seen. 
amft ba m = loTln; wa> I. 

similarly, in the Future, the tens« lign bl, b6, bu ezpreises futurity. 
am& bl mus = love shall we. 



11 i; 
ill ' 



ilil 



22 



EXERCISE 



Tense""" "'' """* '"'" ""' ""^^'"^ "^ *« ^mperfect 

•jnabam = I wa» loving, I „,o<l to lov„ 

Cl«:»b.t = H„ k,,.t shouti,,,, he »houte,l (co„ti,.uou»ly, 

«c.I!:: '""'''"'' ''^""''^^ '^'""'^'' -/'-'«''. or p.^, „,, 

Do not translate tl,e Imperfect l.y ,l,p En<r|,\l, P . 
Indefinite (T loved, I shouted) It can 11.,... T 
-"- '"e action i,np,ied is CeL, elllli:;;:;;::' ""'^ 
S «niab6 r shall love, or, 7 shall 1« l„vi„y. 

6. The Imiwrfeet of do is dSbajn. dibas eic 
The Future of do is d4b6, dSbis, etc. " 



7- Order of Words 

Nauta agricolae pecuniam saepe dat. 

Note tlie u.sual order : 

Subject- /,„lir^r( Ohjecl -Dim-t 
Aiiverbial f'hniH<-)— |V/-/, 



The Milor often gives 
money t„ the farmer. 

Object — Adverb (or 



aon : 



EXERCISE 



not :,aepe = of,™ ; semper =alwavs 

A 



i IZ^T-' "°" "^^ ^^°^- ''°" semper «bunt 
• . Ambulabamus, ambulabimus. Vocabas vocihi. 

. ;;_^»|^^ ambuiaba. .n'silvaramb-^rr """""'«'• 

' Pef cl'«r" ^'''■^^- ■^»'" "dificabant 
13. A Bnunm, navtgabo. Agricolae pecuniam d»bant 



EXERf'liiB 



23 



8, 
9. 

10. 

II. 

12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 



B 

. I iiiiry, WHS oiiTyin);, hIihII Luiiy. 
. He praisen, was praising, will [)rai.se. 
. We are calling, were calling, shall call. 
He will walk through the wno,I. We were not walking. 
He Wtt.s ploughing the lanil. They will often plough. 
The farmer was Icjking at the eagle. He will w.-iit f„r 

the troops. 
The sailors were walking ff.nii the sliore. You will walk. 
The girl will give the queen rose.s. He was not giving. 
We shall Hght for (..ur) native lanil. You were lighting. 
They were l.uihiing altars. You will he Imihling. 
They were, hastening out ..f Italy. We Khali hasten out 
of Oaul. 

They were laying waste the lan.l. We are devvstating the 

shores. 
They announce the victory. You were announcing. 
They dwell in the wood. We shall walk out of the woo.l. 
For (our) altars we shall fight. For (their) native laiul 

they were fighting. 




Arch op Constanttnk. 



24 



SKCONU DECLENHIOX 



u 



LESSON XI 

SECOND DECLENSION 

I. Nominative endings nre -us, -er, -ir and .um. 
Genitive ending -L 

2* Gender 

Xouns ill -ui, -er, arid -ir lue Masculine. 
Xouus ii] -utn are Nuutei-. 

3* Nouiis in -lis ate declined thus :— 
Dominus, lord, master 
SiscrLAR 



nominativk 

Gknitivk 

Dativk 

AccrSATIVK 

Vocative 
Ablativu 



doinin us 
iloniin i 
domin 6 
doniin um 
tlomiii e 
tloiniu 5 



Base, dooiin- 
Plckal 
doiiiiu i 
<Ioniin onim 
iloiiiin is 
domiu OS 
iluiiiin i 
dimiin is 



4. Proper Nouns i„ .,u- , ,d fflius, -„„, l.ave -i for -le in Vocative 
hin-ular, und goneralh -: :,,-.ii i,, (;e,„tivo Singular. 

5- Decline tlio following words like dominus. 
All are .\fascii/iiif. 



Litis Word 
servus, serri 
amicus, amici 
animus, animi 
campus, campi 
deus, dei 
equus, equi 
hortus, horti 
Sladius, gladii 
murus, miiri 
oculus, oculi 
populus, populi 
Romulus, Romuli 
ventus, Tcnti 

-que' / 



MUNINO 

Blave, servant 

friend 

mind 

plain ' 

god 

horse 

garflen 

swoni 

wall 

eye 

people, populaci 

Romulus 

wiDd 

and 



Ehqlibii Dbriv-atiti 
servant, serf 
amicable 
unanimous 

tleisl, deify 
ctjuine 
hortipulture 
giarliator 
- mural 
oculist 



'-que 
puar 



- enelit,, 

puellcKiue, 



fw, i.«., It ia appended to RDoUier won! 
" thfl boy and the girl. 



35 



EXERCISE 



I. In campo ; in horto servi ; in domini animS. 

1. Per campiun ; truis muros ; in hortiim ; in oculSi. 

:i. A Romulo ; ab amicis ; a servis ; a populo. 

4. Ad semun ; ad amicos ; ad hortum ; ad dominds. 

5. Ex horto ; i campo ; cum domino ; cum servis. 

(i. Dominus amico gladium dat. Domini servis gladios d&tiant. 

7. Romulus murum aedificabit Miiros Romae aedificabat. 

8. Servus mensam ornat. Srrvi in hortum ambtUabant. 
■J. Servus in horto ambulabit. Peciiniam servo d&bis. 

10. Domiuus hortum laudabit. Domini puero peciiniam dant. 

11. Amicus hortum reginae laudat. Servi miiros hortorum 

laudant. 
I'-'. Horti dominorum animos servorum delectant In hortum 

properabimus. 
13. Regina et servi rosas laudant. 



B 

IHOIRBOT Object 

1. To the gods and goddesses. To the friends of the Bailors. 

2. To the sons and daughters. To the master uf the slaves. 

ABLATITI op ArCOHPANINBNT 

3. With the friends of the slave. With the slave's master. 

4. With Romulus. With the queen's son. With horses. 
Ablativb of Means or iKSTRiniKNT 

5. With eyes ; with a sword ; with swords ; by tlie wind. 

6. He was building a wall. He will delight the friends. 

7. They are praising the slaves. We were calling the master. 

8. You will look at the gardens. I was demanding the horses. 

9. The slave praises the master. The servants praise (their) 

masters. 

10. The queen was praising the servant. The servant will praise 

the queen. 

11. The friend will walk in the garden. The friends are walking. 

12. I shall give the friend money. He was giving the slave a 

aword. 



HEIXINU UKCLCNmoW 



LESSON XII 
SECOND DECLENSION 



Nouns in -er and 



Agtt, field 

nomiicativk 

Genitive 

Dative 

aoousativk 

Vocative 

Ablative 

Puer, boy 

Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusativk 

Vocative 

Ablative 



BaM, 



Singular 

a«tr 
ugr i 
ugr 
agr um 
ager 
agr o 



Singular 
puer 
puer i 
puer o 
puer um 
puer 
puer 6 



■««■- 

Plural 

ugi I 
»«'■ oniin 
agr is 
agr 01 
agr I 
agr b 

'. puer- 

Hi.ural 
puer I 
puer onini 
puer is 
puer OS 
puer i 
puer is 



* Declension 

The following are all . ¥«««<«„« :_ 

f«ber, fabtl, workman. 

liber, llbri, Imok. 

n»gister, magistri, master, teacher. 

minister, ministri, servant. 

•rbiter, arbitri, arbitrator. 

Auster, Austrl, south wind. 



mCl'ONLl IJKCLKNMIOW 



27 



3. The following nounn in -er are Heclined like puer. 
puerl. All are iftueulhy : — 

gener, Keneri, min-in-law. 
locer, loceri, father in-law. 
Liber, LIberi, Bacchus (gal of wine). 
Bberi, Ilberorum (pi.), fhildren. 
▼etper, TCtperi, evening. 

Compounds of -fer anil -gfer, ax : — 

■ipiifer, signiferi, stan.laicl-bearer. 
• armiger, ■rmigeii, armor- hearer. 

4. Vir, man h,,^ —V. 





SlN<iITI,AK 


Pldrai, 


NOMINATIVK 


vir 


vir i 


Genitivk 
Dativb 
accitsativk 
vocativk 


vir i 
vj, 6 
vir uni 
vir 


vir drum 

vir ii 
vir OS 
vir I 


Ablativk 


vir 

Vocabulary 


vir is 



K.SOLlaa DiKIVATITI 

legate 
ludierou.i 
announce 
aaaociate, flnciable 



b«rtsru5, bjrcaK barbarian 

leg?.iu:>, !(V;.'i (l)lieuteTiant, (2)amliassacl,. 

liidus, liidi play, .simrl 

nuntius, nunHI (1) message, (2) mesaengci 

socius, socii ally 

Britaimus, Britanni Rriton 

GaUus, Galli a Oaul 

The only nouns in -er and -ir required for exercises are :— 

ager, faber, liber, magister, puer, gener, socer, liberi, »ir. 
All the U0UU8 in this vocabulary are Matcutine 



I 



98 

"^ USBCUS 

EXERCISE 
A 
J- Agirt, «p-«rnni, fabrorum, fabro, libranim, Ubrt. 
^. Ludlt, ludo, puerum, pueros, liberi, liberis. 
3. A barbari,; i legato; a populo ; a GaUIfc 

5. Contra barbaros; cum socus ; in agrii; m agrum. 

6. Puer libros amat. Puerl librum amabnnt 

-. Fabri pueros laudabant Pueri fabros dSectabunt 
Q ^tf"".**"™'" '"tS*- Populua virum laudat 

12. Quando puerl in agiis atabant? 

13. Qui. Mcios postulat? Quem socil poatulabunt? 

14. Cur vut agro. non arabunt ? Ciir populo vict6.i«„ nuntii. ? 

p 

DATm or IronioT Oum 

1. To the boys, to the girls ; to the boy, to the girl. 

Z. To the boy and girl j to tlie b,.ye and girls 

■J To the man ; to the men ; to tlie Gauls and Briton.,. 

ABUTIVI or ACCOVPIRIIIIKT 

5 wfth *lh '"r'"'f "'" ■ "'"' ""' "'"• '"'^•'' ■ -"> "'« "■«"«■ 

K-. '"^"'"""""i V'ith the ambassadors; with the 
children. 

0. Against the allies ; against the people ; against the Britons. 
7. Into the faelds ; m the fields ; from the field. 

inTw' "' ""^ "'"'' '' "■" ''"^''' ^^' • "•« 1»««"'" »»»• 

9. Why do ynu demand books? When will the barbarians 
devastate the land ? 
10. The allies are preparing forces against the barbarians. 

lo" ^rr". l^^'"^ '°"' '' '"'"'"'8 "''°"SI. the fields. 
,, ™ *'" <^"™«"'te the fields of the alliea 

13. The workmen will build the walls of Rom«. 



NEUTER NOUNS 39 

14. The alaveg were attacking the masters with awords. 

15. The spurts will delight the minds of the children. 

16. The boys are carrying books to the master. 

17. The man with (his) boy will plouqh the field. 

18. W ,1 do the ambassadors demand 1 Who will ask the 

ambassadors 1 

19. When were the boys and men walking in the fields 1 

20. Wliy will the victory delight the messenger 1 



LESSON XIII 

NEUTER NOUNS 

I. Nouns in -um of the Second Declension are Neuter, 
and are declined tliii.s : — 



Bellum, war 

Nominative 

Gk.nitive 

Dativr 

accdsativk 

VcKIATlVK 

-■Vhi.ativk 



Base, 



SlNOULAR 

bell um 
bell I 
bell 
bell um 
liell um 
boll o 



bell- 

Pl.UEAI. 

bell a 
bell orum 
bell is 
bell a 
hell a 
bell is 



2. Rule for Neuter Nouns of all Declensions 

The Noiniimtive, Aocu-sative and Vociitivo cases are always 
alike. 

Tn the plural these cases alway.s end in -a, 

3. Base 

The Base is obtained by dropping the ending of the genitive 
singular. Therefore, in learning Nouns, ahvai/t learn the 
.Vomitiative and Oenitive Singular toyelher. 

Question ;— 

What is the bate of lerrui, faber, gener, praemium, argentum. 



30 



TOCABULARY— KXEBtlSE 



^ Vocabulary 

These Nouns are all Stnitrr : 



liATiif Word 
praemiam, praemii 
ar^entum, arfrenti 
aurum, aurl 
forum, fpri 
jumentum, jumentl 
ligfnum, ligfni 
dSnum, doni 
oppidum, oppidi 
proelium, proelii 
periculum, pericuU 
Mxum, saxi 
lignum, signl 
tectum, tecQ 
telum, teli 
vallum, valll 
■nn>) umSrum, pi. 



MiiAinxo 
reward 
silver 
gold 

f'lium, market-plaee 
beast of Imrileii 
wood, timber 
gift 

town 

battle 

danger 

reek 

standard 

building, dwelling 
dart, javelin 
rampart, wall 
arms 



KnqLIMII DiRIVlTIVI 

premium 

Argentine (Republic) 

auriferous 

forensic 

ligneoui 
donative 



peril 

signal 



EXERCISE 



% 

4. 
(5, 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 
U. 



*». I rans Mxa : in valln • <%*•■ *.-«*. . __- _ '^ 



Trans «ixa ; in vallo ; per tectum; pro sociis. 

RrJltir't^.T"^'*"'- ^'*" "PPiO-noP-upUbunt. 
Kogatis, rogabamus, rogabis. 

Pbstulas, postulabatis, rogabit, rogabat. 
BntannlproeUumnonexspecttbunt Nautae oppidum laudant. 
Reg^a puens pr«.mia dat Aurum templl laudabat 

Fabri tecta aedificibunt. Arma in forum portant 



REVIEW — SPECIAL POINTS 



31 



B 

1. By rewards ; by gold and silver ; by rocks and darts ; by gifts. 

2. Into the buildings of the town. On account of the man's 

gifts. 

3. Into the forum ; to the towns ; from the temple ; across the 

rampart. 

4. They are carrying arms. He will give gold to the allies. 
6. Gifts delight boys. He gives rewards to the girls. 

6. Beasts of burden will carry the wood. The troops are 

preparing arms. 

7. The friends are looking at the standards. We are expecting 

gifts. 

8. The barbarian will wound the lieutenant with a dart. 

9. War delights the minds of sailors. They ueize the rampart. 

10. The boys were carrying arms into the garden. T..ey are 

walking into the temple. 

11. Why does war delight men ? Wliy do you carry darts ? 

12. Who will demand arms ? Whither are you carrying the gifts? 



LESSON XIV 



REVIEW 



SPECIAL POINTS 



1. nivo the nominative singular endings in the First and Second 
Declensions. 

2. Give the gender of the follnwing nouns and stale tlin rule for 
each : mensa, nauta, dominus, praemium, murus, puella, amicus, 
magister, aquila, a^er, donum, rosa, liber, lignum, ailva, agricola, 
via, templum. 

3. Inflect in the present, imperfect and future indicative active : 
laudo, ambuIS, aro, aedific5, do. 

4. Give the Ace. Sing, and Ai:i\ PI, ; Geu. Ming, and Gen. PI, j 
Dat. Sing, and Dat. PI. ; Abl Sing, and AbL PI. of each of th* 
nouiw in 2. 



. ! 



32 



KXLi.o'ISG 



ij I 



J pw "■" '"'^ * '"''"■^"' "-^^"'"^ - *»•« -«»'" 



coplae, inim, forces, troops 
litterae, arum, letter, despatch 
auxUia, omm, auxiliaries 
castra, Srum, camp 
friimenta, orum, crops 
impedimenta, onim. 



copia, ae, plenty, abundance 
littera, ae, letter of the alphabet 
auxilium, I, aid 
castnun, i, fort 
friimentum, i, com, grain 
impedlmenttim, I, hindrance, impedi- 
ment 

6. Some nouns have only a plural, 
dintiae, arum, riches 
indutiae, arum, truce 

insidiae, arum, ambus!., ambuscade, treachery 
arma, annorum, arras 

.oi; S' N°:^tef ""' " ''^""'"^ '" "- "••■«•""- "•« p'"- » 

8. hibema, orum, neuter plural of hibemua ■ nn, .. i- x- 
mean,,, ^i„Ur. unntr.,. is „s^ f„r hrb^^nT^ir'' a"^' ^ ' T 
camp, I Iter quarter,. "■«™a castra, and means wmler 

EXERCISE 
A 

'ASm/™"*-""' ="""«?'»'• contra copiaa reginae. 
.. Aux.a..ocorum; in castra; in castris ; in liLri. 

*. Propter dmha,; de' diyitiU; de indutiSs. 

B 

1. They carrr a despatch to the lieutenant. 

2. We aha 1 demand arn.s. He waits for the baggage. 

3. The sailors wll demand arn.s from the queen 

4. Who will announce the victory in the camp? 

5. The queen's forces will attack the can,,, 

7 Yoa'ar""'' "'''• "^'"^ "'" '^''""""J™8 »»-•«"-■ 



■<J4, mcenin,. pr.po.lM„„ »„„mi„j ,h. .^^^ 



ADJKCTIVliS OF THE KIHST AND SKCOND DECLBNSIOJIS 33 

LESSON XV 

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND 
DECLENSIONS 
I. Examine:— 

Vir bonus=a good man. 

Puelta bona- a good girl. 

Donum bonum^a good gift. 
Vir eat bonus. The man is good. Viri aunt bonL The men are good. 
PueUa eat bona. The girl is good. Puellae sunt bonae. The girls are 
_.- good. 

Donum est bonum. The gift is Dona sunt bona. The gifts are 

«"«!• good. 

An adjective in Latin lias not one form only as in English, 
l)ut change» its form so as to agree with the noun it qualifies! 
It is declirted. It has gender, number and ease. 

2- Rule 

An adjective in Latin, whether attributive or predicate, 
agrees in gender, number ;iiid Cise with the noun it qualifies. 

3- Classification of Adjectives 

Adjectives iire divided into two classes : — 

(1) Those of the First and Second Declensions ; 

(2) Those of the Tliird Declension. 



Bonus, bona, bonum, good 



SlN(IDI,AR 



Plural 



NoM. 

DAT. 

Aoc. 
Voo. 
Abl. 



Mabc. 
bon us 
bon I 
bon 
bon um 
bon e 
hon o 



Fem. 
lK)n a 
l)on ae 
bon ae 
bon am 
bon a 
Ixin a 



Neft. 
Im)ii um 
Imn i 
bfiii 6 
bon um 
bon um 

IfOll 



Masc. Fem. 

lM>n i linn ae 

bon drum bon arum 

bnn is hon is 

bon OS bon as 

bnn i bon ae 

>H>ii is bnn is 



Kept. 
)H)n a 
hon orum 
Imn is 
bon a 
bon a 
hon is 



34 



VOCABULAHY—KXEKCISE 



S Obserye:— 

It should not he necessary to learn the declension of bono*. 



Lahm WOID 

altus, a, um 
carus, a, um 
darus, a, um 
densus, i, um 
latus, a, um 
longus, a, um 
malus, a, um 
BUigma, a, um 
multus, a, um 
parvus, a, um 
rapidus, a, um 
bellicdsui, a, um 
meus, a, um 
tuui, a, um 

sum, a, um 

est = U J sunt = a 



Vocabulary 

HsAiiiNa 
high, tall, deep 
dear, beloved 

clear, bright, diatinguiaheil 
thick 

broad, wide 
long 
bad 

large, great 
much, in pi, many 
small, little 
swift 
warlike 
mj', mine 
thy, thine, your (referring to 

one person), 
his, her, ite, their (ReUeziva 

Possessive). 



Bhsliih DuiVATin 

altitude 

charity 

clarify 

dense 

latitude 

longitude 

malicious 

magnitude 

multitude 

rapid 
bellicose 






7- Position of the Adjective 

The usual position of an attributive adjective in Latin is 
after the noun. 

In translating English into Latin, get the noun in the proper 
form first and then make the adjective agree with it. 

EXERCISE 
A 
1. S««^m»g:n*; pueri multi; anni longi; donum tuum; d6na 

I h"*' "-""f.i '""" ""' ^'' =«"' •"'''» cirus; Stella cUra 

3. In aqua ^ta , m aquam altam ; in hortum meum , in patri^^ 

4. Per insula. mapUs; cum «nic6 ciro; cum mi^gni^iT 



EXEHCI8E 35 

5. HultSs UbrOa amat Poetam bonum laudat Nutia maiaa 

culpat 

6. AKricolae mulH ; naatanun bonorum ; reginaruin bonanun. 

B 

A tall boy ; tall boya ; high rocks ; tall men ; large fields. 
Bright stars; distinguished poets ; large islands ; raary books. 
In the thick wood ; into a thick wood j m large fields ; in 

your garden. 
With many arrows ; with .argo roses ; by many rewards j 

with long swords. 
By great men ; by the good farmers ; by many boys ; by my 

friends. 

c 

PueH multl in og^rls magnis ambulant 

Agricolae mult! cum pueris aggros magnos arabunt 

Puellae multae libros non amant Viri Stellas claras spectabnnt. 

AgTicolae cum fniabus caiis ambulant. Libros meos porto. 

Serri librum meum ad magistnim portabunt Libro* tu5s 

portabo. 
Pueri bonl niag:istros suos laudabunt. Puellae bonae amlcoa 

suos laudabant. 
Poeta darus pueris puellisque est cams. 
Tempta sunt parva. Tectum est magnum. Copiae sunt multae. 
Pro patria cara pugnamus. Lata est via. Campos magnos 

vastabunt. 

D 

Many men were walking in the fields. He was standing on 

high rocks. 
They were walking to the large town. We were walking across 

high rocks. 
The men are destroying my fields. 
Who will praise the distinguished men 1 We announce a 

great victory. 
We are looking at the large rocks in the thick wood. 
Many victories delight the sailors. 
Why are you building large temples ? 
We stand in the deep water. They demand many books. 
The stars are bright. The letters are many. 
The island is long and brnad. The Oauls are warlike. 



I. 

2. 

3. 
4. 

6. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



^1 






36 ADJECTIVES OK THE FIRST AND SECOND DEOLKMSIONB 

LESSON XVI 

ADJECTIVES OF THK FIRST AND SECOND 
DECLENSIONS (Continued) 
'• Aeg^er, aegra, aegrum, sick 

Basf, aegr- 

SlNorLAK 

Fkm. 



NoH. 
Gen. 

DAT. 

Ace. 
V^oc. 
Abl. 



Mabc. 

aeger 
aegr I 
aoirr o 
Jif^r um 
aeger 
aegr 5 



Hasc. 
aegr i 
aegr orum 
aegr Is 
aegr OS 
aegr i 
aegr is 



aegr a 
aegr ae 
aegr ae 
aegr am 
aegr a 
aegr a 

Plubai, 
Feh. 
aegr ae 
aegr arum 
aegr is 
aegr as 
aegr ae 
aegr Is 



Nect. 
aegr um 
ai'g- I 
aegr o 
aegr um 
aegr um 
aegr 5 



Nkut. 
aegr a 
aegr drum 
aegr Is 
aegr a 
aegr a 
aegr Is 



NOM. 

Qkn. 

DAT. 

Acc. 
Voc. 
Abl. 

Observe :— 

You should, without learning, kn w the declension of aeger. 
Aeger in the Masc. is declined like the noun ager ; in the Fern. like 
mensa ; in the Neut. like bellum. 

2. Like aeger are dt'clineil : 

Latii. Woiio MKANino Emuuih DniTATITI 



ater, atra, atrum 


hiack, dark 


creber, crebra, crebnim 


frequent, numerous 


integer, Integra, integrum 


wliole integer 


pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum 


l)eaiitiful 


sacer, sacra, sacrum 


sjUTcrl 


noster, nostra, nostrum 


<nir 


▼ester, vestra, vestrum 


your (referring to more 




than one) 


dexter, dextra, dextnim 


right (hand) dexterity 


dnister, sinistra, sinistrum 


left (hand) sinister 







EXERCISE 


37 


t. 


Tener, tenera, tenerum, tender 






Haw, tener- 


(e retained as in puer) 






SlNOPLAK 






Mast. 


I- KM. 


Nect. 


NOM. 


tener 


tenei' a 


tener um 


Gen. 


tener i 


tt-ner ae 


tener j 


DAT. 


tener 6 


tener ae 


teller 5 


Ace. 


tener um 


tener am 


tener um 


Voo. 


tener 


tener a 


tener um 


Abi.. 


teaer o 


tener a 
Plubai. 


tener o 




Ma8C. 


Fkm. 


Neut. 


NoM. 


tener i 


tener ae 


tener a 


(Jks. 


tener drum tener arum 


tener drum 


Dat. 


tener is 


tener is 


tener Is 


Ace. 


tener os 


tener as 


tener a 


Voc. 


tener I 


tener ae 


tener a 


Abl. 


tener U 


tener is 


tener is 


. Like tener are tleclined 


: — 




Latis Word 


Mbvninu 


EniLIHH I>KRtVATIV> 


asper, aspera, asperum 


rough 


asperitv 


liber, libera, liberum 


free 


lilierty" 


miser, misera, miserum 


wretched 


miserable 




EXERCISE 








A 





1. Vir miser ; viri miseti ; donum pulchrum ; dSna pulchra. 

2. Amlcorum nostrorum ; puellarum pulchrarum ; servi aeg^ri. 

3. Agricolis miseris ; fabris vestris ; liberis nostris. 

4. Ad templum sacrum : ad dominos miseros ; in terra libera. 

5. Per portam dextram ; in sinistra ripa ; ob populum miserum. 

B 

1. Of our native land j of the sick slave ; of your horses. 

2. In the right eye j into the loft eye ; across beautiful fields. 

3. To free men j for the wretched workmen ; to the ininutiful 

queen. 



38 PERFKC-r, PLIPBRFECT, KLTUKE PKRFECT l.VUlc. A(rrlVK 



4. (Along) with our ainbuattdors ; with your allies ; with lu-ge 

forces, 

5. In many battles ; into many towns ; out of the beautiful 

temple. 

c 

1. We nhall give many buuks to the sick boy. 

U. He will give our friend a book. 

">. The beautiful daughters of the queen are calling the servants. 

4. They are carrying gold and silver into the t red temples. 

5. Why do you plough the rough lields ! 



LESSON .\VII 

PKRFECT, PMTPERFKCT, KITUriK I'KKKECT 
INDICATIVE ACTIVE 

1. Principal Parts 

The Principal Parts of a verb are the forms which contain 
the stems fn)iii which the whole lonjugation may, according to 
definite rules, be formed. 

The Principal Parts of amo jue 
amo, Pres. Indie, i 

amire, Pres. Infiu., J "*"'"''"« "'« P"""* Stem, «raa- 
amav i, Perf. Indie, showing the Perfect Stem, amav- 

amat um, Supine", showing the Supine Stem, amat- 

2. The Perfect Indicative Active is one of the priiicipal 
parts, and from its stem the Pluperfect and Future Perfect 
Indicative Active are formed by rules that hold good for all 
verbs of any coi jugatioii. 



Tknsks 


Mkani,-'! 


How FOKMED 


Pkkfkct. 


amav i A) I lum loved 
;2) / lomd 


Perfect Stem + 1. 


ri.UPBBFKC.T. 


amav erai.. ,\) 1 had Imml 

(2) / had been totting 


I'l-rfer-r .Sipm + eram 


FuT. Perf. 


amav ero / slmll hare loved 


Perfect Stem + ero 



' The Supine in -um hm. Ihp force of t }»■ Knirli-h infinitive ns«I to exi.rewt v»Tt'otf ■ 
it\t\9»Bfi\ on]y ntt*-r frrht of iitotiiot. r i , 



fERrgCT, HLUPritFECT, fTTrKK FKHtECT INUIC. AITIVE 39 

3- Perfect 



SlNliULAR 

I. aiiiav i, (I) J havf lovfit 

(ii) / lovni 
■2. wniT itti 



:<. amav it 



I'l.i i: ^1, 
anUT imus. ill We have loreil 

(•i) H'e loved 
unav istis 
Jamav erunt 
(amav ere 



Pluperfect 



1 . amav eram, / hml Invrit 

2. amav eras 

3. amav erat 



amav eramus, li> htid lopfd 
amav eratis 
amav eraot 



Future Perfect 



1. amav ero, I nlmll haiv hml 
3. amav eris 
3. amav erit 



uaiLverimaa.WfKhitllltai'eliml 
amav eritis 
amav erint 



Note : — Mark well tlie difference in nieanini; t)etwpeii the 
frnpert'ect Tense and tlie Perfect Tense 

amabam - T was loving or I loved (roiitimKuistvi. 

amavi - I lovwl (a single iletinite act or- fact), or-, I have lovwl. 

6. Principal Parts 





amo, am are, amav 1, amat 


um 


On tlie snme piimiplf give \\w jtiinci] 


m! ]'jirts of 1 1 IP 


following vei' 


)s: — 






ezpugno 


take by storm 






occupo 


take possession of, sei/t- 




occupy, <wcu|Muion 


impetro 


(ilitain it itf(uest for 






col loco 


station, \i\i\vti 




collocate 


com paro 


colleel, raiNt', procure 




ronipait! 


com porta 


britig in 






con Toco 


call together, asBenihle 




convocation 


con firmo 


i'stjiHisih, ciieourrVge, assuir 




confirm 


re novo 


renew 




renovate 


re voco 


call 'oack, rorall 




revoke 


re nuntid 


bring back wotvl 




renounce 



40 



KXKRCUB 



The principu) partu nf dd art' 

do, dire, dCdi, dltum. 

The tenses ilerivcil from the jMrfect stem are wiiijugate<l thus :— 
Perfect. dedl dedisfi, dedit, dedimui, dediatii, dederunt 

Pluperfect. dederam, dederu, dederat. eir. 

Fi-T. PEKFKf-r. dedero, dederis, dederit, iii. 

S^i also : — 

circumdo, dAre, -dMi, -dttum, surround. 
Note the phrase ; — • 

in fugua dire jut to flight. 
The principal pHrr»< nf sto art- 

sto, stare, it«ti, itatiun. 
Obeerve the force of con, com ( = ciun) = together ; .ind re = back. 

EXERCISE 



Ambulant, ambulamrat, ambulaTCrit. clamavimus. cUuna- 

veramus, clamaverimus. 
Ezpupiavi, occupavisti, impetravit, convocavimus, renovavUtis 

revocavenmt, renuntiaverunt. 
Magna Gallorum oppida expugnavit. Oppidum magnum 

oppugnaverunt. 
Galli copias magnas comparaverant. Animos Gallorum con- 

Amavimus. 
Oppidum miiro circumdidit. Dona multa djderis. 
Pueris bonis dona multa dtdisti. Quem laudaveris ? 
Galli proetium sagittis fundisque renovaverunt 
In castra copias revocavit. Socios in oppido coUocaverint 
Roman! bellum cum Gallis renovabunt. Magnam copiam 

friimenti comportaverant 
Copias sociorum in fugam dederunt. Legati castra barba- 

rorum occupaverunt. 
Barbari nostra castra occupaverint. Cur bellum renovavistis ? 
Quando renuntjavisti ? Ubi hiemaveras f 
Qu6 aquam portavisti ? Quis serros laudabit? 



41 



B 



1. Give first singular of each tenue, Tiitlicative Active, uf Uud5. 

2. I waa building; I 1>uiU. T nhii\\ demand; T Hhnll have 

demanded. 
•3. T hapten ; 1 had haateued. He asked ; he will ank ; lie had 

anked. 
4. The faruiera were ploughing;. The aailoiH liiul willed. 
6. The men will give. The Itoys have given. 

6. The slaves will have stood. Why did you deutand 

7. When did we shout ? Who had hastened 1 Whom did you 

praitte t 

8. Whither will you have hastened f Where had you dwelt ? 



1. They took your camp by storm. The messengers hruiight 

back word. 

2. We assembled the people in ( •'into) the fornni. 
'.i. You had walked in the beautiful garden. 

4. The lieutenant recalled the troops from the battle. 

5. The Britons have brought corn into the winter camp. 

6. He had stationed large forces on the wall. 

7. We shall obtain our request. They will have seized the 

buildings. 

8. They stood in the deep water. You have put the forces to 

flight. 

9. The allies will put the Gauls to flight. 

10. We will surround the camp with a rampart. 

11. At (cum) great danger the sailors stormed the walls. 

12. He will assemble the auxiliaries. You had collected baggage- 

aniiiutls. We will seize the baggage. 



42 



lUPGHATIVE MOUU 



t i 



LESSON XVIIl 

IMPERATIVE MOOD 

The Imperative Mood is used in commands, exhortation*, 
and entreaties, as in English. 



SlMQULAa 

I. ama, love or love thou 



Imperative Active 

Pbesknt 



Tlubai. 

love ye or you 



FUTPKE 

2, amatS, thou thalt love amatote, you ehall love 

3. amato, he ehall love amanto, Utey thtUl love 

The use of the Future Imperative is limited to actions 
distinctly future, and to wills, laws, treaties, etc. 

EXERCISE 

(VOOATITI C«H AMD PERMNT iMPUATin) 

A 

1. Legati, cSpiaa TCttras convocate. Proelium renoTite. 

2. Stellas pulchras, nautae, spectate. Peciiniam, magiiter, 

postula. 
.1. Ad arma populum voca. Servi, lig^num in tectum portate. 

4. Socii, friimentum comportate. MI fill,' masistrum ami. 

5. Serve, epistolam ad reginam porta. Copias, tegatl, revocate. 

6. FOil mel, magistroi amate. Victoriam, l^>te, nuntia. 

B 

1. Farmer, plough your fields. Lieutenant, assemble your forces. 

2. Boy, love books. Lieutenants, asaemble your forces. 

3. Sailors, fight for your native land. O wretched man, hasten 

to the town. 

4. Messenger, summon the workmen. Announce the victory, 

Romans. 

5. Slave, give the buy his books. Seize the town, sailors. 



' Oontrsotod form of VooaUve ol meua f Uius. 



INTEHBOOATIVK SENTEMCES 



43 



LESSON XIX 
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 

1. An Interrogative sentence may be introduceil by an 
interrogative pronoun, adjective, or adverb. 

quomodo -> 

quemadmodumj''"*' "' "''*' manner? 

qiuun how? used with adjectives and adverbs; 

qiuun altus ? how high r 
quam diu ? how long (of time) ? 

quantus, a um, how large ? how great ? 

quot (indeclinable adjective), how many ? 

2. An Interrogative Hentence may be introduced by one of 
three particles. 

•nC, nonne, num 

Their values are as follows : — 

QcEsnoN. Answek Expected or Dxsibxd . 

PnemCamat? /Does the boylAmat He loves = Yes, or 

t. love ? J Non amat. He does not loves No. 

^Does not the^ 



NOone puer amat ?-! 



The boy loves, I 
. does he not ?J 



He lovet) = Yes. 



hoyl 



/"Does the 
love r 
Nam puer amat ?-[ The boy doeav Non amat He does no» love = No. 
aot love, I 
does lie? J 

3* The particle -ni is an enelUie, t.f., it munt be appended to some 
other word. It is uauolly written after the first word, which is also 
the emphatic word. 

It aslcB for information simply. 

Nfeoe expects the answer Yes. 
Nam expects the answer No. 



44 



4. Ye« may be represented by line, or, tStB, rrrtainty. 
No may he represented by minime, by no mra/io. 

Usually, however, they are represented by a repetition of 
the verb as in the preceding sentences. 



Whether - 
Whether - 



Double Direct Questions 



or = utruni — an or -n< - an. 
or not = utnun — annon. 

Wliethcr does he love tlie son 
or the daughter » 

Docs he love the son or the 
daughter? 
Utmm niium amat annan ? Does he love the son or not ? 

Position 

an should Iw put in close connection with 



Utruni filium an filiam'i 
FiUunm* an ffliam j«n>»t? 



Utnim — an or -n< 
the contrtuUd words. 

EXERCISE 

A 

1. Amaani? niun amamiu? nonne amatis? 

2. Numlaudabit? nonne laudamus? laudantni!? 

3. Nonne laudaveruntp num amabit? nonne amabamua? 

4. Laudabantni? numlaudabat? nonne laudabis? 
No. Does he not love? Yes. Has he 



Will you praise? No. Shall we 



1. Does he love? Yes. 
loveil ? No. 

2. Will he not praise? Yes. 

praise ? Yes. No. 

B 

1. Num puer] ad oppidum ambulibant? Nonne praemia nautae 

dibifflua ? 

2. Gladiunmi in tectum portavit? NautaenC aurum ad oppidum 

portaoant r 

3. Num templum pulchrum fabr! aedificaverunt 7 

4. Quot libroi puer magistro dedit? Quam diii nautae pugni- 

5. Quam latu* eat miirui? quam longa aunt teU? 

6. Utrum gladio an tel5 Galium legitus Tulnerivit? 

7. AnrumaC an arfentum in templum portavirtl? 



THK VERB SUM, I AM 



4S 



8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 
12. 



Is he praising the Imy ? Yeg. No. Did lie nut praise tlie 

boy I Yes. 
Will you praise the boy ? No (we shall not). 
He wa« calling the master, was he not 1 
We did not lay waste the fields, did we ? 
Did they put the Gauls to flight 1 Yes. No. 
Shall we obtain our request or not ? 
Is he hastening to Italy or Gaul ? Do they praise or blaiue 

the boys 1 
Did he wound the eagle with an arrow or with a sling 1 
Will you renew the battle or recall your forces ? 
How will they take the town I How many books have you 

carried ? 
How high is the wall ! How long are the walls ? 
How many standards did the barbarians seize ? 



SlNr.PI.AR 

1. turn, / am 

2. ei, tliott an 

3. eit, hr, tie., i« 



LESSON XX 

THE VERB SUM, I AM 

Indicative 

Presknt 



Plukai. 
lumui, ivr are 
ettis, you are 
lunt, they are 

Tmprkfkct 

1. ermm, / vxu (implying con- erunuf, we rnrr (implying con- 

tinuity) liiiuitv) 

2, era* eriti* 
:i. erat 



1. ero, I •hallbe 

2. crit 

3. erit 



Future 

erimus, ive ehall be 

•ritit 

erunt 



46 



;.! 



THE VEHB HUM, t AM 
PiKFKT 



SiNr.ULAR PUIRAL 

1. fa HI) I have bftn fu iaua{l)u!e ham bren 

(2) / 'AH (simply Btated) (2) we imre (simply «taleil ) 

2. fu isti fu istis 

3- f" 't fu erunt or fu ere 



1. fu eram, / had been 

2. fu eras 

3. fii erat 



Pldperfrct 

fu erunut, m had been 
fii eratis 
fu erant 



FUTORE PeRTECT 

fu erii, IthaUhave been fu erimus, roe ahall hare lieen 



2. fu eris 

3. fa erit 



SaovuM 

1. ca, bf, or be thou 



2. eito, i/iuu shall be 

3. esto, he ihall be 



fu eritia 
fu erint 

Imperative 

PRK8BNT 

Pldral 
eate, 6**, or fte t/e or i/ou 

VnTURK 

estote, ye shall lie 
SUntO, Ihey ahull be 



Infinitive 

Present esse, to be 

Perfect fu iase, to luive heen 

Future fut urns (a, um I esse, tn lie about tu lie 

Participle 

Future futunis. a, um, about to he 

PrincipsJ Parts 

sum, esse, ful, futSrus (future participle).' 



■ When s verb liw no supine, the future psrticlple sctlve which ii reguUirly lomied 
fram the supine by ohsagin^ uzn to Orua msy be irfren. 



BXKRCISK 



47 



EXERCISE 



Review Lesson XV, 1, 2, and state the rule for the agreement of a 

Predicate Adjective. 
I . est, erat, erit : fuimus, fuerainui, fuerimus. 
3. iiint, erant, enint : fuerint, fuerant, fuerunt 
3. erifflat, fuimus, liiisti, fuistis, fueratis, fueritia. 

1. They were (perf.), they were (impf.) ; we shall be, they had 

been. 

2. We shall have been, they are, you (sing.) are, they will be. 

3. We had been, you were (perf.), you were (impf.), you are (pi.). 

4. I was (perf.), I was (impf.), I had been, you will have been. 

B 

1. Tecta sunt pam. Mag^na fuerunt castra. 

2. Multi sunt sociL Silva est denaa. 

a. Liber nugnus est tuus. Pulchrae erunt coronae. 
4. Socii Romanorum fuerimus. Integrac erant copiae. 
a. Sacrum fuerat templum. Magnum erit periculum. 

6. Dona mea fuerunt pulchra. parva tua. Ubi sunt Itbcr!? 

7. Misemi est f nius agricolae ? Num equi sunt in campo magnS ? 

8. Nonne in castris erant auxilia? Utrum mens an tuus est 

gladius ? 

9. Pueri erant magni ; parrae sunt puellae. 

10. Puellae parrae in templo fuerunt. Este boni pnerL 

11. LiinanJI est claraP Num muri alti erant? 



Complete with the proper form of bonus as a predicate adjective. 

1. Poeta est . Poetae sunt . NauU est 

2. Mensae sunt . Donum erat . Dona erant 

3. Puella est . Puellae erunt . Amici fuerunt 

4. The danger was great. The town will be beautiful. 

5. You will be good boys. The horse is mine. 

6. Your friends are many. The islands were large and beautiful. 

7. The temples had been sacred. The sailors' darts were long. 

8. The forces of the barbarians were fresh. The land was rough. 

9. Our native land in dear to the slaves. Where are the horses t 



48 



IBREQULAR ADJECTIVES IK -US AND -EB 



LESSON XXI 
IRREGULAR ADJECTIVKS TN -US AND -ER OF 
THE FIRST AND SECOND DECI-ENSIONS 
1. Nine adjectives in -us and ^r Imve in all genders the 
genitive singular in -ius and the dative singular in -i. 



'! 



NOH. 

("Jkn. 
I)at. 
Aco. 
Voc. 
Am.. 



Unus, una, iinum 

one 



XoM. 

Okn. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Voc. 
Abi.. 



Masc. 
un ui 
nn ius 
an I 
An um 



Fkm. 
un a 
fill ius 
All i 
un am 



wanting 
un o (in a 

Alius, alia, aliud 
another 



Masc. 
all us 
al ius 
all i 
all um 



Fkm. 
ali a 
al ius 
ali i 
ali am 



wanting 
ali o ali a 



Nbut. 
un um 
un ius 
fin i 
un um 



Nkut. 
ali ud 
al ius 
ali i 
ali ud 

ali 6 



Uter. utra, utrum 
which (of two)? 



Mamc. 
uter 
utr ius 
utr i 
utr um 



Fkm. 
UI r a 
ulr ius 
utr i 
utr am 



wanting 
utr 5 utr i 



Kki't, 
ulr um 
utr ius 
utr i 
utr um 

utr 5 



Alter, altera, alterum 

the other (of two) 



.Maw. 
alter 
alter Ius 
aiur i 
alter um 



Fkm. 
alter a 
alter Ius 
alter i 
alter am 



wanting 
alter 6 alter a 



Neiit. 
alt«r um 
alter Ius 
alter i 
alter um 

alter o 



The plural, wlu-. u»eil, i» regular, like the pluial ,.f bonus. 
Like Onus are declined totus, nuUus, uUus, solus. 
Like uter in declined neuter. 
Observe the short i of -ius in the genitive of alter. 



VOCABULARY— KXBRCISB 



49 



Latin Word 
alius, a, ud 
niiUui, a, um 
sSha, a, uin 
totus, a, uni 
uUus, a, um 
unus, a, um 
alter, a, um 
uter, utra, utrum 
neuter, neutra, neutnim 



Vocabulary 

MtANINO 

another 

MO, none 

alone, only 

wlmle (of) 

any 

one, alone 

the other, second 

which (of two)? 

neither 



EsciUSn DIRIVITIVI 

alien 
nullify 
solitude 
tots! 

unit, unify 
alter, alternate 

neutral 



aliui — alius = one — another 

alter - alter = the one _ the other 

alii _ alii = „onie — others 

alteri - alter! = tlie one party — the other p»rty 



EXERCISE 
A 

1. In proelio and. In proelio altera. Tatius Galliae. 

2. In niUia oppida toHu, Galliae. In iinum oppidum Britanniae 

3. Per totam Britanniam. Terram totam vaatabunt. 

4. Britannl saii bellum postulant. Nullum legatum exspectant 

5. In altera oculo. Contra Gallos solos. Ab Qno nuntia. 

6. In altera ripa barbari copias convocaverant. 

'' """runt" '"'"'* "" **"■""""■ *^"" "" '^""'" "'«"'*• 

8. One valia oppida circumdant. In neutro proelia. 

9. Alii argentum, aurum alii dederunt. 
10. Socias saias convocabunt 



00 



BZEBC18K — VOCABULAKV 



B 

1. To another girl ; to the other boy ; other workmen ; to the 
other workman. 

2. Some praise, others blame. One gives, another demands. 

3. The one island was large, the other small. 

4. Of one friend ; of one daughter ; to one son. 
;i j 6- The barbarians wounded one lieutenant with a sword, the 
) I other with a dart. 

8- Of 'he queen alone. The queen's daughters alone were in the 
garden. 

7. They will lay waste the plains of the whole of Gaul. 

8. In the other camp. In the dwellings of no town. 

9. Of any poet ; of no people ; to any farmer ; to no friend. 

READING LESSON 
The Discovery of Canada 

In 5ri Galliae est oppiduro unde nauta mulfia cum sociit tnnt 
Oceanum nivigavit. Post mulu Ocean! perlcuU fluvium magnum 
intravit ubi erant insulae magnae et multae. Turn in Canada tota 
erant nlrae densae ubi barbari et ferae habitabant. NuUi agricolae 
agre* aribaat nee erat copia friimenti. Barbaris autem tecta in 
ripia fluyii erant et princeps barbarorum erat Oonnacona. Nauta 
in ripis fluvil magnl hiemavit. Deinde in Galliam navigavit 

Quia erat nauU? Unde navigavit nauta? Quia erat fluviua? 



Vocabulary 



unde, whence^from which 
post, aftw (prep.) 
perirulum, ], danger, peril 
SuTius, I, river 
intrS, are, enter 
ubi, where (relative) 
tnm, then, at that time 
fen. ae, wild animal 



nee, nor, neither 

autem, morer- cr 

barbaris erant, there we.e to 
the barbarians - the barbar- 
ians had 

princeps, chief 

deinde, afterwards 



TMIKD DECLENSION Jf 

LESSON XXII 
THIRD DECLENSION' 

1. Nouns of the Third Declension end in 

-a, -e, -I, -o, -y, -c, -1, -n, -r, s, -t, -x. 

Tlie Genitive Singular ends in -is. 

2. There are (too clasaes : — 

I. Nouns whose Genitive Plural ends in -um 
II. Nouns whose Genitive Plural ends in -ium 
Class I is subdivided as follows ;— 

C Labial Bases ending in b or p 

A. Mute Hates | Dental Basos ending in d or t." 

I Palatal Bases ending in g or c. 

B. Liqiiid, Nasai and Sibilant Bases ending in 1 m n r 
and s. ' 

3- Class I 

Labial (b or p) Bases 

Princeps, princip is (M.) . i,i,.f, i,,i„cc- Ba«.., prjadp. 



Tr»bs, trab is (F.) beam 
Siscin.AR Plikai. 

princep s princip es tiali s 

prindp is ,„i„eip um ttal, is 

princip i piiiiLip ibus Iral, i 

princip em princip es tral. em 

princup s princip es tral, s 

princip e princip ibus trab e 

4. Gender :-Nouns of class I with Labial na.os are 
Maacuhne or Feminiiie. 



NoM 

Okn. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Vc; 

Abl. 



lioxc, trab- 
.«rN,:ii.Au Pi.iKAL 

tral, es 
trab um 
(rab ibus 
trab es 
trab es 
trab ibus 



52 



II 



VOCABULAKY — KXKUC'IHIC 

Vocabulary 



Kmii.ISII DKKIVATIVt: 

pleb», pleb is (K.) the louinion |K«ple, u.n j.l.hs ploU-iaii 

Terbum, i (N.) 'word verl„,l 

novut, A, um new ,^vgi 

mora, morae (F.j ilday 





Prepositions 






With Ace. 




Witli Abl. 


Ante 


before 


de 


concerning, aboul 


post 


behind, after (of tinic 


pro 


l>eforB (of plaiil, in pro 




ami place' 




l>ortion to 


per 


through , hy meaim of 


sine 


without 


propter 


on account of 






circum 


around ) 








EXERCISE 





[>ecline together :— princeps clarus. trabs mAgnA. 

1. Fflius principis cliri; Filius principis clari est in oppido. 

2. Principibus multis donA dedit. Cum multis principibus. 
S. Principes nostros lAudavit. A principe Gallorum. 

4. Contra principem beltum parAnt. VerbA principis. 
•i. TrAbes nugnAs ex silvA portaverunt. TrAbibus niAgnls. 
li. Locum trAbibus mAgnis circumdAnt. TrAbem pArvAm 
portAverAm. 

T Quot principes in CAstris nostris sunt? Nullus in CAstris est 
princeps. 

X. Unius principis. Alter! principi donum dedit. 
fl. Per principes; propter trAbem ; circum principem; 
principibus. 

De victorii: Ante oculos meos : post multos Annos; 
nostra cAstrA. 

Ante oppidum : Ante multos annos ; ante novam lunam. 
Sine mora ; sine ullo periculo ; post tota CAStrA. 



10 



sine 



I ; post 



TUIBO UltCUtNglOir 

B 



53 



1. We shall praise the «,„. of the chief. To the chief we ha.l 
givun a reward. 

a The chiefs assembled the common people 

4.. Tlic ambassadors of the plebs are many 

5. Did the boy wound the chief with an arrow > 

•-. The chiefs station their soldiers around the wall» of the town 

harcLiTanr-" ''^'"" -"^' ^'" "^"^ «"' 



LESSON XXIII 

THIRD DECLEN.SIOV 

Class I 

Dental (d or t) Bases 

^ I. Nouns of Class I are all .ieclined on the same principle, 
fn all the oblique cases the base retains the same form 

The case-endings are easily recognized. 



P*». ped is (M.) Urn 
MU«», milit is (M.) soldier 



XoM, 
<iKN. 

Hat. 
Ace. 
Voc. 
Abl. 



Singular 
pe s 
ped is 
pod i 
ped em 
P« • 
ped e 



Banf, ped- 
Baw, nUIit. 



Pl.URAI. 

ped es 
pud um 
ped ibus 
ped es 
ped es 
ped ibus 



■SrNorLAK 
mile s 
mfljt is 
niilri i 
>nflit em 
mile s 
iiiilit e 



Pl.IRAI, 

"lilit « 
milit um 
mitil ibus 
milit es 
milit es 
milit ibus 



64 



VOCABULARY — KXKRCIgE 



3. Vocabulary 

Masculine Nouns Feminine Nouns 



pi*. 


ped is 


f(X)t 


Iaus, 


laudis 


praise 


custos, 


custodis 


guaril 


paliis, 


paludis 


mar»h, 


lapis, 


Upid is 


stuiie 






ttuanip 
fir-tree 


oba«s. 


obsid is 


huKtugo 


abies. 


abiet is 


miles, 


mDit is 


soldier 


quies, 


quiet is 


rest 


•Ties, 


•net is 


mm 


Tirtus, 


virtut is 


virtue, 


comis. 


comit is 


iximpaiiion 






valor 


equts, 


equitis 


lioi-Heiiiaii, 


saliis. 


saliit is 


wifety 






cavalryman 


aetas. 


aetat is 


age 


eqnitcs 


(I'l.) 


cavalry 


aestas, 


aestat is 


summer 


p«<l«s, 


peditis 


foottitaii. 
infantryman 


civitas. 


civitat is 


state 


pedites 


(I'l.) 


infantry 


auctoritas, atis 


influence 


hospts. 


hospit is 


guest 


celeritas 


atis 


speed, 
swiftness 



The following nouns similarly declined are all feminine. Judgi' 
the.r meaning i^equitas, aUcritas, difficultas, dignitas, facultas, 
levitas, libertas, nobilitas, novitas, paucitas, pietas, potestas. 
temcntas, tranquUIitas, voluntas, voluptas, Telocitas. 

4- The pupil should be required lo -ivu, when it is |,„»8llile to do 
so, English derivatives from the Latin «,.rd» in all vixahularies. 

EXERCISE 

1. Decline together:— Onus obses, multi equites, magna virtiis. 

2. Give English derivatives from tlie I-itin nouns alKjvc. 



I. Pedem suum vulnerairit. Milites convocabunt. Obsides 

dederunt. 
■-'. Militi praemtum dat. Militibus praemia dibuit. Cum multis 

militibus. 
•>. Virtute mHitum. Magnam militis virtutem laudavit. Custodes 

exspectabat. 
1. Cum Qno comite ; cum peditibus equitibusque ; in paliide magna. 
•'> Pro sua salute pugnaverant. Ad multis civitates: ante 

aestatem. 



Tlirill> IIKI'I.KNVIOV 



68 



- nu"'"*" '""'"' »'"=*°"**'e">: Ob celerititem railitura 

. Ob aeutera suuii non pugnivenint. Legiti militibus quietem 

dederunt. 
•*. Multo. obsides legitl dibunt. Ob«d» i Britanni, po5tul«t. 
B 

I. Against the soldiers. By the sivifmess „f tin- s„l,li,T 
:; "yt'»"=»"l'-y; l'yth«inf,»,tr}-; hythec.,ur,.i.fofth,..s„l,li..,.. 
••• » ith darts .m.l stones ; inh, the .tat.. : int., i.mny states 
•«. I he inflnenee of the state was gr.:., U, ,.laee.l ..,„ards on 
tile wall. 

r>. So ^,reat was the valor of tlie fiaul-. Me u,,.,„,l, ; „,i,iier 

with » stone. 

«. He denmnds cav,ilry and infu„t,, IK r..ual) ,1 .h. soldiers 

from the Iwittle. 
7. With large forees of mvalry ,>„d i„f,- nt,y I,., J.astens to the 

winter-canij). 



Dux, due i« (M.) leader, guide 
Rex, reg is (M.) king 



LESSUX XXIV 
THIKD MKCLEKfJiOX 
Class I 
Palatal (g or c) Basus 

JSane^ due* 
//'Mr, resr- 
Decline like previcnis nouns. 

Note that the V.^ative in all Third Declension nouns is 
like the Nominative. 

Vocabulary 
Masculine Nouns Feminine Nouns 

rex, regis king ,,,_ ,^g i^ ,,^^. 

coiyunx, conjug is Inislwn.l, wife Ifix, luc is light 

(literally, pirtner) 

gr«x, gregis floik radix, radic is root 

remex, remig is rower vox, vocis voice 

dux, due is leader, guide 

jiidex, judie is judge 



S6 



UEHCIgB 



EXERCISE 

1)<-uline together: — cl&nii rex ; ma^na vox, 

(Jive EiigliRh derivativeH from the Uitiii iiuuiia ubovc. 



Rex dire, copiaa, convoca. Magna voce militea TOCMit 
Pro rege ; pro rege milttes pugnabunt : contra regera. 
Leges Romanorum bonae erant. Contra legem ; contra leges 
Romanas. 

Sine duce; sine ducibus Verba ducis laudaverunt. Verbis 
ducia. 

Remiges convocant Victoriam regi nuntiabunt. Radices 

sunt longae. 
Vir bonus conjugem amat. Legatus equites in fugam dedit 
Utnun equites an pedites rex postulaverit i> 



B 

Soldiers of the kinj; : to tlm king's soldii > with nmny 

snldiera. 
With ft ioiid voice. In ii loud voicu In; uiinoiiiioBd victory to 

the Huldiers. 
Soldiers, fight for your cnuntiy. He is ii (fockI judge. 
By the king ; liy the juili/c ; l.y the leader j by lemlers. 
Without ft guide. Without guides they huHteiied into the 

town. 

The light of the uiiM.n is liriglit. Wliy diil tliey wound the 
leader I 

How niuny soldiorH did the king ftssemWe ? They «rc in iht 
camp. 

Are the soldiers preparing ftrms ? They are. 

The king aumnions auxiliarieh. The king's soldiers are good. 

The soldiers renew the battle with swords. 



THIHD UecLKNIJION 

LESSON XXV 
THIRD DECLENSION 
Class I 
Liquid, Nasal, and Sibilant (1, m, n, 

Consul, consul is (M.) 

Sol, sol is (M.) 

Hiems, hiem is (K.) 

Leo, Icon is (M.) 

Virgo, virgin is (F.) 

Victor, victor is (M.) 

Flos, flar is (M.) 

Aggtt, agger is (M.) 

Pater, patr is (M.) 

Arbor, arbor is (F.) 



S7 



cotmui 

HUM 

winter 

ii.... 

maiden 

victor 

tlower 

itioiinil 

father 

tree 



. s) Bases 



Masculine Nouns Feminine Nouns 



Liko leo, Icon is 
centurio, on is 
•ermo, on is 



ct'nturion 
diHcoui-He, 
conversation 



Like virgo, 
homo, 
ordo, 



m is:— 

in is man 

in is order, rank, lino 



deditio, 

legio, 

miinltid, 

natio, 

iratiS, 

regie, 



on is surrender 

on is legion 

on is fortificatioji 

on is tribe, clan 

on is oration, speech 

on is dJNtrict, region 



Like victor, or is: — 
clamor, 6r is shout 
labor, or is labor 

imperator, or is general 
Srator, or is orator 
pavor, or is panie 
timor, 6r is fear 

Like flgs, dor is : - 

m6s, mor is uustom : — I'l. 
Liko pater, patr is :- 

frater, fratris brother 
Also:- 

C«esar, Caetaris Cae*ir 



contuetiido, in is custom 
multitiidd, in is multitude 
magnitiidd, in is magnitude 

soror, or is sirtter 



customs. mantierH, character 



miter, mitr is 



lother 



mulier, mulier is woman 



58 



KXBRCISB 






EXERCISE 

pr^fiin.,""'""'' '''"•'™'"'^" '■■"'" "'" I-'"" »<»■"« i" the Vocabulary 

A 

\. Ffliu, eon.uU., »1 consuls.: <ul cOMuIem: cum consul.. 
-. Patn consuhs: cum meo p.tre; ante hiememi de dediUone. 
3. In «bore: m «borem ; in arboribus, de numero- legionnm. 
r JJ'«"~°"""'««<«nejument6ram; cum mulienbus liberisque. 
6 ""',^!"?"«t^°™™> Sritioneconsuli,; oritionibus consulum. 
6. Ob bmorem mflitum; filio iraperitori,: a multls nitionibus. 

8. Sol er.t cl«,„. Lux soli, erat di™. Solem .pectibat. 

arorbun?^""""' "'*'''""»'■ Vir^n^m^n-m 

10. Arbori, ridice, sunt longrae. Centurionem telo vulneriverunt. 

vS™m'° °'''"^'"" """**"'■ 0™«««'norat6ri.lauda- 

'^ """^t^i^t"""" "*"■*"'■ "•'^'"" "'""•™'" »'»''>'"" 
B 

1. By the ,ho„ts of the soldier. ; by the speech of the consul. 

2. V, ith ,,.y father a„,l mother ; to your brother and sister. 

3. O.. a high tree ; into high trees ; o„ a high mound. 

4. Of (M,o legion ; to the soldiers of one legion 

^' ^MSonT'"''" '"■°"'"'' '""' ""' '"«'""= "8*'""' ""> 
8. By a sheerer" of darts; the custom, of the Gaul, and Germans. » 
7. In my garden was a high tree. The trees were high. 
». ihe consuls praised the speech of the general. 
!». The general will assemble one legion in the forum. 
10. \V,th a large multitude the 0,™!, hasten to the town 
n. With women and children they hasten into camp. 
I J. yo u will praise the discourse of the men. 

' numerus, i (M.) number. ~ ■ 

• Shower of darts = nunv d.rt.. 
•Oerm&nuH, 1 |M,)Oerm.M, 



nKAl>IN(! LESSON -VO<ABUI,AIIY 



SO 



KEAI)rN(i M SON 
Aeneas 

In Asia er.t oppidum Troj.. Oppidum Trnj.™ decern «,„6s 
Gr.ec. oppup^^nt. ,„ter Tr6jan6s Hector erat vir clirus. 

fortiter Hector pu^„i,it. T«,dem Graeci dolo et insidiis Trojam 
expup,.verunt. Muros et templa et aedificia vasUverunt. lUoue 
Aenea, cum patr. et niio paucisque ,ociI, ad italiam nivigavit 
Turn m ItaUi Utinu, erat rex qui Aeneae erat amicus et filiam 
«»m_. Liviniam. i„ mitrimonium dedit. Aeneas oppidum in 
Ital» .ed.ficav.t. oppidumque Livinium appellivit. Hie multos 
«mo. regnivit. Post Aeneam Ascanius. Aeneae filius. novum 
oppidum aedificavit. oppidumque Albam Longam appellavit 



Asia, ae, Asia 
Troja, ae, Troy 
annos, Aii-. of ' Duration <if 

Time ' 
Craecus, i, a firoeli 
Trojanus. i, a TiDJan 
Hector oris, Hwaor 
qui (ll-'lativf pronoun), who 
Priwnus, i, Priam 
diii, (ailv. of time), long 
fortiter, bravely 
tandem, at lant 

dolus, I, giiil.., craft, tleooption 
itaque, accordingly 



Vocabulary 



Aeneas, ae, Ai-neas 
PMCi, ae, a, i.l . few 
Latinus, i, Latiuus 
Lavinia, ae, fjivinia 
m matrimonium do. ;,'i\.' 

iniirriagc 
Lannium, i, Lavinimji 
hie, liiri' 

Ascanius, i, A«aniii« 

noTus, a, um,,Tiiw 

Alba Longa. All,a r,„„^,a 

appello, are, call, name. 



60 



THIRD DKCLKNHION 






LESSON XXVI 

THIRD I>EC'LENSION 

Class I 

Neuter Nouns 

Dentil! Mute (t) Baao 



Caput, 
Lac, 



capit is 
lact is 



head 
milk 



U()uiil, Xasal, ami Sibilant Hiisi» : 

Carmen, carmin is 



Fulg^r, fulgur is li^'liining, lla»h 

Opus. oper is ui>rk 

Corpus, corpor is IkhIv 

Jus, jiir is rigiit. law 

Os. or is rnnuth 

Os, OSS is Ih>iiu 



NoM. 
(JEN. 

Uat. 

Arr. 
V^oc. 
Am. 



Smon.AR 
opuit 
oper is 
oper i 
npu8 

upu8 

ojier e 



I'LfRAI. 

oper a 
oper um 
oper ibus 
"ix!!' a 
"pcr a 
'iper ibus 



!SlNi:ri.,\H 
carnieii 
carmin is 
carmin i 
t-arnicn 
ciirmeii 
carmin e 



Pi.nRAi. 
carmin a 
carmin um 
carmin ibus 
carmin a 
carntin a 
curmin ibus 



Kememlwr Nomiimtivp, Accusative, and Vociitivo are alike 
ill Neuters. 



Like cannen, inis :- agmen, inis 
certamen, inis 



army (on tlic march), line 
itruggle 





flumen. 


inis 


river 


, 


lumen. 


inis 


light 




nomen. 


inis 


tianic^ 


Like opus, eris : 


genus. 


eris 


race 




latus. 


eris 


side 




onus, 


eris 


hnrdcn, load 




pondus, 


eris 


weight 




scelus. 


eris 


wickedneHR, crin 




vulnus. 


eris 


wound 



r.ikr 



corpus, oris 



I.ik 



■^ jus, juris :— 



KXKKClsg 

dedecus. oris 

facinus. oris 

Wpis, oris 

Utns, oris 

P«cus, oris 

tempus. oris 



61 



rus. 



runs 



uisgracL* 

•leed, wiokml act 
'■oi(i. fnwt 
shoiv 

l"'iil, oatti,. ((■ollectivclv) 
time 

i-mintry (as oppoBwl ti, town) 



''■ire KiiKli-^h i\v 



EXERCISE 

'•i^ntuvs,,,,,,,,,,,. l..ai„ „„„,„,, 1,,,^.,. 






capiu 



A 
florum : 



carmine puellae: carminibus 



8. 
9. 
10. 



I Caput regis : 
virginum. 

'■ Co^or/r™ "^'" '""'' '"*'°'«> aedificaverunt 

Genera hominum muIta^n^^oml^T'"""' "•"""'^• 
Puer nomen floris rogivit Viri ^ ^f T" "^■'"'" "" 
Regio crcum flumen e It pZ^ "x ""^ "■""""'• 
idoneum.' "^ '*"■ ^*"P" •»»' "on erat 

B 

Tho head of the soldier ; on tlio hc-ul „f tl,„ t-i, , 

VVithaaong; by wo.k wi 1 '= ' '■"«'• ''™1»- 

"B . "y woik . with soiii's ; Ijv works • l.i. >1, i i 
By the river ; on tl,,. ba.a.. f n ' ^ '"' '"''' 

On account of wjckwiii..^^ , i „riar .tiiiKgi,., 

erimea. ""-""-"'"-^ ■ "•■ 'ccount of h,a cr„u«« ; „,„.y 

The ,„„i,l ,„ ,,,,ig,„ „,^. ,|^^^,__ ^^ .^|_ _^_ 

"III ho hoy walk .wo,,sth.. deep river r 

ini' ihstnc't was l)eaiitifiil Tl, 

Ho carr,o» lar.e Tl W. l, a'T 7 T'" '"' '""""'"'• 

T..e «e„onas .-I, h.^^.,„:,: '"';■'' ""^ '"""r "' ^'■^' '•">- 

rivor. •'•'-unliUMl the leg,„,m on the bank of the 



'lcJ6neu8. a, um, mitahicr 



63 



ii 



THIHD l)KCI,KNal<).V 

LESSON XXVII 

THIRD liKCLKNSION 

Class II 

Nouns with -ium in Genitive Plural 

These induile : — 

(u) Nouns in gs- and -is not incrf>.-vsing in the 

Genitive. 
(/') Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. 
('•) Mixed Nouns, declined in the Sinsuhu- like Class 

I and in Uie plural like Class 1 1. 

Masculine and Feminine Nouns 

Nubei, nub is (F.) 



cloml 
Hoitis, hott i* (M. or V.) enum; 

SlNOl'LAR PU-KAL 

NoM. iifil) es 
Ukn. iiuh is 

I)AT. lull) i 

Act:, mil) em 
V(K'. Mul) es 
Abi,. nfibe 



/ill*!' 



niib- 
host- 



SlVOlLAK 

luist is 
littst is 

h.lst i 

Ihisi em 
host is 
III 1st e 



Pldkai. 
Iiosl es 
luist ium 
host ibus 
host es 
liost es 
liiisi ibus 



null es 
null ium 
null ibus 
null es 
null es 
nfili ibus 

A few liave only -im in AiiuBative Singular anil -i in Ablative 
Singular, :s :— Sitis. sitis, siti, sitim, sitis, siti. thirst. 

A few have -i nr -e in ahhitive singular, as ; —avis, ignis, navis, 
turris. 

Masculine Nouns 

Like hostis, hostis : — 

collis, coUis hill 

finis. Tmis eiiil 

fines, finium(i>l. ) borders, 

torritory 

fiinis, fiinis rope, cable 

ignis, ignis lire 

orbis, orbis ciiet>> 

mensis, mensis innnth 



Feminine Nouns 

avis, avis bird 

classis, classis fleet 
navis, navis ship, boat 

turris, turris tower 



EXEKCISK 



Like nubes, nubU :- 



caedes, 
elides, 
rapes, 
sedes, 



caedU 
cladis 
rflpis 
sedis 



63 

Hlaiightfr 

rock 

«eat, liunie, 
settlement 



C«ni», cutis, (log, 1 Belong to Class I 

JUTems, juvenis, youth, /Tin. Cenitivo Plural is -um. 

EXERCISE 

1. Decline together: -hostes multi ; collii altus. 

■2. Cive Knglish derivatives from the Latin nouns' above. 

A 

1. Contri hortes ; .b hoste : .d hostem : «1 hostes , cum hostibu,. 

2. In coUe lUto; .n coUibus altis: fini, belli: in fine, nostrds 

3. Cum ma«:na classe; cum navi longa;' ex suis finibus. 

4. Urb«i hostium sunt magnae. Hostes turrim altam aedifi. 

caverunt. 

a. MDitN. nostri contra hostes pugnaverant. In colle altd 

castra locabunt. 
6. Inter fines Gallorum et Germanorum est flumen altum 
1. Copiae hostium nostros fines vastaverant 
9 l'^^ ^"' «fP««:tib«mus. Aves multae in arbore aita sunt. 
9. Ferro et igni' socii nostri agros hostium »asU«nint. 

B 

1. 0,i a high hill ; .,„ high hills ; fr„„. the encn,,- ; in to»ver«. 
-. The forces of th« enemy ; into the enemy's territory 
.i. W ith fire and stt-or.! ; (along) with many shijw. 

'■ "'",t'^,;;;^^f-"--^""--"--..y. shaii «e fi,htag.i„,t 

5. They will have hnilt a tomplo on ,i lii.rl, hill 

-• 7i;'"=';™''-J"'f"'e enemy will tight. '()„r territory is broad 

< . niiy did the enemy lay waste your territory ( 

K. The barbarians are building a high tower o„ the h.ll 

higi?hnr'' "" "'"' "' "'" ""'■ ■'''""'' "'" '""' "■•" " 

.'"• Shall we demanda,rn^,r l,„ai, frun, the enen.y ( 

' .' lonu ihi|» a war ship. " — 

"tomun.i>"H.- litprallv. with in" and <iro * ■ j 



64 



THIKU UliCLIOIglON 



LESSON XXVIIl 

THIRD DECLENSION 

Class II 

Neuter Nouns in -e, -al and -ar 

Neuter nouns in -e, -',' and -ar hav« 

-I ill Ablative Si > .lar, -M in Nominative Plural, anil -ium in 



Mare, 

Aainul, 

Calcar, 



rjenitive PI.' 


^1. 




maris 


sea 


Jiasr, mar- 


animali* 


animal 


Bagf, animal 


calcaiii 


spur 


Bait, calcar- 




SiNOPLAK 


P1.URAI. 


NOH. 


mar e 


mar ia 


Gen. 


mar is 


mar ium 


Dat. 


mar i 


mar ibus 


Ace. 


mar e 


mar ia 


Voc. 


mar e 


mar ia 


Abl. 


mar i 


mar ibus 



Like animal, animal is. i» rleclineil vectigal, vectigal is, tax. 
revenue. 

EXERCISE 
Decline together : — mare altum. 



1. MulU animalia; magna Tect!g;alia; animalium magnonim. 
•-'. In altum mare : in alto mari ; per mare : trans maris. 
.I. Nonne mllites Roman! ag;g;erem altum in alto mariaedificabunt ? 
i In ntore maris sunt multa tecta. 
■n. Animalia magna in mar! alto sunt 

6. La« est r« animalium Le6 est animal magnum. 

7. Multa aaJBalia in silms densi* hiemant. 



TUIBD UKCLEMglON 



65 



B 



1. The dangers of the sea. The sailors ask about the dangers of 

the sea. 

2. The king's brother stands on the shore of the great seii. 

3. On the shore ; in the sea ; into tlie sea ; .jf many animals. 

4. We shall await the ships of the enemy. 

5. The Britons are collecting a fleet of war shijis. 
<i. The workmen of the Romans built many ships. 

7. Between the hill and the plain the Romans awaited the enemy. 

8. The winters are long in Gaul. The citizens will often praise 

the valor .f the boy. 



LESSON XXIX 

THIRD DECLENSION 

Mixed Nouns 

1. Mixed nouns are declined in the Singular like Class I, 
but in the Plural like Class II. 

They have -em in Accusative .Singular, -e in .Vblative Singular, -ium 
in the Genitive Plural, and -es (originally -ii) in the Accusative Plural. 

2. They include the following nouns :— 

(n( Monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant ; 
(6) Most nouns in -ns or -rs. 

3. They are Mtuejdiin- or Feminitu^. 



Urb». urbis (F.)city 
Nojt, noct ia ( K. ) night 
Amaiu, amont is (M. or F. ) lover 
Pars, partis (F.jpart 



NOK. 

dm. 
Xta. 
Aaa. 

▼oa 



SiNOVLAK 

nrit s 
iirlt is 
nrl) i 
urb em 
urb s 
urii e 



Bate, urb- 
Ranf^ noct- 
Uaiv^ amant- 
Bate, part- 

Pldhal 
iirh es 
mil ium 
urh ibos 
urb ea 
urb es 
urh ibua 



66 



BXKBCISE 



lit 

I I 



S Masculine Nouns 

dens, dentis tooth 

fons, fontis fountain 

mons. mentis nmuntaiii 

pons, pontis bridge 



Feminine Nouns 

»r», srds ciudel 

nox, noctis njijht 

P»x. pids peaco 

sens, g^entis clan, race 

mens, mentis niiuil 

cohors, cohortis <oliort 

mors, mortis ileatli 

P«», partis part 

nix, nivts snow 



EXERCISE 

flive English .lerivativ,.H from the Latin noun, above. 



10. 



Decline together : mons altus, nox clira, orbs pulchri 
Nube atra; niibibus ..ris : in urbe; in urbem; in urbes. 
Noone nub« atrae erant? In Italia sunt multae urbe* 
f artem oppidi expugnaverunt. Romani multas urbes in Gallia 
occupaTerant. v«ui« 

In monte; in monte alto; in montibu, altls ; ad montem properant. 

MHites Romani urbis partem magnam occupabunt 
Ante sohs liicem. Stellas ante solis lucem spectabamus. 

Tiver^r '^""'- ^"^^ P«°t"» 'onP-m aedifi- 
MiUte. cohortis in alto coUe erant. Nix alu ; in nive alta. 

B 

1. The Roman consul seized many cities ..f tlie (Jaiils 

oVthcIiny."'" '"""^ """"'''"' ^""' ''"'«• '«'«^ 'he death 
a The general will ,un.m„n the soldiers t.. the citadel. 
5' Th^f '1 r I " '■"''n;'' ""' '"""• "^l'" '""""tains were high. 

<;. They hastened n.t.. their (,„vn) Imnies across the river. 
<• Ihe r«,c „f tl„. r.H,,!, was „.„|ike. Warlike nations. 

the Gal '' "'''*'■ '^'"' ''"""''"' •-■''*"''"»'■'=-' I'""'-'' "ith 

_!)^ Why^o y„„ expect peace ? Do you expect peace or war ( 

■ d* offrn „,„„, /„„, ,,„„, ,,.,„„_ , p- p- ^ — _ 



LESSON XXX 
IKR^LAK XOUXS OP THK THIKD DEC..N-s,ON 
The S '" ''''''''■ °^ *'•« '^-«» D«lcasion 

necllitte:-"^ '^"" ^"^«"'" ^^^ "' 'He ThiH 

,^"."-». (M, „«„.„ ^-'- 

Iter, ibner i> (N.) j^^^^y 

Bos, 



. , . road 

M'ufM.orF.) ox, cow 



Vii, Ti ( (p ) 



JSpiter.Jflv i, ,M , 

SlNOULAR 
XoM. 



•en es, sen um, etc. 
itiner a, itiner um, etc. 

cattle 
»ir e«, 



»ir ium, bodily 
strength 



Okn. 
Dat. 

Aw. 

Abi.. 



bos 

bov is 

bov I 

bov em 
baa 

bov e 



SiKODLAR 

vis 

vi s (rare) 

V i(r»re) 

vi m 
(vis) 

V I 



Plcrai, 
vir es 
vtr ium 

Vl7 ibus 

vtr es 

vIr es 

vIr ibus 



force, 

violence 
Jupiter 

Pli-bai, 

Ik>v es 
fixjv um 
( bo um 
/bob us 
I bub us 

bov es 

bov es 
rbab us 

\bub us ' ' V 

JOpiter. Jov is, Jov I, Jo, em. Tupiter, Jove , no p,„„I. 

TV. . , ^"'^^ **"■ Gender 

Jhe ch.ef rule, for gender of nouns of the Third D^,e„.ion 

Masculine :— 

Nouns ending in .«•, ^r, -6s, 

-es (increasing in tlie (;cn ) 

Feminine : - "* '"™'" "■""^ '" -d«. -e6. -io). 

Noun, ending i„ ^jg, .^g .i5_ 

-"i -is, -«U8, -X, 

-es (not increasi.jK in the Gen,), 

-s (preceded by a consonant), 

-lis (in words of more Ihnn onp .vlUbl,-) 



MICIIOCOPY RESOIUTION TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




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12.5 


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68 



KZeKCISB 



Neuter :— 

Noimi ending in -c, -a, -t, -e, -1, -n, 
-ar, -ur, -Us, 
-iis (in words of one syllable). 

EXERCISE 

Decline together :— iter magnum. 

A 

1. Mult! senes : magna' itinera ; vires horainis. 

2. Magnis itineribus ; magna vi ; cum multis senibus. 

3. Boves multi in agris erant. Senes tempera antiqua'^ semper 

laudant. 

4. Dux naves multas paravit. Nix in silva altH erat 

5. Magnis itineribus ad oppi4um properavenmt. Itinera militum 

nostrorum. 

6. Pueri in nive alta ambulabant. Dux virtiitem magnam 

militum laudabit. 

7. HQites voce magna clamaverunt. Per nivem altam ambu- 

labimus. 

8. Legiones Romanae turres altas aedificabunt. 



1. Many cows are in the farmer's field. The old man will always 

praise his friends. 

2. The leader built many ships. We hastened by forced' marches 

to the city. 

3. With great violence they attacked the town. The boy was 

walking along (per) the sliure of the sea. 

4. HdW many shi|>s did the enemy build? Are you walking 

tlii'ough the deep snow ( 
6. How many and how large were tlie enemy's ships. 

6. The boy wounded his head with an arrow. 

7. We gave many men presents. We shall sing a pleasing song 

to the maiden. 



■ lofotd a Urge, RrMt, maffnue. 



°antlquu8. a, um, aneimt. 



READlNi; LESSON 



69 



REAUINO, LKSSOX 
Rome 

Urbis Ronue conditor er.t RdmuJu. et urb*m ex suo nomine 
appelUTit. Roma er«t urbs pulchr. et cput n6n solum lUlks 
sed etiam orbit terrirum. In urbe erant septem coUes. Hi erant 
Capitdlinus, Palatines. ATentinus, CaeUus, EwjuUinu.. Viminili. 
Quiilnalis. Primum Romulus urbem miiro circumdedit. deinde 
Semus Tullius rex, postremo imperator Marcus Aurflius Inter 
miiras et Tiberim erat Campus Martius ubi Romini liidos 
celebrib«,t. MuIU et' praeclira aedificia erant in urbe Roma 
In Amphitheitre glwliitore. cum feris saevj. pugnibant. Imperator 
Conrtantinu. Arcnm' in valle inter montem Palatinum et Caelium 
aedificavit. 



■ For .««»„ dUlinguUM. Utin my» many a,d diamtuUke,! 



m 




70 



VOCABULAKV — SKCOND CONJUGATION 





Vocabulary 




conditor, oris 


founder 


Tiberis, is(M.> 


Titer 


caput, itis 


capital 


ludus, i 


game 


non solum— sed etiam 


not only — 


celebro, are 


celebrate 




but also 


aedificium, i 


building 


orbis terranim 


circle of lane 


s Amphitheatrum, 


i 




= world 




amphitheali-e 


septem 


seven 


fera, ae 


Iieast 


hi 


these 


saevus, a, um 


savage, Herce 


primum (Adv.) 


first 


arcum. Ace. of 




postremo 


lastly- 


arcus, lis 


arcii 


imperator, oris 


emperor 


vallis, is(F.) 


valley 



LES«)X XXX [ 

SKCONi) CONJUGATION' 

Indicative and Imperative Active 

1. The Second Conjugation iiielu<le.s all verbs wlios« present 
infinitive ends in ere, "s : — 

mone o, monere, advise 

2. The Pre.sent Stem ia mone-. 

TliK Present Stem is always <)l)taini>d by dropping the 
ending -re from the Present Infinitive, us : — 
amare, present stem ama- 
monere, " " mone 

3. 'I'lie Principal Parts of moneo are 

moneo, I'res. Indi<;. ),.,,„ 

; ' „ , „ > sliDwiiiK the Prrteiil .sifm, mone- 

monere, Prcs. Infin. J " 

monul, Perf. Indie. showing the Prrfiel Hlmi, monu- 

monitum. Supine' showing the Siipinr Stem, monit- 



» Sep jwKP :18, Footnotf 



SKCOND CONJUGATION 



71 



4. The Indicative TenseR are 

I'KKSENT 
ImI'KKFECT 



mone o \ 

monf ba m ■ f<,riiie(l from Piewiit Stem moni 

mone bo J 



monu I 



1 



Perfect' 

Pi.iiPKRFECT monu eram ] f"'"""^ '""n Perfect Stem, monu- 

Fi'TURE I'erkeot monu ero ' ^^"'^ Lesson XVII) 

Compare the al«vc forms with the eorretii)oniling tenses of amo. 
Observe the stems alone iliffer from those of amo. 

Present Stem ama- mone- 

Perfect Stem amav- monu- 

The KndingR in all Teiisi-s are the sanje as those of amo. 

S Indicative 

Present 

SlNGlILAK I'Ll-RAI, 

mone o 
mone s 
mone t 



mone mus 
mone tis 
mone nt 



Imperfect 
faone bam -bis -bat mone bamus -batis • -bant 

Future 
mone bd -bis -bit mone bimus -bitis -bunt 

Perfect 

monu i -isti -it monu imus -istis -erunt (ere) 

Pluperfect 
menu eram -eras -erat monu eramus -eratis -erant 

Future Perfect 



monu ero -eris -erit 



monu erimus -eritis -erint 



1)/.' 



72 






m 



6. 



2, Sing, mone 

2, Sing, mone tS 

3. Sing, mone to 



SKCONI) <0SJL(iAT10N 

Imperative 

I'kksknt 



FfTlRK 



■2. VI. mone te 

2. I'l. mone tote 
•2. I'l. mone nto 



7- Principal Parts 

The princiiial parts of verbs of tlie secuiid c»nju):(atiiiM are 
not formed with the .larae regularity as those of verlw of 
the first conjugation. 

They must in all rases be learned. From the perfect tense 
when learned will be obtained the pei-fout stfui from wliiih 
Uone the pluperfect and future perfect tenses can be foi'med. 

Learn the following : — 



moneo 


•2 


monu i 


monit um 


advise 


habeo 


■i 


babu i 


habit um 


lijive 


teneo 


•2 


tenu i 


tent um 


llol.l 


doceo 


2 


docu i 


doct um 


teach 


deleo 


o 


delev i 


daet um 


liestroy 


compleo 


.1 


complev 1 


complet um 


All 


augeo 


2 


aux I 


auct um 


iiicresae 


nuuieo' 


2 




mani um 


remain 


jubeo 


2 


juss i 


juss um 


order 


video 


o 


vid i 


vis um 


Hee 


responded 


2 


respond i 


respons um 


reply 



Questions : — 

1. Analyse into their component parts and so dei-ive the meaning of 

monebamus. monebunt. (See puge'il, foutnote). 

2. State the ruU^ for the formation of (I) the Plupf. Imhc. Act.; (2) 

the Fut. I'f. Inilic. Act. 

3. r.ivo the translations of (1) docebam, (2) vMI. (See page 39, Note). 

4. What is the impf. stem of habeo? The fut. stem of doceo? Tlie 

pert, stem of deled, manea and video? The 1st sing, plupf. and 
fat. pf. of maneo and video? 



kvkrci.sk 
EXERCISE 



7.J 



3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

6. 

6. 

7. 



;■ R^Pfndeo. respond! (2). Manserat maTseri 

B 

lirr''"'"'' ^^- ^"-~ teachi,.,, Y„uwi,M.e 
5.Heh„afinea. You (pl, „.,„,.,.,« „^,,,,. You aee, y,„. «„. 

Multas naves frumentfi Jin^ '^""■"" '"•"" ""^ "d™". 

Legitis respondebo. Caesar hostibus respondit. 
D 

y>'o shall remain in the city. You will see the country 
The master taught the boys and mrh Tl„.„ n . ^' 
The leader of the enemy L repSto JurX ^ ""^ '*"^'''- 

"^t,!':;iJHT^'''«"-*--^-'0-- Vou.ereh„h,i„, 
''SdJii '"" "^ ""' """™'^" '""""-' I "'^ not «ee the 



! ■• 1 



I!]! 



74 F1K8T CONJUOATirS — PASSIVK VOICE 

LESSON XXXII 

FIRST CONJUGATION PASSIVE VOICE 
INDICATIVE AND IMPERATIVE 



I. Indicative 

PRESE^T amor I amloved^ I am being loved 

Imperfect amabar / wan {being) loved 

Future amabor / shall be loved 

■r, -1 , , \I A""* been loved 

Ferfect amatus (a, um) sum '. , , , 

(I tras loved 

Pluperfect amatus (a, um) eram / had been loved 

Future Perfect amatus (a, um) ero / nhall have been loved 



Singular 

1. amo r, / am loved 

2. ama ris (re), thou art loved 
8. ama tur, (he) ia loved 



Present 

Plural 
ama mur, ice are loved 
ama mini, you are loved 
ama ntur, they are loved 



Imperfect 



1. ama bar, / was (being) loved 

2. ama ba ris (re) 
X ama ba tur 



ama ba mur, we were (being) loved 
ama ba mini 
ama ba ntur 



Future 



1. ama bor, / thall be loved 

2. ama be ris (-re) 

3. ama bi tur 



ama bi mur, we shall be loved 
ama bi mini 
ama bu ntur 



Perfect 



1. amatus sum, (1) / have been 

lured 
(2) / wai loved 

2. amatus es 
D. amatiu est 



amati sumus, (1) we have been 
loved 
(2) we were loved 
amati estis 
amati sunt 



JIHJT CONJUGATION — PAS81VK VOIOK 75 

Pluperfect 

SmoOLAK PI.I-RAI. 

I. amatus eram, / hwl b.m loved amati eramus, loc /laj bfrn lonU 
- "nitus eras amati eratis 

a. amatus erat amati want 

Future Perfect 

1. uakria ecb, I aluUl have bfen amati erimus, we »/«i« haw Uen 

2. amatus ens amati eritis 

3. amatus erit amati erunt 



Imperative 



I'UhdKST 



i re, be thou loved 



. mini, fie ye loved 



FUTtRE 



2. ama tor, thou shall he lored 

3. ama tor, he shaft be loved ama ntor, Ihey shall be loved 

4- Observations and Rules 

The form amatus found in the perf., plupf., :ii„I f„t. ,,f. pass, i., 
thH perfect participle passive = loved or having liien lovud. 

It is obtained by adding -us to the suphio stem, as amat um 
amat us. ' 

This rule holds good for all verbs of all conjugations. 

The perf. part. pass, amatus i.i rlecline.' like bonus, and mu.>.t agier 
with the subject of the sentence. 

Puer amatus est. The boy was loved. 
Puella amaU est. T)ie girl was hned. 
Donum amatum est. The gift was loved. 
So also in the plural : — 

Pueri amati sunt. The boys were loved. 
Puellae amatae sunt. The girls were loved. 
Dona amata sunt. The gifts were loved. 



Ii 

t ill 



'" KXKIICISE 

5. Examine: 

(1) puer a (or ab) nug^istro laudatur. 'I'lio Ix.y in iiiuisid liv Mie 

luastiT 
12) puer giadio vulaeratur. Th.' Ihjv i» woumlea with a «w.)r<l. 

Question :— 

How in Ijitiii do you express (1) tlie AgeiiC ; (2) MeaiiM m- 
/ itMrutneiU. 

6. Examine: — 

• n Vir domum cum diligentia aedifieat. 'I'li.> manililigontly.-.vith 

"tiligcncf, huil'In his 
hoilso. 

(2) Vir domum (magna diligentia | Tin- man with great ilili- 

aedificat. ' . ;m magna diligentiaj dcnte huilds his house. 

Rule :— 

-Mimner is j,'enei-aliy pxpresseil by cum 'ind thp ablative. 
If the nomi is accompanied by an emphatic adjective, cum 
may l)e omitted. 

EXERCISE 

A 

I. Give a synopsis (Ist sing. ) of tlie imlic. pass, of laudo. 

i. Give the |k f. part, pn.ss. of laudo, ard, voco, aedifico. 

3. Portatur, portabatur, portabitur. Vocatu."^ est. vocatus erat. 

4. Vocatus erit, vocata erit. Laudati sunt, laudatae sunt. 

•'i. Vocaris, vocamini. Vocaberis, vocabimini. Laudaberis, 
laudabaris. 

«. They are carried. They will be called. She was praised. 

7. They will he praise<l. We shall be called. We were praised. 

8. We are carried. We were (being) carried. They are called. 

We have lieeii called. 



EXCRCIHB 



B 



77 



3. PuelUab magiitrno^ita est t K^ '"^'*" '••««"»"• 
P«tre dibitur '■"^'' P""» ?"«'« «x>"« * 

e Milites a tuo patre laudantur. 
^tus est. 

■ Magna cum pericuIocoUesoccupiverunt 



Hostis a mUite gbutifi Tulner- 



^:S:w::.;;t^!r!/?.!^!:?-"!"«'.y-.uaa„,,.te. 



Tl.. I.o,s will l.„ called .,y their father. Were th"ey „ot called ? 

trpie7;:.if;r' "- '- "^ "■^- ■-- ^^•'>- «- i 
'",:::^r,:;c;!:r''"^ '^^^'-"^^ '.•he.,Miers.e. 

5. The lull was seized by the enemy. The hill., will be seized 
J. Ihe orations of the or..or were praise.!. Wh, is lj»e.l » 

8. The hafctle was announced. The Pelds had b.-.,. laid waste 

. inew..r^«ulberenewed. Corn will be gathered, 
'fossa, ae (»■.)(««/.. 



78. 



■ICONU CUN^ilOATION — PAHNlVi: VOIOC 



^ 



t 



V; 



LESSON XXXIII 

SECOND CONJUGATION PASSIVE VOICE 
INDICATIVE AND IMPERATIVE 



I. 

Preskht 


meneor 


Indicative 


/ am advined, I am liriiig 
tulnnfd 


iMPKKrKcr 


monebar 




J ipwt {Mni/) advijiftl 


K JTCRB 


monebor 




I ahall hf ttdelwd 


PratFEC^' 


monitus (a, urn) sum 


f f hnt'e been adoim'd 
y f irua advitfd 


pLLi-EAFlSCT 


monitus 


(a um) eiam 


I had ban admnnl 


FUTSRB PkRFKCT 


monitus 


(a, um) ero 


I ahiM have been udvitd 


2. 




Present 




SmoULAR 




Plural 


1. mone or 




mone mur 


2. mone ris (-re) 


mone mini 


X mone tur 




mone ntur 






Imperfect 




1. mone bar 




mone ba mur 


2. mone ba ris 


(-re) 


mone ba mini 


3. mone ba tur 




mone ba ntur 






Future 




I. mone bor 




mone bi mur 


2. mone be ris 


(-re) 


mone bi mini 


3. mone bi tur 




mone bu ntur 



monitus sum, es, est 



Perfect 

moniti sumus, estis, sunt 

Pluperfect 
monitus eram, eras, erat moniti eramus, eratis, erant 

Future Perfect 
monitus ero, eris, erit moniti erimus, eritis, erunt 



J 



^ 0: 



Singular 



RXiiKCI8K 

Imperative 

Pkksknt 



79 



2. moni re, lir than adeUnI 

Fl-TIRK 

A mone tor, Hum m/ki/i V adiw,l 
S. mone tor, A^ »luill /». adi-iMnl 



I'LII 



mone mini, '.» ije admnrd 



mone ntor, ?/i«^y »/,„/; 4, „dri>rd 



prfihibed 
perterred 
obtineo 
mdved 

5- Questions:— 



Principal Parts 

prtShibui prfihibitum 

perterrui perterritum 

obtinui obtentum 

movi motum 



kii.p from, prevdiit 
frighten, tiTiifv 



What part of the verb is monitUS ? I ro«- is i t obtainecl ? 
What is the I^tin for hnmug been nun-ed, /rig! w 
hetd, kept from. " 

EXERCISE 
A 

'■ "mlt^b^tur"*"" """'"'"• '"'^""' ■"o-'-^'. 
2. Obtinebar. obtinebitur. Prohibebitur, prohibebuntur. 
1 "rtemtus perterritus sura, perterrita est, perterritae sm.t 
4. Urbs obbnetur. Urbes deletae sunt. Oppfdum obtentum erit 

^' '^frfghrenei"'*'"""'' ^^'' """ f"gl>ten«d. Yo,. shall be 

6. The tower is beinR i„ove<l. The towers were moved We 

were prevented. 

7. They are frightened. The table had been moved. The enemv 

were prevented. ^ 

B 

■i Urbs Troja at Graecis delebitur. Dux castra raovit. 



80 



ESIRCISE — KEADINO LESSON 



t. Ab itioere nix alU milites prohiboit Turrim altam sd murSs 

mSvebimus. 
'>. Arz «b mUttibus noitris obtinetur. Numerus legionum auctus 

e»t 

6. Nulla aavis est visa. NuUae naves hostium sunt visae. 

7. Hoates ciamoribus magnis militum perterriti sunt. 



r 



1. The citadel v;aa held by our sdldiera. It UivX been held. 

2. The boys were terrilied by tliu miiiTH shouts. 

3. The town will be held by the Romans. The towns had been 

held. 

4. The soldiers moved their baggage to a high hill. 

5. The enemy were kept fnnn our camp by Hiu darts of our 

soldiers. 

6. The city was not terrified by the Ronmns. Our men held 

the town. 

7. The town was destroyed by the enemy. The towns will have 

been destroyeil. 

8. We shall increase the number of tlie legions. The legions are 

incre >sed. 

9. We have never* seen the boy's book. The farmer's stms were 

taught by the master. 

READING LESSON 
The Seven King^s of Rome 

Romulus urbem Romam a lud nimine vocavit. 

Numa Pompilius templum Jim aedificavit. In bello templum 
erat apertum, in pace clausum, 

Tultus Hostilius Albanos et Sabinos finitimds RomanSrum 
superavit. 

Ancus Martins et beUicoaua et banu erat. Latinos superayit et 
Sabtnos socios in urbem RaaaBi inrilBvit. 

Tarquinius Priscus in ahiB Mauun ax Etruria migrivit. 
SabinSs luperavit et Bmlta wffktm, L«tni&niin expugnavit. 

Servioa TuUiua ■rtwiii Wmm miirS ciicumdedit et magnum 
Dianae templum i 

■ nunquam. 



■0* 



ADJECTIVES OF TUB TH.KD DECLENSION gl 

Ranumi duas consult STnaXr^'^r «^«'»- ''«»'"* 



Janus, i 

apertus, a, um 
clausus, a, um 
Albani, drum 
Sabini, drum 
finitimus, i 
Latini, onim 
socios 

invito, are 



■l!inini(Koiiiiiu 

open 

oloseil, 8lii,t 
AUiiiiia 
Sahines 
nei^'lil)or 
Itiitiris 
(as) allius 

(Appmitiiiii) 
iiivitu 



Vocabulary 



migro, are 
Etruria, ae 
Diana, ae 

Gabii, drum 

gratus, a, um 

postea (adv. I 
duos, ace. of duo 
creo, are 



move, migrate 
Ktruria 
Uiana( Knniaii 

goiMesn) 
(Mm (name 

«if town) 
pli'asing, ac- 

ii-ptalile) 
afterwai'dg 
two 
I'lect 



LESSON XXXIV 
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 
I. The Second Class of Adjectives (Lesson \V t\ \ . 
to t,.e Third Declension. Thi are caVed A jfe^!' JfonT 

expLig ;:„Vr: '''-- '^"--^ ^" "- --'-"- «"■«»-' 

2- Adjectives of Three Terminations 



Acer, acris, acre, .sharp, keen, seve. 

SiNOULAK 



NoM. 

Ok.v. 

DAT. 

A<c. 
Vn,'. 
Abi.. 



AIasc. 

acer 


Fem. 
acr is 


xki-t: 

fivr e 


acr IS 


acr 18 


acr is 


acr 1 


m.-r 1 


Tier i 


a(;r em 
acer 


ncr em 
acr is 


acr e 
Jlcr e 


acr i 


acr i 


acr i 



Note well the A 1,1. Sing, in -I. 



^rAS<;. 
acr es 
aer ium 
act' ibus 
.iur es 
acr es 
acr ibus 



HuKe, acr- 

I'LIIKAl. 

Fkm. 
a(T es 
acr ium 
iicr ibus 
Acr- es 
.icr es 
acr ibus 



Nki't. 
acr ia 
aer ium 
acr ibus 
aer ia 
acr ia 
acr iboa 



82 



ADJECTIVES OF THE TUIRK DECLENSION 



3. Decline similarly:— 

alacer, alacris, alacre 
equester, equestris, equestre 
pedester, pedestris, pedestre 
Silvester, sUvestris, silvestre 
celer, ceteris, celere 
Observe that celer retains the e before r. 
that does so. 



brisk, quick, lively 
cavalry 

infantry, on foot 
"woody 
swift, fleet 
It is the only adjective 



Adjectives of Two Terminations 

Fortis, forte brave, valiant, noble Base^ fort- 



Singular 


Plural 


Masc. andFem. 


N'kut. 


Masc. and Fkm. 


Neut. 


NoM. fort is 


fort e 


fort es 


fort ia 


(Jen. fort is 


fort is 


fort ium 


fort ium 


DAT. fort I 


fort i 


fort ibus 


fort ibus 


Ace. fort em 


fort e 


fort es 


fort ia 


Voc. fort is 


fort e 


fort es 


fort ia 


Abl. fort I 


fort I 


fort ibus 


fort ibus 


Note well the Abl. Sing, in 


-I. 




5. Decline similarly:— 








breve 


short, brief 




facilis 


facile 


easy 




gravis 


grave 


heavy 




mitis 


m!te 


gentle, mild 




omnis 


omne 


every, all 




turpis 


turpe 


ilisgraceful, 


rile 


iitilis 


utile 


useful 





Comparatives 



Fortior, fortius braver 

SlNC.CLAR 

Masc. and Fem. Nrut. 

NoM. fortior fortius 

Uen. fortifir is fortifir is 

Dat. fortior I fortior I 

Ace. fortior em fortius 

Voc. fortior fortius 

Abl. fortiflr e fortinr e 



Ba»e, fortior- 
Plural 



Mas- *nd Fem. 
fortiAr es 
fortior um 
fortior ibus 
fortior es 
fortior es 
fortiAr ibus 



Neut. 
fortior a 
fortior um 
fortior ibus 
fortior a 
fortior a 
fortiAr ibus 



EXKRCISE 

Note well that Comparatives liave 
Abl. Sing, in -e; 

Nom., Ace. a.,,1 AV-. ]'\. Ni^ukr i„ ^. 
i»en. PI. in -um. 

Decline similarly:— 

All r. , ''""°'' '''""°'' ^"'*"' """'o^' *>"P"^. Stilior. 
All regular con.pa.atives are .lecline,! likr fortior. 

EXERCISE 



83 



Dm; 



li. 



S. 

!•. 

10. 



^H..e together: frigus icre ; mUes fortis ; onus gravius. 

Ab omnibus comitibus monitus erat. 

NuUum praemium mnitibu. fortibus datum est. 



1. 



"f tlif brave Sdldiers ; l„ 



8. 

9. 
10. 
II. 



B 

<»f all the boys; t<. all U,„ h„ys 
brave soldiers. 

• ('Vl"»«) with all the caviilrv • with ,.11 ,i ■ i 

the forces. ^ ' '" "'" "''""">■ • »"I' all 

').i account <,f his disgraceful life ; .„, account of 1 i , 
Z -y »-ol.es ; Uy easier rCes ::',/,:: ' '^^ 

Tn l,attles on f„„t the barbarians will con,,ncr the Uo.nans 
T e b ave consuls were praised Uy all the citizens, 
(.ood laws are useful to all states 
The enen,.v's b«gga«e „as sei.ed by the bravo general 
Rewards were .'yen to th,- 1„ v , , f *-'""•"■ 



84 



ADJECTIVES or THE TllIHIl DKCI.KNSION 



I;. 



LESSON XXXV 

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DKCLKNSION 

(Continued) 

Adjectives of One Termination 

I. Felix felix liappy Bane, felic- 

Prudens prudens {(ireseeiii;,' tlnti'. prudent- 



m 







SlN<J 


ri.Ak 






Masc. a.nu Fkm. 


Nkut. 


Masc. vM) Kkm. 


Xkit. 


N(IM. 


felix 


felix 


prudens 


piudenti 


<iEN. 


fglic is 


felic is 


prfiilcnt is 


prudent is 


DAT. 


felic i 


felic i ' 


prCnlent i 


prudent i 


Ac. 


felic em 


felix 


prudent em 


prudens 


Voc. 


felix 


felix 


prudens 


prudens 


Abl. 


felic i 


felic I 

I'T.I 


prudent i 

KAI, 


prudent i 


NiKM. 


folic es 


felic ia 


]>ni(lcnl es 


prudent ia 


(iKN. 


fi'lic ium 


fclic ium 


priiilent ium 


prudent ium 


D.1T. 


fcIic ibus 


felic ibus 


pniilciit ibus 


prfulcnl ibus 


Acc. 


felic es 


felic ia 


prudi-nt es 


prudent ia 


\'or. 


felic es 


felic ia 


prudent es 


prudent ia 


Am.. 


folic ibus 


fclic ibus 


prudent ibus 


prudent ibus 


2. 


Decline similarly:— 








audax 


audacis 


1k)1(1. diuin 


« 




atrox 


atrocis 


fierce, cnii 


1 




ferox 


ferocis 


Kpirited, w 


.irlike 




velox 


velocis 


awift, fleet 






diligens 


diligentis 


diligent 






ingens 


ingentis 


liuyc, intmcnse 




potens 


potentis 


powerful 






sapiens 


sapientis 


wise 






recens 


recentis 


friwh, lale, 


l-ecent 



Amans, amans lnvjn^ 
Vetus, veteris old 



Hani', amant- 
/J(i«c, veter- 



ilASf. A.VD FeM. JJ-PDT Yf 

Gdiiians ,,, *,. , 

Tit-.. iimanc IS Vctpr te 

Ace. „,„a„tem amana ,.,',' ''''"'■'' 

Ai... a„.a„te a.„a„te . '; , 

lertr e veter e 

„ Pl-HRAI, 

, •"'• «™a"tes amantia vt-r s. 

^- — tes a,.,a„ti: ^ ^ ''"■'■' 

"'- -'^^^ vi:^. :::::;^„, 

4- Decline similarly .- 

flens flentis 

Of^ns orientis „»,„. 

"•ves divitis riol, 

P«"Per piuperis ,„„„ 

P" Paris «,„al 

^' Notes 

•;aHicipIes ,•„ .a„s ,„„ ^^3 ,^^.,. ,„^, ^,^, 

"b- 1 1 Ml fi. -la ami -lum. 

. , aotectne ami is declinui ,is follows • 

SiXf.tr.An „ 

Mas. AND F..,. x,,,^ ..^^ r^:'^""- 

'■Kv ',■•••• ^"\ I'l-es ,,,,,,, 

Uat. I"'"-'" P'-ium ;,,,-„ i„„ 

Ace. p,. I'lur^bus plQ,. ibus 



80 



86 



EXEIICIME — COLLoyUIUM 



EXERCISE 



V. 
P. 
V. 
P. 



Beoliiie together:— vir audax, sol oriens, flos recens, judex sapiens. 
I. Hilitem audacem laudat. MHites audaces laudabat. 

Virtus militum audacium. Militibus audacibus praemia dedit. 
Contra reges potentes ; contra gentes feroces ; ad solem 

orientem. 
Equites proelio recent! perterriti sunt. Barbaros atroces 

viderunt. 
Inter flores recentes ambulabant. Virum audacem pueri laudant. 
Omnibus animalibus orevis est vita. Lumen est celere. 
Milites Roman! in proeliis audaces erant. In silva sunt animalia 
velocia. 
8. NauU audax pericula maris omat. Milites veteres laudabit. 

B 

We will pr.lse the valDr of the brave soldier. We Siiw the bold 

sailors. 
The lives of all boys are not happy. Huge animals are not 

swift. 
Rich men are not often Iiapiiy. He was dear to both' rich and 

poor. 
In a fierce battle our forces worsted^ the cavalry of the barbarians. 
The light of the rising sun ; the sohliers of powerful kings. 
By the words of the weeping women the heart of the fierce 

chief WAS moved. 
By the wise judges ; by the bold sailors ; by a loving mother. 
By the speech of the foreseeing orator ; to the diligent 

daughters. 

COLLOQUIUM 
Vir et Puer 

Salve I puer, quo portas tuos libros ? 
Ad scholam ambulo. 

Ubi est schola et quis est magister tuus ? 
Schola non procul a Foro abest et magister meus appellatur 
Marcus. 



3. 

4. 

5. 
6. 

7. 



1 



' Iwth-aiicl -: et-et. • = lonnuf mi. 



V. 

p. 

V. 

p. 

V. 



COM..AI„.s.,v OK ;>,^KCT.VK.S g^ 

Estne tuus magister homo mitis? 
Quot libroa portas? "" P*"'"* 






colloquium, i 
salve 

schola, ae 
procul(a(]v.) 
ab sum 
peosum, i 
'■ecte(a<Iv.) 
recito, are 



Miivcrsatiim 
liail, good 
moniing 
school 

far, far away 
am distant 
task, lesson 
rightly, well 
recite 



Vocabulary 



peritus, a, um 

lingua, ae 

Graecus, a,um 

<luos(a<-,-. pi.) 
Vergilius, i 
Home*^is, i 

ver6(adv.) 

vale 



skjili-d (i„); gov. 

'■ins the (;,.n. 
'""i'lie, language 

(llCfk 
tM'O 

Vergil 
Hftnicr 
indcid, truly, 

vm\y 
goixMno 



LESSON XXXVI 

COMPARISON OF AD-rROTrVRs 
!• Positive Bask n 

«ltUS ,|t. • '^I'l-ERLATIVE 

'°rt's fort- faL'" altissimus 

On tiie same principle co,„p,a„. ._ ^ "^ 

Declension 

A" ^uperlative. are declined ,ik.. bonus, bona, bonum. 



I 



w 



SS COMI'AUISiiN OK ADJKCTIVIS 

3. Examine: - 

Puerestaltiorll""" P*'" I.,., „,,„.. , „ ,, , ,, 

ipatre I " ' tull.-r iImm i1ii. f;itli. i-. 

Tlian -quam 

Rules 

The Wind ifu-r quam i-i in tlic s.iiiii' cii-ie as tlic woid witli 
wliic-li it is conijiaicd. 

When quam is omittc.l tlie woirl is put in tho Abliitiv... 

Such a case is called an Ablative of Comparison. 

4. Examine : - 

Filius patri quam matri carior est. Tlic scni is ili.ini- to (In- fiitlicr 

thiin lo the nM>t)i<'i'. 
Not!' ihat llie iililalivi! ciiiiiiiit lie sutistitutcil for quam matri in this 
scntfin-c. 

Rule:- 

Quam faiiMiit, l)e omitted unless tin. word after it is in tlie 
Nominative or Aecu«ative. 

5. Examine: — 

Turris muro est uno pede altior. The tower is one foot liigher 

til. in the wall {higher than 
till- Willi hy one foot). 

fiut'i pf'lf ex|ires.ses tlie amount of itijfpri'in;; 

Sueli an ablative is called the Ablative of Amount of 
Difference. 

6. Observe:- 

brevior = .fhoitcr, ti«i short, soriiewh.it short, nitlicr short, 
brevissimus = shortest, very sliort . 

7. Obs. -ve : - 

quam brevissimus - .is short as possihle. 

quam fortissimi milites = as briiv(! sohliors as possilih.. 



EZKKCIiia 



89 



8. 

9. 

10. 



8. Qucbtions:— 

.'; ,'!'"^""' '"'^' '"^ ""^ -".p«-un of adjective,. 

y-i'^'^^ofSdZ* "'"" ■""'«' ^'^''"- -' "P'-i" the 

EXERCISE 

■■■ In silvern ie„.issim.™, in urbTc^».^'™- «= " *^'"^' 
simo. "^ nanssimas ; e flumine rapidis- 

• 'roltar "'""'' "' "'" •--' -'diers, tl.e highest 

As useful books a :,1 .1 ',= '''"'"••'■ '"«'' "'"""taiuH. 

Of the Wet tr ' VZ ;"''^•'T.''"™'''''• 
powert.l kings. ' ^ ''" '"■*™'' soldiers; of ,„o8t 

fortissimus. '"■"uni. Omnium animilium leo est 

'• Nihil est velocius q„am liimen solis. Poeta est vir H~.»- • 
Dux cum mUitibus f«rt,..i™- .""»«»' "r doctissmjus. 

mmtibus foSus.""" °PP""--» "PPn^nivit. Cum 
• Copias in coUe altissimo locaverant Tn .mik , • 
Ubros quam utilissimos puerisTedit Dal "' "'"°"'""- 
sunt data. **' °'"'» 9u«m iitilissima 

^SM^." =^" '"" -^^^ -J- nm. Pater fiiis est iinS 
Xaftrun^"""""'""' "^ O-a". »tissima, i„ tecti, 

c 

XpfC™^' '"' "'«" ^""'^ - ve:^ hi,h wa.,.; .er. 
Were ,.ot the Roma„ soldiers l.raver than the Ger„.„ns/ 



90 



IltltKGUI.AK COMPAKISliy 



a. Ill Britniii tlie iiiglit» nro nhnrtur. Of nil the GuiiIh they are 
the hravest. 

4. Yoii are more powerful tlian the sons of kings. 

5. On II hiyher hill the soldierH placed their liaggagu. 

6. light is swifter than Hind. The Roman in wiser than the 

GernifiQ. 

7. The Roman soldiers are bolder in battles than the Oermans. 

8. Ill the islands the nights are very long. 

!l. The richest men are not often the happiest. 
10. Between the territories of the (iiiuls and (iermans there is a 
deeper river. 



LESSON XXXVII 



IRUEGUI.AI! COMPARISON 

I, Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by udding 
•rimus to the Nom. Sing. Masc. of the Positive. 

The Conipiirative i.s formed reguiurly. 

POSITIVK Base CoMiARATlVE 



•eger 
pulcher 



acer 
cder 



aegT- 

pulchr- 

tener- 

miser- 

acr- 

celer- 



aegr ior 
pulchr ior 
tener ior 
miser ior 
acr ior 
ceter ior 



SfPERLATIVK 

aeger rimus 
pulcher rimus 
tener rimus 
miser rimus 
acer rimus 
celer rimus 



2. Six adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding 
-limUS to the base. 

The Coniparativs is formed regnlariy. 



facilis 


easy 


facil ior 


facil limus 


difficilis 


difficult 


difficil ior 


difficil limus 


similis 


like 


simil ior 


simit limus 


dissimilis 


iinlikt' 


dissimil ior 


dissimil !:n-.us 


gracilis 


slender 


gfracil ior 


gracil limus 


humilis 


low 


humil ior 


humil limus 



;:r' «'^;' - ^ ="» 

«">itus „,u..i,,„ ,,v pms p,a„„„, 

4. Comparison by ' Magis ' and ' Maxime ' 

'"*»'^' """'^' "•"' maxjme. moat. 

du"r Z^'fr' -ximeidoneu. 

maps dubm. mi^j^g j„y^^ 

5- Senex, oW maw, arnl I'uvenic i,„„„.. 
adjectives, are c„„,,a.e,i .s fc 1 "^ " ""' """ '" 



senex 
'uvenis 



sftlior, older 
junior, voungcr 



maximus natu 



/=grcau-st hy liiith 
( = oldest 



minimuinitu | '"'"' ''>' ''i'-tl 



( = youngest 



EXERCISE 
A 



"'^SZ^'''''''""""- """-■" -^--■n^ animiUiu. 

s' F^r.^ f»?«fre, opus facillimum; opera difficiUima. 
3. FJ,, MniUlim.; filae dissimillimae ; puelUe eracmdri 

'■ ^Ss.--^'^^ "- -^^'-^ "^^P"-- - n^bus ,ua. 

7. By^the^best poet. , .gainst tl.e largest t.,«.„s ; i„to the s... . 

8. Through very ...any r.ver.s ; larger forces; with larger forces. 



I: I 



92 



niltKliL'I.AIl riiMI'AlllHON 



; I I 






l^i 



B 

1. Puer puelUt linior est. Omnium puer&rum optimui «t 

2. Mores Gallorum et Cermanorum disiimillimi sunt. 
■'( Itinera militum nostrdrum difBcillima fuerunt. 

4. Pueri non sunt semper meliores patribus. Puer un5 annS 

senior fratre fuit. 
■'i. Puer minor est suo fratre. Filius multis annis junior fllia est. 
I). Copias quam maximas in Gallia comparavit. Stellas pliirimas 

viderunt. 
T. Oppida maxima '~allorum delerit. In loco max'ne idoneo 

equites locaban: 

c 

1. The soil w.-is iK-t'ti-r tliaii .lie futliiT. itfy liunks ,iiv hctti'i- tli.ui 

yours. 

2. Was not the march easier <ii)i<>ii|; the hills? Tlu' iiiurchus uill 

be easier. 

3. Gold is heavier than silver. The rose i« tlie iiioHt heautifii! <>f 

ali flowers. 

4. The feet of ihe girl are very small, \\i\x not the slave rieher 

than the master. 
6. The richest men are not tilwajs the happiest. 
6. He WHS the worst of all 'I'lii'y hitb the lii'st of all the 

citizens. 
7 The judge is te. years older than the orator. 

8. With as large f<)rces of cavalry and infai.try as possible they 

hastened to the camp of the enemy. 

9. The largest i)oys ,ire not always tin? best. 



LESSON XXXVIII 
IRRKaULAR CO:mPARISON (Continued) 



I^ Positive Cohpak.\tive 

extents outivard extirior outer 



inferus below 



SUPEKLATIVP; 

extremus outermost, last 
inTSrior lower "nfimusl j^^^^^^ 

imus J 



superior l.iL'her supremusj highest 
■^ * summus J 



superus above 

posterns Ijehind posterior Inttrr postremus latest, last 



liMiRiiir.AK roMi'AHisov 93 

nf the aliovf till. [«>silivi> fi)rins .in- i-.in- ariil liiiM- •.|KHijil 
iiit'itiiiiigs. 

nitione* exterae fon-ivi] ii;iii 

inferi tli" ^ihIh IhImu 

supcfl tliv gixls aUtvu 

posterus annus ilii' folloHin); yrar 

posteri .lixmhlunts 

Note well the ffillowinji :— 

summus mons tin* tuptif tlif iimuiitiiin 
mons imus lliu fiKii of iln' iiiminiaiii. 

2. Some C()in|>iiiiitivcs tiiid SujM!iI;itivrs Iihm. no nirifs- 
l>oMiliiig Positivf. 

citirior hitliir citimus IiiiIhimhisI 

intirior inmi- intimus irmi'i must 

pfor fmiiii'i primus Hist 

prSpior nciii ei- proximus iifxt, lu'iiiest 

ulttrior fartlifi- ultimus furthest, Iiwt 

N^ i; - 

Gallia citirior = Hillui- Caul 
Gallia ultirior = Kaithtr (iaul 

3. Examine:— 

utilis civitati iisofii! ii> tlic statu 
proelid idoneus suit al>li' fur h liatth- 
. simiiis patri like (to) tliu fathii- 

Adjectives fi)!lowed in Knglish l)y fc or /;„• .ire usually 
followed by a Dative in Jjvtiii. 

4. Examine:— 

avidns laudis fmid nf praii'e 
plenus militum full nf soldiers 

Adjectives followed in English by o/"are usually followed in 
Latin by the Genitive. 



94 



VOCAUUI.ARY 






m 



It II I 



;i 



I Eli' 



S Adjectives that take the Ablative 

Examine :— 



Puer est praemid dignus. 
Vir est contentus vita. 
Puella est praedita ingSnio. 
Mnites sunt virtute freti. 



The liny is worthy iif a Jewaril. 
The man is lontenteil with lifo. 
The girl is enduwecl witli ability. 
Tile soldiers are lelyini,' on their 

valor. 
\\'i' all are irce from fear. 



Omnes timore liberi sumus. 

The following iuljectives are followed by the Ah/athv : 

dignus worthy indignus unworthy contentus eontented 

praeditus endowed (with) fretus relying on liber free (from) 

Rules of Syntax 

6, anno decimo in the tenth 



year 
in summer 



f- 



nocte in the night 

supSriore aestate in the previous 
aestate in summer summer 

'Point of Time 'or 'Time When' is cxpres' d hy the 
Ablative without a preposition. 

7- Decern boras pugnaverunt. They fought for ten hours. 

Multos annos in urbe mansit. He remained many years in the 

eity. 

'Duration of Time' is expressed by the Accusative 
without a prept)sition. 

Vocabulary 

hora, ae 
vigilia, ae 
nihil (indeelinabl 

neuter) 
inginium, i 
honor, oris 
timor, oris 
culpa, ae 



The cardinal and ordinal numerals required for this exercise will Iw 
found in Lesson XLII 



hour 




laus, laudis 


praise 


watch 




Alpes, ium (K.) 


Alps 


' 




amicus, a, um 


friendly 


nothing 




inimicus, a, um 


unfriendly, 


ability 






hostile 


honor 




avidus, a, um 


greedy, fond 


fear 




superior 


higher 


blame, fault 


prior 


former 


prima liiz - 


tirst light = daybreak 




sol oriens = 


risi 


ig sun sunrise 





EXRRCISIj 



95 



EXERCISE 



1. Ad summum montem; in summo monte ; in summis Alpibus. 
;■ , JT" "^"^ '• "^ '=°"*"' '■"•"" : « '<«=o superiore. 
7 V!,*^ '"-°""°"" 'dGalliamulteriorem; ad urbem proximam. 
4. Ad mfenorem partem insuJae; in loco castris maxime idoneo. 

"' ditas °'°"' ^'"'°" '"'"*^'' "^"''° '"'«"° P™- 

6. Sua Tirtute fretus ; timore liber ; omni culpa liberi 
TmB Wnis':- 

7. posters anno : hora quarta ; tertia vigilia ; priore anno. 
»■ pruna luce ; sole oriente. 



8. 

9. 

10. 



B 

1. Graoci urbem Trojam decern annos oppugnaverunt. 
•-. Nostri cum hostibus quatuor horas fortiter pugnaverunt. 
3. MultM amios m urbe mansit. Collis ab hostibus decern horas 
tenetur. 

*■ Reges Gallorum pacem cum proximis civitatibus confirma- 

verunt. 
3. In summo monte Romani pedites locaverunt. 
6. Itinera per citeriorem Galliam fnerunt difficill.ma 

Anno decu.10 urbs Troja a Graecis dfleta est. 

Urbes turn trant plenae hominum clarorum. 

Locus magis idoneus castris quam urbi est 

Populus Romanus avidissimus belli erat. 



1. Oil the tops of the mountains ; to the foot of thi^ trues 

2. In the tops of the trees ; on the top of the hill 

3. Into hither Gaul; in farther (imil; into the farthest province 

4. In the first year ; at the fourth watch, 

."). In the previous winter ; at .layl.reak ; at sunrise. 

«. The Roman len.der was very friendly to the (Janis 

7- Th« Romans were n.oro friendly to the Greeks than to others. 

«. ihe place was more suital.le for a temple than for a camp 



96 



READING LESSON — AUVKUIIS 



9. The Romans seized a town full of com. 

10. The hill was very suitable for a camp. 

11. Was Mot the last king very like his brother? 

12. Th«! Gauls were next to the fiermans. 

13. He was very fond of the praise of the citizens. 

14. Was not the boy very unlike his father ? 

15. The cavalry hastened to the nearest city. 

READINO LESSON 
Britain 

Britannia est maxima insula Europae, et major est quam Hibemia. 
Britannia et Hibemia sunt insulae Britannicae. Incolae insularum 
sunt milites fortissimi et nautae audacissimi. Multa proelia in 
omnibus partibus orbis terrarum pugfnaverunt Britanni. Niilla 
civitas aut plures naves aut milites fortiores habet. In omnibus 
maribus naves Britannorum spectantur. Itaque Britannia a poeta 
appellatur gemma Oce&ni. 



li ; 



Europa, ae 
Hibemia, ae 
Britannicus, a, um 


Vocabulary 

Kuroiw incola, ae 
Irelatui itaque 
British gemma, ae 


inliabitiLiit 

and no, aceunljngly 

gem 




LESSON XXXIX 
ADVKKBS 





I. In Latin, as in English, most adverbs are formed from 
adjectives. 

I'Vom (uijectives of the First and Second Declensions, adverbs 
arc usually formnd by adding -6 to the base. 

altus deep alt e deeply 

aeger sick, ill aegr e sciir.ely. niih ilifficnlty 



liber 



sick, ill 
free 



liber e 



fiv,-l\ 



ADVKHHS 



97 



ns hy adding -er to the base. 
"cer sharp, fierce Jcr iter fi 

leiix prosperous fair ;*„ 

sapiens uise , '*" -'"es^fully 

sapient er wisely 
Butaudax.bol,MaHn«.,,.s„™j„,,„,,^,„ 

3- Some adverbs .ire in fn,.,„ fi 
accusative singular of e ad^elL ""'^ ^^ ""^ "^"""• 

4. The following are forn„,,l irre«nlarlv :- 
l>ene well, h„m bonus i«r„.- 

"onus parum „„, ijitle, fr,„„ 

male ludlv in t parvus 

m^lus ' '"'" '"'^^"'•P-' «.-t^v,. magna 

S. The following bav eorre.,, Ji,„ a^tL •_ 

a'" I-INK (of ti„„.) ■ 

saepe often «*rrely 

semper .ilwavs 



Comparison of Adverbs 



O. Ihe Comparative of an adverb i« fl„ 

to -e. " "".jecti\e In- clianging -us 

■"""s altissime 

fegnus aegerrime 

«=""* acerrime 

^'""s fortissime 

feicius faicissime 

celerius celerrime 

facilms facillime 



alte 

»egre 

acriter 

fortiter 

feliciter 

celeriter 

facile 



98 



EXEKOISB 



7. The irregularly formed adverbs are (.-ompared thus: 

bene melius optime 

niale pejus pessime 

tnagropere magis maxime 

parum minus minime 

multum plus plurime or plurimum 

diu diutius diutissime 

saepe saepi<|s aaepissime 



So also 



m 



II il 



Ml 



f! 



•1I 



EXERCISE 

A 

1. Form adverbs from the foUcnving adjectives: 

•2. Compare the adverbs llius fm iiie<l :— 

long^us, latus, carus; brevis, gravis; atrox, ferox, velox ; 

priidens, diligens. 

3. Roman! multos annos contra Karthaginlenses' fortiter pug- 

naverunt. 

4. Galli pedites Romanos audacter oppugnaverunt 

a. Longe lateque agri sunt vastati. Saepissime castra sunt 

oppugnata. 
6. Aestate consules legidnes celeriter comparabunt. 

Una legio ab duce Romano celerrime comparatur. 

Virtus militum a Caesare maxime laudatur. 

Italia, nostra patria, ab omnibus civibus carissime amatur. 

Galli magnas equitum et peditum copias celerrime comparant. 

Timor maximus omnes milites saepissime occupavit. 

Hora quarta Caesar omnia arma ad oppidum celerius portaHt 

13. Reliquas^ legiones pro castrorum portis hodie^ locavit. 

14. Imperator telis hostium gravissime vulneratus est. 

B 

Far and wide ; more freely ; very fiercely ; more bravely. 
Very successfully ; niore wisely ; very lii>Mly ; too often. 
T(«i lolly ; very loui; ; more boldly ; too iiuicklv. 
As (|uickly as possible ; us wisely iis possible ; ns loiiy ns 
possible. 

' KarthAginlensis, la. > Cvthaginian. ' rellquuB, a, um, rest ot, 
reniainiiiir. ■ liodie, to-day. 



S. 

!l. 
10. 
II. 
1-2. 



1. 

2. 

:t. 
4. 



FOURTH UEfLENSION 99 

5. The Romans aie often defeated in war 

«. Ten legion, are quickly collected by the general against the 
enemy. 

7. The soldiers fought very bravely for four hours 

9. The general praised greatly the valor of the soldiers 
10. Many were very severely wounded. They remained too long 
U. They rephed very briefly but (.«rf) very boldly. 
12. Ten towns were very quickly destroyed. 



LESSON XL 
FOURTH DECLENSION 
I. Nominative endings are -uS and -Q, 
Genitive-ending -Qs. 

* Gender 

Nouns in -US are Masculine. 
Nouns in -Q are Neuter, 

3. Frnctu,. fructus (M.) fruit So.., fruct- 

Comu, comas (N.) horn, wing 'of army) ?.,,, com- 



NoM. 

I!en. 

I).*T. 

Ace. 
Voc. 
Abi.. 



SlNGULAU 

fruct us 
fruct us 
fruct ui 
fruct um 
fruct us 
fruct u 



Plcrai. 
fruct lis 
fruct uum 
fruct ibus 
fruct us 
fruct us 
fruct ibus 



i^INfillLAK 

corn ii 
corn iis 
corn u 
corti ij 
corn u 
corn u 



Plural 
corn ua 
corn uum 
o.rn ibus 
corn ua 
corn UA 
corn ibus 



4. Exceptions in Gender 

The following nouns in -us are Feminine :_ 
domus, hou»c: manus, hnnd, band (of «„ldier«); idus, fduum, pi., Me 



100 



VOCABULARY — KXERCISE 



5. Peculiarities of Declension 

domuSi houKf, is declined according; to the Fourtli IhiclenMi^iti, nut 
it has also the following forms of the Second : — 
domi (IxK-'ative) = at home domum = home, honu-wards 
domo = f rom home domos ^homewards. t<» (their) liomes 



6. There are only 


four 


Neil 


Lcr 


Nouns of tlip Fourth 


Declension ; — 










cornu liui'ii 




pecu 


her 


1. lallie 


genu knee 




verii 


spit (for roasting meat) 




Vocabulary 




arcus 


us 


(M.) 




l»ow 


cantus 


us 


(M.) 




song, singing 


conspectus 


us 


(M.) 




sight, view 


currus 


us 


(M;) 




ihariot 


exercitus 


us 


(M.) 




army 


equitatus 


us 


(M.) 




c-avahy (colleelively) 


fluctus 


us 


(M.) 




wave 


IflSlIS 


us 


(M.) 




sjxtrt, play 


peditatus 


us 


(M.) 




infantry (colieetively) 


portus 


us 


(M.) 




hiulior, port 


senatus 


us 


(M.) 




senate 


passus 


us 


(M.) 




pace 




EXERCISE 




Decline tosethei: exercitus magnus 


; currus celer: dextrum 






cornu. 

Write out the 1st sing, of eaeli tense of ab sum, / utii. dUtant. 



1. Contra dextrum cornu exercitus nostri; in conspectii diicis 

vestri. 
'2. Magno cum exercitii ; cum peditatu equitatuque : ex superiore 

portii. 

3. In portum ; in conspectum : in fluctibus maris ; a senatii. 

4. By the cavalry ; hy the infantry ; hy the army ; by the waves. 
6. At home ; from home. They hastened home. He walked home. 

6. Against the left wing of the enemy's army ; into the chariots. 

7, Tn the senate: into the harbor: coiiourninL.' the army of Caesfir, 



FIFTH DEi'l.KNSION 

B 



101 



1. Domus mea est major quam tua. Pueri arciis longos habebant. 
"■ puenaruT""" ""' """ """'""■ <^"«'«"'""^ "t «ntus 

■'• %ted£"r'" "■" '""''-'"'■ ^'^ -^-'^ '"^»- 

4. In conspectu Caesaris milites fortissime pugnabant 

■>. Oppidum equitatu peditatuque circumdederant. 

b. Propter fluctus maximos nauUe erant magnopere perterriti. 

-. Sonatus populi Romani virtutem exercitus laudat 



1. My h„„- is longer than y,,,,,.. V„„r l„„.s,, is l,i,„K,r than nnne. 

2. \ ery many ships were in the .loep liarl.„r 

■■i. He gave a large pa.-r „f the arn.y t„ his lie.itenant. 

4. The b,.w.s „f the Romans ivere shorter than ours 

». The general often praise,! the cavalry of the Ron.an arn.y 

»■ "'« wate gave many rewards to the soldiers 

7. The eonsul posted all the cavalry on the right win.- 

8. The helds were laid waste in sight of the Uon.an army. 



LESSOX XLI 
FIFni DKCLKXSION 

1. Nimiin.-itivc-eniiin" is -es. 
(ieiiitive-cnding -ei, 

2. Res, rei (K) thing, alfair 
Dies, diei (M. or F. ) day 



\oM. 

<iKN. 

Dat. 
At-c. 

\-(H'. 
All!,, 



SlNuri.AK 

re s 
re I 
re i 
re m 
re s 
re 



I'f.ikai. 
le s 
re rum 

re bus 

re s 



re 



lidsp, re 
/iiiMfi, die 



bus 



•■^INOri.AK 
file S 
.lie i 
die i 
die m 
diO s 

die 



I'l.ntii. 

die S 

die rum 
die bus 
die- s 

die s 

die bus 



'} 



102 FIFTH DKCi-KNSlON 

Note: 

ill iliu liniitivo Singular onfiiiiji -ei, the e is short if preceded by o 
consonant, as rei ; the e is Ion-; if |it-i-c(-iI'->I Ii_\ a vowel, aw di^ 

3. Gender 

All nouns of the Fifth Declension are Feminine except dies 
(usudlly M.), and meridiSS, mid-day (always M.). 

Dies is sometimes Feininine in '-he Sinijular only, when it 
refers to a fixed «v set day 



planities, planitiei |ilain 
spes, spei ho|iL' 

species, speciet uppearancr 



4, Decline as alxive ; — 

acies. aciei line of liatlle 

fides, fidei faitli, loyally^ 

pernicies, perniciei ruin. Iiaini 

Note : - 

Onlj res and dies aic lieclinpil in full in the Plural. 

Acies. spes ami species have Ndni. ami Ave. only, in the Plural. 

Others* laek the plural allogetlier. 

5. Tn res publica (K. ), mmnionwealth, sfn/e, both parts 
are inflected. 





SINCI'LAK 


Pl.UKAI. 


Xo-\i. 


res publica 


res publicae 


(!kn. 


rei publicae 


rerum publicarum 


Dat. 


rei publicae 


rebus publicis 


.^ci;. 


rem publicam 


res publicas 


Voc. 


res publica 


res publicae 


.\iii.. 


re publica 


rebus publicis 


6. Note 


also : — 





res frumentaria (^^ing. ) 
res adversae (pi.) 
res secundae (pi.) 
res novae n>\.) 



cttcti supply 

adversity, defeat 

prospt'rity, success 

iit'W tliiiiys. (jliaiigt!, tf\o!uliini 



KXERCISK 



103 



EXERCISE 



. T.n^W1u.n. postert die; hora diei quarta; proximo ,n.,6. 
-. l>,u:„,uuof r,m,: plurimos dies; totum diem; multos dies 
.). In acie; m planitiem ; spe victoriae; ob speciem navium 

4. Jn rebus adversis ; cupidus rerum novarum ; de re publica. 

5. The best thing., ; the easiest things ; the ruin ..f the rennbiic 
0. On the next day ; for few days ; at niid-.hiy. 

7. Against the >ei)iiblic ; into battle-line ; across the plain 
». Relying on hope ; terrified by the appearance of the shij.s. 

B 

'■ ""??■ *"" 'P" maitum. In rebus adversis este fortes 
■i Milites fide imperatoris freti erant. 

3. Mercatores omnem rem Romanis nuntiaverunt 

4. Magna erat spes victoriae in animis mnitum. 
i!. Res multae sunt viris facUes, difficiles pueris. 

6. Sapientes' rebus adversis non moventur. 

7. Galli rerum novarum avidissimi semper erant. 

8. Rem friimentariam comparabunt. Multos dies oppidum oppue- 

natum erat. '^'^^' 



1. The hopes of tlie sailors were very ijreat. Th.y will fi^rl,, f„r 

the state. 
1'. Be biave. O boy, in adversity ; be content in pn.speiiiv 
•i. The be.st things are not aUvay.^ the most useiiil, 
4. At mid-day the camp was taken by .storm, 
o. The allies will provide a corn supply. 

<i. On account of scarcity of all things the arn.v was not hastenin.. 
.. Iheycdledthesnn of the general, the ho,,.. ..f the ,.omin..n- 

wealth. 

H^ The leader, relying on ,l,e loyalty „f the .soldiers, seize.l the 
camp of the enemy. 



' Sapientes riir mn 



I'fiiil- "'ten omitled lui in En)!li!.li. 



104 UKAlilNIl I.KSSON— vnoAHULAKV 

KKAIilNC LKSSON 
Hannibal ami Scniio 

Hannibal erat imperator maximus et Romanis inimicissimus. 
Puer cum patre suo in Hispania erat. Post patris mortem cum 
exerritu niagnd trans Alpes in Italiam properavit. Copias Romanis 
primum ad Ticinum superavit. Romanorum Scipio erat dux et in 
proelio vulneratus est sed a filio suo e periculo seriratus est. Cum 
sex imperatoribus Romanis in Italia Hannibal bellavit. In omnibus 
proeliis Romani in fugam sunt dati. Tandem ex Italia in Africam 
Hannibal demigravit. Ad Zamam a Scipione, qui patrem upud 
Ticinum servaverat, est superatus. Ob victoriam Scipio a populo 
Romano Africanus est appellatus. 

Vocabulary 



puer 


as a lioy {A|)|KHi- 


tandem 


at IciiHtli 




tioii) 


Africa, ae 


.\fiica 


Hispania. ae 


Spain 


demigro, are 


lU'lKifl from 


Alpes, ium ( F. | 


.1.) AlpK 


Zama, ae 


Zaiiii (.1 tiiwn) 


Ticinus, i 


Ticinus (a river) 


apud(prcp. ac c. 


)at 


Scipio. onis 


Scipio 


Africanus. i 


.\fri<aiius 


bello, are 


wau'c \var 













VIMiliAr.S 



10.-. 



LKSSON XLII 
M \IKI!Ar,.s 

I. Numerals arc il;issitii.|| a. tu||,,ws ; 

I. Numeral Adjective-. 

(ii) Cardinal X ; is, unus i- : duo, two 

(!•) Ordinal.' : ;is, primus, first ; secundus. <.-.-(ui.i. 

(c) DiMrihnlir..,; a-, singuli, ..,„. I,y ,,.„■ ; bini. 1 »(, liv t «o. 

TI. Numeral A(i\erl)N. 

iis, semel c : bis, l«i,f. 

2. It will )«. sutKcieiit f.ir the present, ti. learn tlie 
folloxvini; : — 



*^'Al:iiI\At.S 

1. unus, a. um 

2. duo. duae, duo 

3. tres, tria 

4. quattuor 

5. quinque 

6. sex 

7. septem 
.s. octo 

'^■ novem 

III- decein 

1 1 ■ iindecim 

1 '2. duodecim 

211. viginti 

SO. triginta 

ItXi. centum 

-"(HI. ducenti, ae. a 

I mille 

■i<*** duo millii. 

.•«KKi. tria millia 



<lKI>INAr.s 

primus, a, um 

secundus. a. um im- alter) 

tertius 

quartus 

quintus 

sextus 

Septimus 

octavus 

nonus 

decimus 

undecimus 

duodecimus 

vicesimus 
tricesimus 

centesimus 
ducentesimus 

millesimus 



106 
3^ 



NUMEKALM 

Declension of Cardinals 



Cardinals are inileclinablp except 

1. unus, duo itiiil tres; 

2. TliB luiiidreil.t Iwgimiing with ducenti, ae, a (like the plural of 

bonus; 

3. The plural of mille. 

4. For declension of vlnus see Lesson XXI. 

5. Duo and tffiS are declined as follows:— 

Masc. Fem. Neut. MAsr. and Fem. Nkut. 

^^■^^"•^ , *• ^ 

duo tres tria 

, duonun trium trium 

duobus ttibus tribus 

duo tres tria 

duobus tribus tribus 



NoH. 
Gin. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



duo duae 

duonun duarum 

duobus duabus 

duos (duo) duas 

duobus duabus 



6. Mille in the singular is indeclinable; in the plural it 
is declined as a neuter noun. 



NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 



millia 

miUium 

millibus 



Act-. 
Abi.. 

Syntax of Mille 



millia 
millibus 



Mille in the singular is an indeclinable adjective, as : 

mille homines a thousand men 
mille hominum of a thousand men 
mille hominibus to a thousand men 

Mille in the plural is a noun, as : — 

J .,,. . . ftwo tliousands of men 

duo millia hommum \ ^, , 

I. two tnousanu men 

cum tribus millibus equitum with three thousand cavalry 

8. Declension of Ordinals 

Ordinals, prlmus, a, Um, etc., are declined like bonus, 
a, um. 



KXEKC'ISK 



107 



Extent of Space 



9. 
Examine : 

Arbor est decern pedes alta. Tl„. ,„.. i, ,..„ „.,., i,, ,,, 



nihil operis mi work 



'<l^c..,n p.,lf.- expresses Ji^-t^at „/ S,^,: and i^iu the 

Rule of Syntax :— 

'ExUnl o/Sp.t,,- i« ex,,ras.se<l l.y th,- Acr„s„tu:. 

10. Partitive Genitive o. Genitive of tl... Whole 

Examine :— 
•Iter consulum „.,». of the (t wo) m„sul« 
multum temporis lomli (of) time 

One of the sol.liers - ^"°"* ''^ niilitibus or 
^ ., ("""S militum fl'artUive (;,.„itive) 

One ,„„e o. a „,i,e = ™i„e passiis^ .„„, ,„,,,.. .s.,.. ^,t 7) 

Two ,n,le. =duo miUi. pissuum = two tho,...n,l p,.e.. (See Art 7, 
passuum is ,. I',„r,tin ^■, „;„•,, "' " 

EXERCISE 
A 

Hmv ,lo y„„ expresH,!) T.unui f ,i„„., ,,, Measure of „«,,„„,.' 

1. Un, legio; prima legio: duarum legionum ; tertiae leeionis 
- '^"e'^rr'" •"""^""^^ '=""' ""^"^ P*<«"'>-= cum sexSus 
a Duos arnios; duas boras ; tres menses; duo millia oednm 
4. Per „.em duas ped^ altam ; trans mont^ °t^'!:r„rp^l„„ 

r' •^,'.T/''y- "f'-o^'ies; of the fourth legion; of two cohorts 
... ^^ .th two thous«„d infantry and three thousand oavalrv 
- . A dart four feet long ; in .n,nv three feet deep ; ten n.iles 
"Hlon,::" '""«= " '^"" '"- f-' >"="•>-'«., two"ired 



108 



THIlll) <'<)NJI'aATIOM 



■in 



B 

Arbor est viginti pedes alta. Rex in urbe annos decern regnavit'. 
Miles multa millia passuum ambulavit. Milites duarum leg-ionum 

convocavit. 
Oppidum decern millia passuum ab urbe abest. Vir sex pedes 

altus est. 
Milites oppidum sex menses oppugnaverunt. 
Castra duo millia passuum a flumine aberant. 
Mensa est sex pedes longa et quattuor pedes lata. 
Rex primus inter Romanes erat Romulus, secundus Numa. 
Romulus septem et triginta annos regnavit 



■I 

is ' 



I. The house is tliiny fuet l.m^r .uid twenty wide. 

-'. H.iw niany miles did the In.y Hulk ? He will have wiilkeil three 

miles, 
■i. Oui city in seven miles (list.iiit from the niountaiii. 

4. The miiimtfiin is one mile liij^'li nnd ten miles long. 

5. The ^'eiieriil renwiiiied in ihe eity for foui- montlus. 
fi. The enemy had foiiyhr mo.st fiereely for three hours. 
7. The father is three years older than the mother. 

X. T he tre e is twenty feet higher than the tower. 
' reffno. -are, rfign. ~ ~ 



LESSOX XLIII 

Tiinti) coN.TU(i.vrrox 

Indicative and Imperative Active 

1. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs wliose present 
iiiKnitive end.s in -6re, as : 

reg 6 reg Sre ruli> 

2. The Principal Parts of reg6 are 
reg 6 I'rus. Indie.) 

reg ere I'res. Infiii. / "''<>«'"« the Presml Stem rege- 

rex i Perf. Indie. sliowinj; the Prrfed Sinn rex- 

r ect um Supine' show iim' the SM/ii,i» .V/^,,, rect- 

■ See pane 3K, Footnote. 



Trill:|) CON.ICiiATIOX 

3. The Iiidiualiv.- I'lii.scs ant 



109 



Imi'krkect 

H'l'TUKK 

Perfect 

I't.rPEKFECT 



reg o 
rege ba m 
reg am 
rex i 
rex eram 



Fi-TUKE Perfect rex ero 



I for.- ■;■ ;,v,n, P,"fect ,S 
I i'^m- Lpssoii XVII) 



■Stem rex- 



^ Indicative 

Present 

™^ ."^ reg imus 

"8 !* reg itis 

■^e^ " reg unt 

Imperfect 

rege bam -bas -haf k- 

-oat -bamus -batis -bant 

Future 

■■58 !■" reg emus 

"« " reg etis 

™8 " reg ent 

Perfect 

"* ' ■'^" "" f'* ■■""'s -istis -erunt .., .§„ 

Pluperfect 

rex eram -eras -erat rex eramus -eratis -erant 

Future Perfect 

rex ero -eris -.rif 

ens <rit rex erimus -eritis -erint 

^" Imperative 

i'KKSKNT 
I'l'TClIK 



2. Siiij;. reg ito 

3. Siiij;. reg ito 



■-'. I'l. reg itote 
3- I'l. reg unto 



no 



yi'KSTIONS — EXKKCIrtE 



Principal Parts 



T ' 



j;'i 






There is little regularity i 
parts of verljs of the third c 
learned indepeiideutly 

dico 

duco 

traho 

vivo 

carpo 

scribo 

mitto 

cUudo 

pono 

aid 

scando 

pello 

cado 

vinco 



M the fonnatioii of the principal 
■oi>juj;atiun. Kaeh verb must Ije 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



dixi 

duxi 

traxi 

vixi 

carpsi 

scrips! 

misi 

clausi 

posui 

alui 

scandi 

pepuli 

cecidi 

vici 



dictum 

ductum 

tractum 

victum 

carptum 

scriptum 

missum 

clausum 

positum 

altum 

scansum 

pulsum 

casum 

victum 



say, tell 

leail 

draw 

live 

phick 

write 

seiiil 

shut 

[ilaee, pitcli (canip) 

rear, iiourJHli 

I'liinh 

<h-ive, rout 

fall 

lonquer, ilcfoat 



Questions 



(I) I'liipf. Indii;. Act., 



1. State the rule for tlie fonnatiiiii of th,. 

(2) Fut. Pf. Indie. Act. 

2. Give the translations of (1) vivebam, {■>) scripsi, |3) dico 

3. What IS the perf. stem of pond, mitto, pello 

4. (Jive the Ist .sing, plupf. ,.nd fnt. ,.f. „f pond, mitto. pello. 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. Reg«, regis; regit, reget; regunt, regent; regitis, regetis. 

2. Aaiabat, monebat, regebat ; amabit, monebit. reget 

3. Rexerunt (2). rexerant, rexerint ; rege, regite 

4. Misit, miserit ; scribit, scribet : cadunt, ceciderunt. 

5. We rule, we .shall rule : rule : you shall rule ; he rules 
B. They sent, they had sent, they will have sent 

sending. 

7. He useit to write. They used to live. Are they driving , 

8. Who wrote ? r»id he n„t write ! Wheiv d 



we were 



camp I 



Jiitch the 



THIKD r(V lL'(iATI(IN 



111 



B 



1. Puer multos annos in urbe vixit. Quot annos domi mansit? 
■2. Imperator exercitum maximum diicet. Ad matrem meam 

epistolas mittam. 
.'i Flores multos in horto carpsimus. Portam, puer, claude. 
4, Portas castrorum nocte clausit. In summo monte castra posuit. 
•-.. Montem altum mu'to cum labore standi. Hostes ex oppido 

pepulimus. 
II Exercitum magnum in Galliam citeriorem diixit. 
7. Multi in proelio ceciderunt. Naves hieme in litus trahebant. 



I . \V« .sent auxiliaries across th.^ livor. The allies will send ships. 
•-'. We ilrew a large liail nf cum td tlio ships. 

:i. He will live ten years at hon.e. How Inni; .Ud he live in Uaul ! 

4. Oar men drove the enemy into the river. 

.->. Why did you not write ? I was living in the city at that time. 

II. The barbarians sent a large army into our territory. 

7. Many brave men have fallen. Th..y had sent hostages. 



F^ESSOX XLIV 

THTRM 0ONJ|i(;..\TI()N 

Indicative and Imperative Passive 

Indicative 



I'kesknt 
Imjkkkkit 

I'lTIIRK 

I'ekfkct 

I'Ll-PERFECT 

riTITU. 1'i:i:kfit 



regjor 

regebar 
regar 

rectus (a, urn) sum 

rectus (a. um) eram 
rectus (a. um) ero 



I am ruled, I am being 
fided 

I was lU-ing) ruled 

1 shall be ruliul 
( I have been ruled 
1 1 was ruled 

I had been ruled 

1 •^hnll Uiwi- been rulp'l 



112 



THIRD CONJUGATION 

Present 



I'HRAI. 

reg imur 
reg imini 
reg untur 



reg ebamur 
reg ebamini 
reg ebantur 

reg emur 
reg emini 
reg entur 



sunt 



Singular 
I. reg or 
'_*. reg eris (-ere) 
3. reg itur 

Imperfect 

1. reg ebar 

2. reg ebaris (-re) 

3. reg ebatur 

Future 

1. reg ar 

■2. reg eris (-ere) 

3. reg etur 

Perfect 

rectus sum es est recti sumus estis 

Pluperfect 

rectus eram eras erat recti eramus eratis erant 

Future Perfect 

rectus ero eris erit recti erimus eritis erunt 

2. Imperative 

Pkksknt 

I'l.l'KAI. 

•■2. reg imini lie ye ruled 

I'VTVHK 

'.'. reg itor tlmu ah.ilt l;o nileil 

3. reg itor he ahall be rule.l 3. reg untor Uiey shillhe niliil 

3- Principal Parts 



SiNliULAB 

2. reg ere Iw tliou ruled 



ago 3 egi actum 

1-6 go 3 CO egi co actum 
con do 3 con didi con ditum 



drive, do 

(diive t(igulluM) .iilk-ii, force 

found 



So ab do, ooiicual; de do, give up, nuneiidur ; ^.o do, Ijelray ; 
red do, rptiini ; tra do, hand over, Murreudcr. 
cedo 3 cessi cessum i;o, withdraw, viehl 



I'HIHD COX.HTiiATlOV 



113 



J'c^l'^°' f\T-'' '^"'^"''' '■ ^" '^°' «" "P""- «-'""'•. 'Impart ; 
ex cedo.f-o out of, depart; pro cedo. go forward, advance.. 



fundo 
gero 
frango 
premo 
peto 
verto 
cognosco .3 
relinquo :< 

creo I 

habed -2 
lego ;( 



fudi fusum ,„,„r, ,.o„i 

ressi gestum wa^e, ..arry „„ (war), .lo 

fregi fractum l„-,.ak, sliattcT- 

press! pressum press, press lianl 

petivi petitum », ek, ask for 

verti versum turn 

cognovi cognitum learn, ascertain 

re liqul re lictum leave l».hin.l, leave 

creavl creatum njaki, ele. i 

habui habitum have. Iml.I, re-anl 

legi lectum eh.K.s,. 



Predicate Accusative 



4. Examine: 



Milites imperatorem Scipionem 

„'f«^'™"*- ^ The .soMier., chose Seipio.-eneral. 

Pater puerum Caesarem appel- 

O '*;''■ . ^ The fa. her ealle,!, he l,„y Caesar, 

o^ _ p... ,.,,. -:-::::;;—'— 

Rule :— 

Verbs „f makln;,, rhn„4n;,, eaJI!,,.,, r,,jar,r„„, ,„„y i„ ,1„. 
aotn-e take two a.cusatives ; one, the Direct Object, the other 
the Predicate Accumtin: ' 

5- Predicate Nominative 

Examine :— 

Brutus consul a populo Romano creatus est. 
Scipio imperator a militibus lectus est. 
Puer Caesar a patre appellatus est. 
Vir pater patriae ab omnibus !. bitus est. 



1 L', 



114 BXKRCi8B 

Rule :— 

These same verbs in the passive take two nominatives ; the 
Si^jecl Nominative and tlie Predicate Nominative. 

6. Questions:— 

What part of the verb is rectus 1 How is it obtained ? 
What is the Latin for (hamng been) led, written, sent, shut, 
jritc/ied, driven, drawn, plucked, said. 

EXERCISE 



1. Obsides mittuntur. Nimtii mittentur. Epistolae missae sunt. 

2. Castra posuit. Castra pqnentur. Castra posuerant. Castra 

posita eran*, 
S. Hostes pepulit Hostes puis: sunt. Barbari pellentur. 

4. Urbem condidit. Urbs condita est. Urbes conditae erunt. 

5. C5piae equitum cogentur. Peditatus cogitur. Copiae coactae 

sunt. 

6. Urbem dedit. Impedimenta dedet. Obsides traditi sunt. 

7. Impedimenta relinquunt. Naves relinquentur. Senes relicti 

erant. 
s. In silvas discessenint. Ex urbe excessit. Socii facile sunt 

fusL 
9. Cur bellum gerebatur? Multa bella gesta enint. Multae res 

sunt gestae. 

10. Vtginti naves fractae sunt. Nostri ab hostibus premebantur. 

11. Pacem ab Romanis petiveront. Per legates pax petita est. 



He is sent. You were being sent. They were sent. You will be 

sent. 
In the following year war was waged hy the l<lng. 
A long war will be waged. Two cnnsul» were chosen. 
Two letters were sent bv the lioy. Cicero was ehosen consul. 
Many towns were founded hy the Romans in Gaul. 
The camp will be pitclied on tlie top of tiie hill. 
You were chosen general by the soldiers. Our men will be hard 

pressed. 
Was not the matter told to your father ? The m.ittor will be told. 
He IpbhioiI the matter from scouts. The children were abandoned. 



READING LESSON — VOCABULARY 



11.- 



READINO LESSON 
Regulus 

Romani bellum cum Kirthaginiensibus annos novem infeliciter 
gesserant Turn Regulus et Manlius consules magna cum classe 
ad Afncam missi sunt. Prope Siciliara classem hostium paene 
totara daeverunt. Sine ullo periculo castra in ora Africae posuSrunt. 
Inde fines Karthaginiensium ferro et igni vastavenmt et oppida 
mcenderunt Ante hiemem Manlius cum magna parte exercitiis 
ad Italiam navigavit ; cum reUquis copiis Regulus bellum gerebat. 
In montes duces Karthaginiensium copias duxerunt. Hie a Regulo 
magna cum clade fiisi sunt. Turn pacem petiverunt sed Regulus 
non dedit. Postea Karthaginienses novum ducem Xanthippum 
creaverunt qui cum Romanis in loco campestri pugnavit. Romini 
fusi fugatique sunt. Triginta mUlia in proelio ceciderunt. Regulus 
cum qmngentis militibus sunt capti. Iterum Karthaginienses pacem 
petiverunt et cum legatis Regulus ad urbem Romam missus est. 
Senatus bellum diiitius gerere nolebat nam cives Regulum servare 
volebant. Is tomen senatum bellum gerere coegit et sine ullo timore 
ex urbe ad Africam contendit. Hie a Karthaginiensibus crudeliter 
necatus est. Ob virtutem et constantiam Regulus ab omnibus 
Romanis in honore habitus est. 



Karthaginiensis, is 

infeliciter 

paere 

incendo 3 -di -sum 

reliquus, a, urn 

Xonthippus, i 
campester, tris, tre 
fugo, -are 
capio 3 cepi 

captum 
iterum 



Vocabulary 



Carthaj^ii,;an 

unsut'Ct'ssfully 

almost 

set (HI fire, burn 

reinaiiiing, 

rest of 
Xanthippuw 
level 
put to fliglit 

take captive 
again, a 
second time 



nolebat was unwilling 

nam(('onjuni-tion) for 

volebant wished 
is(<Ienionstrati\4' 

pronoun) he 
contendo 3 -di 

-tum set ont 

criideliter cnielly 

neco, -are kill, nuinler 

constantia, ae firniniss of 

IMir{K>se 



116 



I 



m 



LESSON xr.v 

TIMK 
Rules for Time 

1. Time 'at which' is expressed by tlie Ablative, 
vere, aestate, auctumno, hieme, prima luce, tertio anno. 

2. 'Duration of Time' is expressed liy the Accusative. 

duas horas for two liouis 
tres annos for tliree years 

Somclimes per is added to make ,i more emphatic form, 
per totum diem tlirougliout lliu whole day 

3. Time 'within which' is expressed by 

(a) the Ablative 

('') intra or inter with Accusative • 

Within tliree days (a) tribus diebus 
(l>) intra tres dies 
inter tres dies 

4. Time 'ago' is expressed i.y abhinc witli Accusative 
or Ablative. 

Three ilays ago = abhinc tres dies or abhinc tribus diebus 
abhinc is placed first 

5- Many years after = multis annis post 
Many years before = multis annis ante 
post and ante are mlferht 
annis is A lilatiue of Meamre of Diference 
Sometimes the same idea is expressed hv 

post multos annos - after many years 
ante multos annos Iwfore many ^ears 
post aiitl ante are /'irjioxitions 



VIX'Anilt.AKV — KXKIUISE 



in 



6. Tim., 'prospective- is expiosscl i,y <ad' . r -in ' «itl. 
Accusatn e. 



Me in posterum diem invitavit H,- i.ni „„■ f,„ th,. f, 



ilowiin^ (lay 



7. 



Vocabulary 



hiems, hiemis (K.) wintor 

ver. veris (N.) sp,j„j; 

auctumnus, i (M.) aulunin 
aestas, aestatis ( K. ) summer 

nox, noctis (F.| mglit 

dies, diei (M.) ,iav 

hora, ae (K.) Ii,„",r 
prima lux .luvbr.-ak 



solis occasus, iis (M.) wiii,i),',,f sun 
soloriens {M.) awnis,- 

mane (inili-olinulilc) mcirniii" 
(K.) waloh ' 
fpirvious, 
I fnnniT 
following 



vigilia, ae 
superior | 
prior / 
posterus, a, urn 
paucj. ae, a 

At tllc l,rg,„„i„y „f ,|,,i„. _. p,j^^ ^-_.^ 

I.ith..mi,l,lk.„f wi„„., = media hieme 
M the en.l of su,,,,,,,,- . extrema aestate 



In these examples the ailjeetiv 
with the nouns. 



I primus, medius, extremus, aHree 



EXERCISE 

Ttmk ' AT »rinii ■ 
1. Extrema hieme ; primo auctumno ; media aestate 

J. Soils occasu ; sole oriente ; prima luce ; mane. 

B 

1. A fe«. ,lay« after ; after a few ho,.,-, ; a few year., .a.o. 

2. For two hours ; at the .secon.l hour ; for three years ; i„ ,he 

tliird yenr. 

3. Before ,laybreak; before n.ght ; beforesnnri.se: before snn.se,. 

4. Mthobeg,„„„,^,„f springs ..nn.mer, autumn, winter 

5. In the muWle of spring, sumnn.r, antunu., winter 

6. At the end of spring, snunne.', a.itumn, winter 



I ! :'^' 



118 



PLACK 



LKSSON XLVI 
I'l.ACK 



I. Kii.iw tlir fDlldwiiii; niiino iit' plants :- 



Roma, uc lioini' 

Corinthus, i (K. i ('miritli 
Tarentum. i (X.) Tarcmimi 
Karthapo. inis (K. ) ("Mitlvigi^ 
Aegina, ae (K) A.L.'iiia(,i.siniii; 

isl.lMil) 



Athenae. arum ( V. I'l. ) Atliin» 
Delphi, drum (M. I'l. i I).l,.lii 
Cures, ium ( K. I'l.) Cun - 
Britannia, ae (F.) Hriiain 
(ii liir^'o 
islanil) 



2. Review the (leeIeii.«iion of domus (Les.^ion .\ L, n). 
Decline rus, rounlri/, tliii.s 

rus, riirts, ruri, rus, rure. Iti ihe V nnlyriira Noni. .u.il .\ee. 



3- 



The Locative Case 



IVsiilcs tlip six i-CKiiltireiistw tlirre are traces i.f aiiDtlicr ease 
in Ijitiii, tilt! Lnrativ. 

Tlip Liiralu-n (leiKitPs jilare whrrf, and is translated by at 
or ('/(. 

It survives in names of towns and a few otlier words. 

Names of towns and small isla.ids of the first or second 
declension and slns-ular number have a Lonitire. Inform it 
is like the (,'riiiliri'. 



Romae - al Heme 
Corinthi ^ .it ('iniiilh 
Tarenti = at Tarentum 
Aeginae =^ in Aenina 



also 
domi = at home 
ruri — ill the country 
hum! - on the ground 
belli = in war 
militiae - in war. mi service 



heri, i/r.s/erdnii, anil vesperi, ni-vmlivj, are I.orMtive foini:^ of 



PLACK 



4. Examine:— 

Usual ('<iiistiucti()n 

Pl.ito ' to which ' 

ad Galliam u. (luiil 

ad Britanniam to IJrii.iiji 

ad urbem 1.. ihf ilty 

in oppidum im,, il,,. (,,„„ 

Plii'i' from which' 



ab Gallia 
a Britannia 
ex urbe 
ab oppido 



fl'Ull (^llll 

fiiiiri l;riliiiii 

fliMII l|||. ,||y 

fnirii thu tiiwii 



Pli^if 'at' or 'in which' 



in Gallia 
in Britannia 
in urbe 
in oppido 



iji (Jiiul 
in lii'itain 
ill Ihi^ city 
ill the loMii 



119 

NiiMius iif towns, i-itios, 
siiiull isliiiKis; iilsodomus 
and rus 

Romam t<> Itunn' 
Aeginam to Aii^iuL 
d'.mum lioMii- 
riis to ilurouiitn 



Roma from IIimiic 

Aegina from Argina 

domo fi'om tiohi<.> 

rOre from tin- i-oiintry 



Romae nt liomi- 

Aeginae in .\c gina 

domi at lioiiie 

fiiri ill till, coiinti'v 



5- Rules of Syntax 

Place <to Which- is n.sul,t,iyex,„es.s..<l l-v Uie Accusative 

and a preposition ad or in. 

Place 'from which' is n-ulaHy expressed l.y the 
Ablative am! a preposition ab, ex or de. 

Place 'in which 'is n-ularly expressetl l,y tlie Abladve 
and a preposition in. 

Names of tovms, rities, gmall i>land», and also domus and 
rus omit the preposition ; and exfiiess ' place in which ' 
by the Locative when jiossible ; otherwise hv the Ablative 

called the Local Ablative. ' ' 

Carthagiue, at Carthagu ; Athenis, at Athens 



1: 
11 



'20 KXKKCIHK 

In tin; case of r.mihinatiniiN raoli wonl takes its nwn 
construction. 

To lliu lity .if Rom,. ad urbem Romam 






i 



EXERCISE 

A 

1. Karthagirem ; Athenas; Delphos, Romam ad patrem suum. 
■J. Karthagme ex Africa ; Delphis a Graecia ; Romi a patre suo. 
.■I In urbe domi ; Corinthi ; in horto ; in litore ; ruri. 

4. To the army in Itritain ; from Atliuiis to Uomu ; fi , Koiiil' 

honiL'. 

5. T.., from, at (or in) I{o„„., Corintli, Tar..iitum, Cartliaiji., 

Athens, Dilphi. Ciirt's, tUti], horn,., the cil.v, country. 
C. Into the territory of the Hemi; into our iirovimv ; or, the hank. 



1. Multos annos Carthagine vixit. Ab exercitu in Galliam 

properavit. 

2. Imperator suas legiones cuir. .egatis Athenis ex Graecia in 

Italiam Tarentum mittet. 
» Consul cum omnibus copiis ad urbem mittetur. 
4. Posters die Caesar sua castra decern millia passuum promovit 

et ibi dies quinque mansit; die sexto omnes domus in 

oppido delevit et paucis post diebus prima luce ad Graeciam 

navigavit 

c 

Ten years a-o, on a very beautiful day in spring, two hoys 
walked from home very many miles int.. the c.untry. They did 
n..t carry very heavy loads. For three <lay.s they walked thr.,u.d, 
the helds and .m the f.,urth day .s,aw a very deep river. Acr.'^ 
the river wa.s a very high nu.untain aii.l on the top of the in.,unt.ain 
many trees. They remained two years in the e.uuitry and ..ften 
wr.,te letters home to their friends. In autumn they w, re sent 
home with a farmer who was bringing a large ,,uantity .,f corn to 
the city. They were wiser an,l bett.T hoys an,l often told Ion.' 
stories about the journey to the other b..ya and girls 



COLLOQUIUM — VO<-AIIL'LARY 



121 



M. 

C. 
M. 

C. 
M. 
C. 
M. 



M. 

C. 
M. 



COI.LOgriI'M 
Marcus et Caius 

Salve I Quando Athenis navigavisti ? 

Abhinc tres dies. Quamdiu Romae fuisti? 

Duoi annos Romae fui. Abhinc dies viginti Roma Tarentum 

nangavi sed Tarento Romam equo vectus sum 
Meumne fratrem Tarenti vidisti? Ibi anno proximo vivibat 
Fratrem tuum Tarenti non vidi. Turn ruri erat. 
Cras ego Karthaginem navigibo ; tu rus pedibus contendes 
Quamdm Karthagine manSbis? Longum est iter et mare est 

periculosum. 

Tres menses Karthagine manebo. Meus avus in urbe 

Karthagine vivit. 
Dum tu ibi raanebis. ego riiri totam aestatem habitabo. Rus 

mihi semper aestate gratissimum est. 
Mihi mare est gratius. In mensem quartu.n Romam navigabd 
Turn ego Connthi vivam. Ibi omnera hiemem habitabo 

Vale. 



Vocabulary 



veho 3 vex! 

vectum 
vehor 



ibi 

cras 

ego 



carry 

•in' 'aii .■'[.■ 

there 

to-morrow 

I 



F ride 



™ thou, you 

contendo .') -di -tum set out 

periculosus, a, um •l.ingci.MH 

■""». > gniiidfiithtr 

dum wliile 

roihJ ,]at. of ego 
= to nie 



132 



THIRD CONJUGATION 



LESSON XLVII 

THIRD CONJUGATION 

Verbs in -io 

I. A tew verbs of the third conjugation liave in the present 
indicative tlie ending -id in the active and -ior in the passive. 
Ccipid, take, is tlie type. 



2. Principal Parts 
cap io cap Sre cep i 

3. The Indicative Tenses are 

Active Passive 



capt um 



Pkksent 


cap io 


cap ior 






iMrEKPECT 


cap iebam 


cap iebar 






Future 




cap iar 






Perfect 


cep i 


capt us (a. 


um) 


sum 


Plupekfect 


cep eram 


capt us (a, 


um] 


cram 


Fdture Perfect 


cep ero 


capt us (a, 


um] 


ero 



Indicative 
Present 



Active Passive 

1. cap io cap imus cap ior cap imur 

2. cap is cap itis cap iris, (-ire) cap imini 

3. cap it cap iunt cap itur cap iuntur 

Imperfect 
capiebam, -bas, -bat, etc. capiebar, -baris, -batur, etc. 



Future 



1. cap iam 
'2. cap ies 
3. cap iet 



cap iemus 
cap ietis 
cap ient 



cap iar 

cap ieris (-re) 

cap ietur 



cap lemnr 
cap iemini 
cap ientur 



THIRtI CO.VJUOATIOV 



123 



cepi, -isti, -it, etc. 



Perfect 

captus sum, es, est, etc. 

Pluperfect 
cep eram, -eras, -erat. et. . captus eram. era,, erat, etc. 

Future Perfect 

cep ero, -eris, -erit, etc. captus ero, eris, erit, etc 

5- Imperative 

PKhXENT 

2. cape capite cap ere cap imini 

Fl'TI'RK 



•-'. cap ito 
3. cap ito 



cap itote 
cap iunto 



cap itor 
cap itor 



cap iuntor 
6. All verbs m -io with the infinitive in -gre are conju- 



gated like capio. 

7. 

fugio 
facio 
jacio 
rapid 

and coinpoumls 



Principal Parts 



fugi 
feci 
jeci 
rapui 



fugitum 
factum 
^'.ctum 
raptum 



accipio 3 accepi acceptum 

recipio, gel l«ck ; incipio, begin ; 
effugio :i effugi effugitum 

refugio, flee back 
interficio 3 interfeci interfectum 



flee 

'!<>, make 

throw 

seize 



receive, accept 
cscaiH-' 



kill 



efficio, effect ; conBcio, perticio, accmplish, Hnish ; 
reficio, icpttir 
conjicio 3 conjeci conjectum hurl 

ejicio, throw out ; abjicio. throw away ; dejicio, throw ,h,w„ 
dinpio 3 diripui direptum plu,„h.,. 

abripio, .snal, li a«iiy 
conspicio 3 conspexi . conspectum observe, U- 1 



i I' 



124 



BZERCI3B 



EXERCISE 
A 

3 F^Sr r ^"f""""'- «K«rimus: interficiuntur. interfidentur 
3. Furs, fugisti; mterfecH sunt, er«nt. erint; fuge, fugit,. 

5. He was k.lled, l.e ,s be>„g killed, he will bo killed. They killed 

6. He seized, he was seized ; he will seize, he wUl be seized. ' 

B 
'■ *'"ficisH?'^ "^"^""" ^°"" "**" '•^'P""""t? Opusne 
'' ^'f ~t ^ '""""° ""' ~"'P~'* *•""• Litterae hert acceptae 

^' ^^''confccta.''"'' '^*''""" ""' "°"~"' ««'"P'"'t' 0P<~ »u»t 
' ■^;'^^°"''~'»»""'- HastaeconjecUeerant. Sagittae conjectae 

6 Pm^i^f '"'."'''" °°"' ""^P*™"*- DSn* accepta sunt 
7. Saxa de muro jaciuntur. Liberi mulieresque effiigerunt. 



I 



1. The old men were put to death. The whole town was plundered. 

2. The barbarmns kept throwing stones down from the wall. 

3. The soldiers of the tenth legion at once took (up) arms 

lore """" ^"''^ ""■""" '""" "" ••'«''*' «""""• "t<on the 
5. The guards of the temple slew the young man 
0. "ow many men escaped t When did you receive the letter ? 
7. VV .11 the ships be repiured ? They were repaired three days ago 



FOURTH COJfJUGATIOW 125 

LESSON .\7.VIII 

FOUHTfr CONJIJOATTON^ 

Indicative and Imperative Active 

I. The Fourtl, Cnjusati.u, includes .11 verbs ul.ose present 
infinitive ends in -Ire, as : — 

aud io, aud ire, hear. 
2. The PrinoiiKil Parts of audio are 
aud io Pies. Indie. 1 
aud ire Pre». Intin / "''""'"'« t'lf Present Stem audi- 

^dirl s*""- ';""'■■ «""-"« "-f-fe,., Stem audiv- 

3. The Indicative Tenses are 
Pkksknt 
Impkp.fect 

FUTI-RK 

Pkrfkct audiv i I , 

Pi-CPEKKKCT audiv eram [ '"™""' f™'" Perfect Stem, audiv- 

FUTDRB Pkbpect audiv ero i 



aud io 
aud iebam 
aud iam 



(See Lesson XVIII) 



4' 




Indicative 






and io 
aud is 

aud it 


Present 


aud imus 






aud itis 
aud iunt 






Imperfect 




audiebam 


-bas -bat 


audiebamus -batis -bant 






Future 






aud iam 
aud ies 
aud iet 




aud iemus 
aud ietis 
aud lent 


' Sm uure 38, footnote. 





'1 



i- - II 



126 



FOURTH CONJUOATIOlf 



Perfect 

audiv I -isti -it audiv imus -istis -enint or -ere 

Pluperfect 
audiv eram -eras -erat audiv eramus -eratis -erant 

Future Perfect 
audiv ero -eris -erit audiv erimus -eritis erint 

S Imperative 

I'RBBENT 

2. Sing, aud i , o pj ^uj ^^ 

Fl'TDRE 

2. Sing, aud ii 2, vi, aud itote 

3. Sing, aud ito 3. I'l. aud iunto 



Principal Parts 



audio 


4 


audivi 


auditum 


lioiir 


miinio 


4 


munivi 


munitum 


fortify 


punio 


4 


punivi 


punitum 


])inii.-ih 


vestio 


4 


vestivi 


vestitum 


i-luthe 


finio 


4 


finivi 


finitum 


linisli; end 


dormid 


4 


dormivi 


dormitum 


s\tjii\l 


custodio 


4 


custodtvi 


custoditum 


guard 


erudid 


4 


erudivi 


eruditum 


liring ii|i, instruct 



7- Questions 

1. Sttvli! tlie rule for the formation of (lie (1) I'lupf. Indio. Act 

(2) I'ut. Pf. Indie. Act. 

2. (iive the trunslation.s of audio ; dormiebam : miinivit. 

3. Give the Ist Sing, of eiieh ten.se of ( 1) miinio, (2) custujio. 



Ijt^i^'. 



EXERCISE 

EXERCISE 
A 



IS7 



. Audam, audiebam. audiveram ; audis, audivisti, audiveris 
. MUX.JS, mumes; munietis. miinmstir , mui,iveratis Seritis 
. Amabunt monebunt, regent, audient; audiverunt ."rYnt 
I. And, aud.te; dormivit, dormlverit; custodiebas. cust6d"baL 

' ''llriie^r'"'" '"""' "" '"""' ■'" '"^""^^ ' '''""^- 1 ^ • 

i. He use,! to punish. He wa. guarding. Were y.„. l.enri,,.. I 
d-:, """''• ""^'^ "^■■■"•"- ^'^"'«^.'-U T„e, 

B 

° yt'rnt'""" ^'"'^''"' ""'"'''™'- Vere flores multi terram 
Bybarl corpora pellibus vestiunt. Octo horaa dormiemus 

f^Tenr"""" ^'^''"'"' """"""' ^""•"" "'='"*"' P™»™a 
Malf f-T™"^ "«°'''"'"»- Q»ot haras dormivistf? 

Dies decern domos suas custodiverunt. Clamorem audiveratis. 



We^l^eard the shouts of the sailor. They were fortifying the 

He will punish the children severely. They h,ul slept t„o long 
\Ve shall have finished the wnr in the sun.n.er. We h.t 
guarded the cities. 

The orator instructed the buys in all arts. They will hear the 
orator. 



128 



FOURTH CONJL'CATIOX. 

LESSON XLIX 

FOURTH CONJlJGATfON INDICATIVK AND 
IMPKKATrVK PASSIVK 

'• Indicative 



Pkksknt 
i.mhkkrect 

FuTl'RE 

Perfect 

Pl.I'l'ERrECT 



audior 

audiebar 

audiar 



/ am heard, I am liciiiij Imirtl 
I ii-a-i heiiiij heard 
I shall he heard 

auditus (a. um) 3„„/^ '""■'/'"» /'«"•,/ 

1/ l/via heard 
auditus (a, um) eram / had heeu heard 



V— I ""'f «.iaiit / fifuf /teen neartl 

Future Perfect auditus (a, um) ero / shall hare been heard 



^' Present 

^ilNIJULAR 

1. and ior ' 

2. aud iris (-ire) 

3. aud itur 

Imperfect 

1. aud lebar 

2. aud iebaris (-re) 
S. aud iebatur 

Future 

1. aud lar 

2. aud ieris (-re) 

3. aud ietur 

Perfect 



Plirai. 
aud imur 
aud imini 
aud iuntur 

aud iebamur 
aud iebamini 
aud iebantur 

aud iemur 
aud icmini 
aud ientur 



auditus sum es est 



auditi sumus estis sunt 



Pluperfect 



auditus eram eras erat auditi eramus eratis erant 

Future Perfect 

auditus era eris erit auditi erimus eritis erunt 

3- Imperative 



aud ire, /» than heard 



Pkksknt 

aud imini, '.. >/' heard 

KlTlltK 

■1. aud itor, (huu shall be heard 

3. aud itor, he „UaU he heard aud iuntor, Ihe,, shall be heard 



EXERCISE 



4- 

desilio 4 

sepelio 4 

re perio 4 

com perio 4 

sentio 4 

venio 4 

in venio 

per venio ad (pr..p. wUh a< 

»ub venio (governs ,l,itive) 

▼■ncio 4 vinxi 



desilui 
sepelivi 
rep peri 
com peri 
sensi 
veni 



Principal Parts 



139 



desultum 
sepultum 
re pertum 
com pertum 
sensum 
ventum 



vinctum 



leap ilowii 

biir;v 

Hriil, (liwi.vcr 

fiii'I out, as.'iTtaiii 

'•'cl, know 

come 

•onie iiiKin, tind 
reach, arrive at 
come to the aiil of 

hiliil 



is it obtiiiiied ? 



5- Questions:— 

What part of the verb i. auditus? How 

How I.S It declined ? What i« ,-f« , 

" "*' >s Its meaning ? 

EXERCISE 

f pC^J:r:^l^^ -^-^ -ner., v^er^. 
3. Custodiris, custodieris- custMie^r '"""*• """""»■ 

'":::rr-''""'---=-'-w.. heard,:;: 

' ' '""' '"'"« "'«'^"«f-I- you shall be instructed. 

" Corpora sepeliveruft Co™"" O"^'"" ""todm erunt. 
Mntit "'~" ^'P"'*" «""*. Corpus ignem 

"trc^m^er «^^ "-•-''•e .u„t. Rem per e.p.ar.- 



3 



n 



ir?o 



EXERCISE — READINO LESSON 



n. Naves viginti paratas reperit. Naves decern fractas invenit. 

6. Hominem vinxit Homo vinctus est. Homines vincti sunt 

7. Hostes victl sunt Barbaros vicerunt. 

8. Cur venisti f Quando venistis ? Utrum venit an domi niansit f 

9. Equites hostium jam ad castra nostra pervenerant. 



1. 1 I'.iiiie, T siiw, I coiHiiu'reil. He licaril, li« ciiiie, lie saw. 

2, The shouts of tlie enemy were Ilea? 1 in tlie city. 

;{. On the fourth day at daybreak tiie auxiliaries of the allies 
arrived. 

4. .4t sunset the cai.ip was fortified with a rampart and trench. 

5. The soldiers of the tenth legion at once le.ipt down from the 

ships. 
H. On the .seventli day he reached the port and found the ships 

ready. 
7. The infantry of tlie allies came to the aiil of our cav.ilry (Dat.) 



RRADIN(} LESSON 
The Battle of Marathon (B.C. 490) 

Dareus> exercitum classemque mizimam contra Graeciam miserat 
Exercitus a barbaris superatus est et classis tempestate magna est 
deleta. Itaque alterum exercitum et classem alteram statim pairavit. 
Interim ad urbes Graecas nuntios misit et terram et aquam^ 
postulavit. Tum maximo cum exercitii in Graeciam Datis et 
Artaphemes', duces peritissimi, contenderunt. Primum Eretriam' 
oppugnaverunt et sex dies circum muros acriter pugnaverunt; 
septimo die cives duo urbem hostibus prodiderunt. Postquam 
Eretriam deleverunt, ad Atticam'' navigaverunt. In campo Mara- 
thonio^ qui ab Athenis bidui iter aberat castra posuenint. Athenienses 
magno periculo incitati copias omnes suas comparaverunt. Interim 
cursor celerrimus nomine Phidippides' Lacedaemona' missus est et 
auxilium rogavit. Lacedaemonii' tamen sero pervenerunt. In 
collibus Miltiades" Athenienses sociosque ad decem millia instnixit 



VOrABILARY 



131 



'Darius, Kins' of I't-raia " [■" n ~ — - — 

and Artapherne,. . Krctria a Hu in Kn """•': ""- »'*■'"» »' «"l""i.,i„„. -. i^,;, 
of whic-h Alhe,,, .a, ,he cauul rTh'"" ";.'"" ""''"''''^' •'"'""• "" "'■"'"' 

Sparun.. .Mil.i^e,. ."Persle, a^m l^eXf^'"""' °"'^' "'°""- "'^''^ 



Vocabulary 



postquam 




(c-onjunctinn) 
biduum, i 
incitatus, a, um 


after 
Iwixlavs 
spuricd o 


cursor, oris 


niniiur 



nomine 
sero 



hy iiiinic 

l.ll.', Innl.it,. 

I" tht'niiinlit'rof 
instru6,:!,-struxi. 
-structura ,I,iiw up 




TilK (iLAlHATl 



132 



DKPONENT VERBS 



LESSON L 
DEPONENT VERBS 
I, There are verbs in Latin that have no active conjugation. 
They are Passive in form but Active in meaning. 

They have laid aside (dSpOnO, hiy aside) their active 
conjugation and so are called Deponent Verbs. 

Deponents occur in all four conjugations. They arc conju- 
gated like the passive of the regular verbs, amd, moned, 
reg^O, audio. There are also deponents of the third conju- 
gation like capiO. 

The student, therefore, sltould already know the conjugation 
of deponent verbs as soon as the principal parts are known. 
These will of course be of passive form. 



2. 

CONJCrOATION 


Pri 

Pres. Indic. 


ncipal Pari 

Pbks. Infin. 


ts 

Perf. Part 




First 


miror 


mirari 


miratus 


admire 


Second 


vereor 


vereri 


veritus 


fear 


Third 


sequor 


sequi 


seciitus 


follow 




patior 


pati 


passus 


suffer, allow 


Fourth 


blandior 


blandiri 


blanditus 


flatter 



3. Note the preseat infinitive endings. These determine 
the conjugation. 

First, -ari ; Second, -eri ; Third, -1 ; Four>.h, -Irl. 



Indicativ 



miror 
mirabar 
mirabor 
miratus sum 
miratus eram 
miratus ero 



vereor 

verebar 

verebor 

Veritas sum 
veritus eram 
veritus ero 



sequor 
sequebar 
sequar 
seciitus sum 
seciitus eram 
secutus ero 



blandior 
blandiebar 
blandiar 
blanditus sum 
blanditus eram 
blanditus ero 






I 

I 







VOCAnULAIlY 




s 




Imperative 




mirare 
miramini 


verere 
veremini 


I'hksknt 

sequere 
sequiinini 


blandire 
l>landimini 


mirator 
mirator 
mtrantor 


veretor 
veretor 
verentor 


FlTl'RK 

sequitor 
sequitor 
sequuntor 


btanditor 
blanditor 
blanditihtor 



1S3 



6. 



Vocabulary 

First Co.ijugation (all are regular 



hortor exhort, in-'i! 

arbitror tliiijk 

Conor try. atiimpt 

cunctor wavi,-, hesitate 

■Second Coiiiui;atioii 
polliceor polliceri 

Third Cuiijugation 

proficiscor proficisci 

loquor loqui 

colloquor 

nanciscor 

queror 



) 

depopulor ilevastate 

conspicor ulisenx- 

suspicor siisiM<'t 



nancisci 
queri 



Fourtli CoiijUiiatii.M 



experior 
mentior 
ordior 
orior 



experiri 
mentiri 
ordiri 
oriri 



pollicitus 



profectus 
locutus 

uactus 
questus 



expertus 
mentitus 
orsus 

ortus 



promise 



M-l mil 

speak 

converse 

olilaiii 

eoinplaio 



tiy, alleinp. 
lie, speak falsely 
lieyiri 
rise 



Orior a,l,nits f„n„s of the Ihinl. orSris, oritur, orlmur 
"dorior adoriri ad^^us 



IV 



'Hack, assail 



134 



r.XKHrlgB 



10. 

u. 



I--'. 

13. 



14. 



EXERCISE 

A 

Conjng.ite in the prcHpnl ami futtiri^ inilicative eacli verh of the 
thiril anil fduith cnnjugatiiins. 

The Perfect Participle of a transitive ilejionent verl> lias an active 
meaning. 

Having admired having followed having promised 
Having exliorted having tried having observed 

Vereris, vereberis ; sequiris, sequeris ; blandiHf , blaadieris. 

Proficiscitur, proficiscetur ; pollicebantur. pol!ic;ti sunt 

Pollicitus. Pater filio res multas pollicitus est. 

Secutus. Nostri hostes decern millia passuum ad flumen seciiti 
erant. 

Dux prima luce Romam nrofectus est. 

proficiscemur. 

Magister pueros parvo;; magnis praeraiis hortatus est. 
Ante occasuin so • ad urbem proficiscar. Ab urbe ante 

meridiem profii;: scire. 
Nostri cunctabautur. Socii agros hostium depopulabuntur. 
Senex cum amicis collocutus erat. TempesUtem' idoneam 

nactus est. 

De rebus multis mentitus est. Num de sui aetate mentiebatur ? 
Hostes m summo colle conspicatus est. Clamor magnus ortus 

Equites nostri copias hosUum tres dies per silvas secuti erant. 

B 

Follow your leader. You will follow 



Paucit diebus Roma 



Thou art following. 

your father. 
Set out at daybreak. 
Far .ind wide tliey wil 



You will set out on the following day. 
1 dovastate the territory of the enemy 
He obtained tliirty ships and set out for ( = to) Britain on the 
tentli day after. 

Long and earnestly the leader conversed witli his companions. 
At sunset he observed the infantry on the right bank of the 
river. 

They will not set out for Atlieiis at the beginning of winter. 
Tliey had set out for Tarentuin but at the fourth hour were 
captiirfd. 



'tempestas. atls, weathe 



135 



DEPONKXT VKKB.S 

LKSSOX LI 
DEP,.XEXT VKItliS (e.,.vnv.K..) 

1 Tl.„ .•.,11 '• 

■f-..e.,.. are conju..,e,l lilc,. ,!,« ,„.,,;,, 



2. Tlie tbllowiii 

"f capio :— 
patior 
morior 
pro gredior 
agr gredior 
e gredior 
in gredior 
rt gredior 
trans gredior 
con gredior 



"O" mortuus ,|i,. 

•ggred. aggressus gn a.(,d), ,u„„.k 

t'o mil t,f, issu.-, luavf 
K" imo, enter 
yi' liiuk, riiii-at 

gli illToss, rloss 

«o tcgcthor, meet, engage 

•*■ Indicative 

PuKSEXT patior 
Imif. patiebar 

P^ir; Sssum"''"" "'"''*" P*'^^"'- Patiemini patientur 
I'LriF. passus eram 
FuT. I'f. passus ero 

4. 

H'TiKK pahtor patitor patiuntor 



Pa«ris patltur p,.,„.„, p,„„.„. ^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Imperative 

patimini 
patiuntor 

Semi-Deponents 



audeo .ff-* 

gaudeo Xe "/"'""" ''^'re, venture 

soleo ^ "' ''"'" '•«i'"'« 

fldo X'e ~''*"^^'"" »'"-.„,, aixiisiomeil 

-ere fisussum trust, , el v u,,„i, 

«!«.. confido, tinst ; diffido, ,li,trust " 

ihey are depo.ient in ti.e perfect, te„.es „Mly 
Ti...s .-audea. aud.ba„, a„d..a, ausus su., ausus era., aususera. 



136 



EXERri8R 



'i 



6. rtvertor re verti I'.if. re verti Su|,. re versum tuin luck 
is Mini .lr|„,ri.-nl in lli^il llir Pv,l,;t ■|\.|im'.s .iiv nf n.tivi- fi.iin. 

Tims : reverter, revertebar. reverter, reverti, reverteram, revertero. 

7. Examine :^ 

Plurimis rebus utimur et fniimur. We uh.. anil enjoy nianv tliinys. 

Magna praeda potitus est. }{c nlitarneil niiii li I ty. 

Lacte et came vescebantur. 'I hey livid ,m milk iin.l tlcsli. 
Omnibus officiis bene fungitur. He perfdnns all his diuies well. 

8. Rule:— 

The (le|.o.ient veilis iitor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, ^o\m\ the 
Abiative. 



utor 

fruor 

fungor 

potior 

vescor 



uti 

frui 

fungi 

potiri 

vesci 



functus 
potitus 



9- The principal parts of nascor arc : — 
nascor nasci natus 



enjoy 

pci-form, discharge 
gain possession of 
feed upon 

am lK>rn 



NoTE.-puer decern amios natusi = " !"''' '""'" '■"'" ^''"'"' 

\ ■- a hoy ten jeara old 

decern annos natus = ai the agi; of ten. 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. PatSris, patieris ; patltur, patietur; patlmur, patiemur. 

2. Caesar hostes in provinciam venire non patietur. 

S. Equitatus hostium jam' decern millia passuum pragressus erat. 

4. Ho.stes jam magna cum multitudine jumentorum fliimen 

transgrediebantur, 
a. Barbari cum omnibus copiis no^tros aggressi sunt. 
t>. Britanni antiqui lacte et came vescebantur. 
7. Romae natus est sed mortuus est Athenis. 

5. Res adversas semper aequo animo' passus est. 

9. Annos natus vig'nti domo cum comite iino prdfectus est. 
10. Nostri castris impedimentisque hostmm nocte potiuntur. 
11 Nonne ducibus itineris iisus es ? Multis ducibus iisi sumus. 



'Jam, now, ain-ady. "aequus animus, even miml r™i«iiailon. 



PRONOUNS 



137 



B 

1. Shall ,,e allow the enen.y f,. «,»„ possession of our cify ? 

2. T^,e diligent lx>ys will not use their opportunity badly 

4. The man >va.s bom in (Jaul but died in Carthage 

5. The consul's «on always performed his work well 

6. Ten days ago our infantry got possession of the baggage. 

8 ZtllT r T""'"" ■■'""'='''"' '•'«—.- vigorously. 

». We shall follow our leader to the top of the hill. 



Ego, I 

SiNODLAR 

NoM. ego I 
Gen. mei of me 

Dat. 

Ace. 
Voc. 
Abl. 



LESSON LII 

PROyoUNS 

Personal 



mihi 
me 



wanting 



Plural 
nos we 

{nostrum of ua 
nostri 
nobis 
nos 



TO, thou, you (sing. ) 
Pllral 



nobis 



SiNCCLAR 

tu thou 
tui of thee 

tibi 
te 
tu 
te 



»6S you 

fvestrum of you 
Ivestri 
vobis 

TOS 

▼Sbte 



Nostrum and restrum are used as 'PartUive 0,nUivt,' (Seepage 107) 
Otherwise noitri and »estri are used. ^^ '' 

2 The pronouns of the first and second persons are rarely 
used except for emphasis or contrast. 

Ego laudo ted tu culpas I praise but you blame. 

It is I who praise but you who blame. 

3. The personal pronoun, of the thir,l person are wantinr 
but their place is supplied by the demonstrutiveK, purticularlv 
IS, ea, id = he, the, it. •' 



13K 








PKONOnSS 










S 


Ni;ri.AK 






PHTRAL 






Masc. 




Fk.m. 


Nki:t. 


Masc. 


Kem. 


Neut. 


NoM. 


is 




ea 


id 


el(ii) 


eae 


ea 


Okn. 


ejus 




ejus 


ejus 


eorum 


earum 


eorum 


Dat. 


ei 




ei 


e> 


eis(iis) 


eis(iis) 


eis(iis) 


Air. 


eum 




earn 


id 


eos 


eas 


ea 


Aiti.. 


eo 




ea 


eo 


eis(iis) 


eis(iis) 


eis(ijs) 



Is is tlie pronoun of mere reference, i.e., it simply refers to 
some person or tliinj; mentioned before. 

Cicero orator fuit : is multas orationes scripsit. 

Cicuro was an orator : lie wrote niaii^ speeclics. 

Tt ai,'rees in gender anil number with the noun to which it 
refers. 



Hostes naves miserunt. Eas 
accepimus. ' 

Hostes dona miserunt. Ea ac- 
cepimus. 



The enemy sent ships. We 

receiveil them. 
The enemy sent gifts. We 

received them. 



Reflexive 

4. A reflexive pronoun is one that refers to the subject of the 
sentence in which it stands. It lias no nominative. 

The oblique eases of egO and tQ are used as reflexives of 
the flrst antl second person. 
Ego me laudo m- Me laudo. I praise myself. 

^'ou praise yourself. 



Tii te laudas or Te taudas. 





SiNcri.AR 


Okx. 


SUI of himself, et 


Dat. 


sibi 


Ace. 


se 


Am.. 


se 



The reflexive of tlie third person is 

sui, of liitiisilf, of herself, of itself, of themselves. 

Pl.fRAI. 

sui of themselves 

xibi 

se 

se 

The forms of sui (as also suus, the reflexive possessive adjective), 
refer to tlie sulijcit of the vi'ril. 

6. The preiHisitioii cum is alwaj-s written as a suflix with 
tlie abliiiive <if the person:!! and reflexive prutumns, as : — 
mecum tecum secum nobiscum vobiscum 

with me with you with himself with us with vou 



EXERCISE 



139 



7- Examine: 



You aiiil I rfniaiiud at Imme. 
Ou'-ar- and I w.Te af Riirni', 
Youi' fathei- anil voii are walking. 



Ego et tu domi mansimus. 
Ego et Caesar Romae eramus. 
TQ et pater tuus ambulatis. 

8. Rule:- 

Ego. first ix^rson, precedes tii, second person or Caesar third 

Tu «eeo„d person precede., a noun or pronoun of ,l,e , p.,,o„ 

U .th two sul.jeet., .„ the singular, the verb is in the plural 
Ihe verb agreen in person with the pronoun lirst used. 

EXERCISE 



Se interfecerunt. 



1. Libriun ejus habes. Librum suum habet 
.. Libros eorum habes. Libros suos habent 

3. Librum ei dedL Mihi libros duos dedit 

4. Eum interiecit. Se interfecit. Eos interfecit. 

5. Cum eo profectus est Puerum secum duxit. 
b. Tibi, non tuo fratri librum dabo. 

7. Ego et tu AthCiis nati sumus. 

H. Litteras ad te heri misl. Nonne eas accepisti? 
in "°"" C"»"' obsidem dederunt Eos secum duxit. 
10. Exerctum suum in fines eorum duxit. Equites eorum fudit. 

B 

1. He saw his mothtT yesterday in the city. I ,|,all see hi, 

brother. 

2. The guards killed hi.u, her. the,,,. They killed then.selves 
J. Uwt year I Haw both your brother «,ul si.ter i,. the eou,>t,-y 

4. On that day you were i„ the country, 1 had set out on the 
prev,ous day for Athens. 

6. You and I will stay at i,o„.e. They will take him with the,,,, 

at Ro„r '""' '"""■" "'"' '"" ''"''" ''"'' ""'y'"' "'"' >•"" 

7. Ten men ca.ne with us to Ron.e. Did you .see then, I 

8. The >,,an praises hi.nself. The ,„e„ praise the„,selve.s, 

9. The g„l Uan.e, herself. We we,e p,aising her 

10. You will saU with them to Greece ; we will stay i„ Italy 



140 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUXS 






"1 



11 



LESSON UII 
DEMONSTHATtVE PllONOUNS 

I. There are in Latin four Demonstrative Pronouns : — 

hie )iaec hoc thia (near me), PI., these 

iste ista istud tliat (near yuu), tliatuf yours, VI., tliose of yours 

ille ilia illud that (near him), that (yoniler), PI. those 

is ea id 



2. 




Hie 


haec. 


hoc tliis 










SiNfiri.AR 






Plural 






MAse. 


Fkm. 


Nki't. 


Masc. 


Fkm. 


Nki ;. 


Nl)M. 


hie 


haec 


hoc 


hi 


hae 


haec 


Gen. 


hiijus 


hiijus 


bujus 


horum 


harum 


horum 


Uat. 


huie 


huic 


huic 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. 


bunc 


banc 


hoc 


hos 


has 


haec 


Abl. 


hoc 


hac 


hoc 


his 


his 


his 


3. 




Ille 


ilU 


Uud that 






NOM. 


ille 


iUa 


illud 


illi 


illae 


Ula 


Gen. 


Ulius 


illius 


illius 


illdrum 


illarum 


illdrum 


Dat. 


ill! 


iUi 


iUi 


illis 


illis 


Ulis 


Ace. 


ilium 


illam 


illud 


iUos 


Ulas 


Ula 


Abl. 


Ulo 


Ula 


Ulo 


illis 


illU 


Ulis 



4* Iste. ista, istud is dedineil like ille, ilU, illud. 

5- Hie, ille, iste and is are used alone a» pronounn or with a noun 
as tlenionstrative adjectives. 

They agree in gender, number and case, lik? adjectives, with the 
noun expressed or understood. 



6. 



Special Meanings 



(r() hie, my friend here. 

iste, your friend there. 
{h) iste often iniplh ■- contempt ; that fellow, that miserable fellow. 

ille is a term of compliment and emphasis : ille Caesar, the well- 
known, the fanioDK Caesar. 



BXERCI8B 



141 



('•) hie, the n,:,,.,.,-, Il„. Iat<,r: ille. ll„. „m,v n.n,„te, the fonn.r 
pax, bellum ; hoc, illa, (kmci-, w..r : th,- Utl.r, the foiiiRi. 
et hie et ille, holh the nue mi.l ihe oiher. 
hi.. .iUi = alii., .alii = sume. . . uthei-s. 

EXERCISE 

A 

1. Hi pueri, hujus pueri ; iste amicus, isttus araiei ; iUius puellae 

i. Ad hanc urbem, in hac urbe ; huic principi, cum his prineipibus. 

.( De hac re, de his rebus, ob hanc rem, de istis rebus ; ab isto 

4. nil hbri, illius libri ; id repium, in ilia urbe. 

5. In tliia place, ii, tliese places ; in that t..Hn, in those tcwns 

G. By this leader, l.y these s„l,liers ; into that islanj, in those 

7. Across this river ; through those cities ; out of these ships. 

8. In that year, on this day ; after this battle ; of that army. 

B 

1. Hie homo est amicus tuus. 

2. Nonne iste liber pulchrior est quam mens? 

3. Illa tempora a te semper laudantur. 

■i. Ob hanc rem Caesar iUos legatos Romam misit 

.">. Neque hie neque ille Romae eo die erat. 

ti. De istis rebus ad te epistolam mittam. 

~- Horum regum, ille bello, hie pace clarior er»t. 



1. This man wrote me a letter about your brother. 

2. Uiil you see that nmn in the city ( No. 

3. That, well-known general was the n.ost distinguished an.ong the 

Komans. 

4. To this camp they hastened with all their forces. 

o. In that year two armies were led by the Uon.ans into this 

province. 
0. The (me is a poet, the other is an orator. 



us 



READIVG LESSON— VOCABULABT 



READINC LESSON 
First Expedition of Caesar to Britain (B.C. 55) 

Ante tempus Caesaris insula Britannia Romania erat incognita. 
Mercatores sol! ad regiones maritJmas ventitabant. Itaque Caesar 
mercatores ad castra sua convocavit et interrogavit : "quanta est 
magnitude insulae? quantae nationes habitant?" Nihil temen 
certi' responderunt mercatores. Deinde Caesar Caium Volusenum, 
legatuffl fortem ; cum na»j longa ad Britanniam navigare et omnia 
explorarejussit. Paulo post Caesari renuntiavit Caesar milites et 
naves comparavit et ex ora Galliae navigavit Paulo post mediam 
noctem vela ventis dedit^ et ad Britanniam quarta hora diei 
appropinquavit ubi copiae armatae hostium in collibus omnibus sunt 
visae. Hostes qui in litore stabant, Romanos prohibebant^ Caesar 
tamen moz in fugam hostes dedit. 



Vocabulary 

incognitua, a, um unknnwii explore, -are explore 

maritimus, a, um niaritinio pauto post shortly after 

ventito, -are go oft™ velum, i (N.) sail 

interrogo, -are ask, inquire ventus, i (M.) wind 

Caius, i Caius appropinqu5, -are aiJ|iioacli 

Volusenus, i Vohisenus armatus, a, um arnieil, in arms 

omnia (neut. pi.) all things mox soon 



' nihil certi, nothini; of a certainty (Fart. Gen.) --= nothing . ?rtAlii. 

3 ^ave iails to the winds = set nail. 

3 The Inipf. sometiDies denotes attempted tietioti, "tried to keep huck.' 



INTENSIVE OB EMPHATIC PRONOUNS 



143 



LESSON LIV 
INTENSIVE OK EMPHATIC PltONOUN.S 
1. Idem eadem Idem (is + dem) the- sam,, 

Ipse ipsa ipsum „„|f ,hi„,„,,f, ,„,^,,f ^^^^^f, 

I'l. thcniKtlvcs). 

*• I Idem eadem Idem sanu- 



I'l.rRAi. 



Masc. 
NoH. idem 



Fkm. 
eadem 



Nki-t. 
Idem 



M.isc. Fkm. Nkit. 

/eidem | 

liidem jeaedem eadem 
Gen. ejusdem ejusdera ejusdem eorundem earundem eorundem 

/eisdem eisdem eisdem 
Uisdem 

eosdem 



Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



eidem eidem eidem 
eundem eandem Idem 



eodem eadem eodem 



f eisdem 



iisdem 

easdem 

eisdem 

iisdem 



iisdem 
eadem 
eisdem 
iisdem 



3 

No.M. 

Oes. 
Dat. 

Ace 
Am,. 



.•If 



(.iisdem 

Ipse ipsa ipsum 

ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae ipsa 

ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum 

|PSi ipsi ipsi ipsis ipsis 

ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos ipsas 

ipso ipsa ipso ipsis ipsis 



ipsis 
ipsa 
ipsis 



4. Tl,es„ pronouns, like ,i.lj,.ctives, H«,ee with the ,,.„.„ 
expres.se<l or unilc.r,sto,H] in j;..iuler, nuniher and c.,,se. 

Special Meanings 



5- Cicero orator fuit idemque Viwr,, w 
philosophus 

idem «..i,„.ti,i,L.s l„i.-. tiM. tor f ,„„/„/.„,, ,„„,,„ ,;„, ,„,„„ ,■ 



M an Dialiir and also a 
jii]ilii.''o|)lii'r 



144 



6. Ipse may be afldwl to another word for emphasis and 
is then translated itito idiomatic English. 

Caesar ipse imperavit. 
Se ipsum interfecit. 
Ipse hoc fecisti. 



Adventii (suo) ipso 
Triginta ipsi dies 
Ipse h5c vidi. 
Mea ipsius navis 
Tuae ipsius naves 
Nostrae ipsorum naves 



Caesar in person commanded. 

He slew himself. 

You (lid this hy yourself. 

By (his) mere arrival 

KxiKrtly thirty days 

I saw this with my own eyes. 

My own ship 

Your own sliips 

Our own ships 



EXERCISE 



1. Eodem die, ea ipsa nocte, in eodem loco, eddem anno. 

2. Ab eisdem hominibus. in his eisdem oppidis, ex hac ipsa urbe. 

3. Eadem dona, eaedem mulieres, in eundem portum. per easdem 

regiones. 

4. A suo ipsius fratre, ab eisdem ducibus, contra eadem oppida. 

5. Hie idem princeps multa bella in Italia gessit. 

6. N5s ipsi hunc virum hodie vidimus. 

7. Homo servum ad se vocavit et ejus opus laudavit. 
S. Adventii suo ipso hostes terruit. 

0. Adventii ejus ipso hostes territi sunt. 

10. Ipse abhinc quattuor dies puerum vidisti. 

11. Homo ipse paucis diebus ad nos veniet. 



Iff 



1. On that very day we camo hoine. 

2. Caesar will lead the army in person. 

3. This very town was taken by the general. 

4. Did not the general himself lead tlu. irmy into battle. 

5. Were the soldiers of this legion on tluit day at Athens 1 

6. Exactly ten days ayo lie set out by the same route into the 

territory of the enemy. 

7. He .sent the same man from Athens to Italy. 



THE RELATIVK PKOXOUV 

LESSON LV 
THE RELATIVE PRONOrx 



145 



1. Qui quae quod who, whicli, what, that 



SlNliri.AK 



I'l.iKAr. 



Masc. Fkm. Nkct. .\Usc 

NoM. qui quae quod qui 

Oen. "' 



Kkh. 
quae 



Nkit. 
quae 



cujus cujus ciijus quorum quarum quorum 

"" "" quibus quibus quibus 

quos quas quae 

quibus quibus quibus 

The l»v, who is goiHl, is jiiaiscil. 



I>AT. cui cui cui 

Ace. quern quam quod 
Abl. quo qua quo 

2. Examine:— 

Puer, qui est bonus. laudltiir 

B -. """"». Muaanir. ,,„■ ,„,y who is ijoihI, is piai'icil 

Puer, cui librum dedi, est bonus. nuZy, t„ whon. I gav. J,e l.K,k, 

is good. 
Puer. quem laudivisti, est bonus. The i.„y, whon, you praise.1, is 
_ gooil. 

Ego, qui te laudavi, sum rex. J, who praised you, an, king. 

3- Rule:— 

The Relative agrees with its antecodont it, sender, number 
and peison. but its case is .ietern.ined by the construction of 
its own clause. 

4- Examine:— 

Puer. quem laudivisti, est bonus. Tl,e hoy y.,„ pr..ised is good. 

The Relative in the objective is often o.nitted in English 
ut is not omitted in Latin. " ' 

S Examine :— 

Puer, quocum venisti The l„,y with wl,o„, y„„ .-ame 

Puer^ quibuscum venisti The l.,ys with whon, .vo„ ea„,„ . : . 

Cum, wUh, is written as a stidix to the ivl.itive. 



146 

6. Examine:— 
Eundem vidi quern tu. 
Tilis est qualis semper fuit. 

Ubi puer vixit. ibi pater. 



EXERCISE 



F saw the same mjin a", vnu. 

He is (if till, sanii! iliaraeter as ho 

always was. 
Where the Imy lived, there (lived) 

the father. 



7- 



Correlatives 



Many deinonstnuivp pronouns, adjective.s and adverbs, havo 
correspond in- relative pronouns, adjectives and adverbs in a 
.subordinate clause. Tliese pairs are called Correlatives. The 
chief are : — 



idem . . qui 
talis. . .qualis 
tot. quot 
tantus . .quantus 
ibi . ubi 
inde unde 
eo . quo 



the same. . .as 

of the same character. . .ag 

as many ... as 

as large . . as 

tllere . . . where 

thence. . .whence 

thither. . .whither 



EXERCISE 



n 



iii-? 



Puella, quae domum venit, est mea soror. 
Haec dona, ijuae ad me misisti, sunt mihi gratissima 
Urbs, quam vides, est Roma. Urbem, quae in colle erat 
cepit. ' 

Milites, quorum virtus magna fuit, contra hostes a duce missi 

sunt. 
Cum militibus, quos secum babuit, venit. 
Milites, a quibus urbs expugnata est. fortes fuenint. 
Tres legiones, quae Tarenti hiemabant, ex hibemis ediicit 
Romulus, a quo urbs Roma est condita. annos septem et 

trigmta regnavit. 
Quo anno natus est Cicero, eodem Marius. 
Ego et tu tales sumus, quales semper fuimus. 
Tot erant milites quot maris fluctus. 
Diix legiones, quaruni virtiite urbs serviiU erat, laudavit. 



BBADINO LK8.SOK_VOCABlr.ARy 

B 



147 



1. That house wl.ich yo„ »«. ,> „.;,„.. I «,«• t,„ ,,„„,„ „,„^,, ^.^„ 

2. At daybreHk, I,e led .,„t of „,.,„,, ,„„ l,.„i,„„ ^i,,-^, , . _, , , , 

once against the enemy '""'' "' 

3. He led into can.,, the t.-..„p.s „• , ,,,,, „,,,„„,,,„,, 

eneT ' "' •"""""'-■'' '''''" '''■'" »-■ "^'■'■"- .'„. 
6. To Caesar they sent ambassadors of «I„„„ H,. ehi.f „hs l.u i..„ 
6. I w,l g.ve you the book yon sen. ,„e yesterday. 
I. 1 he boy you praised is the best of all 
8. The soldier by whom the general «,,, wo„„.led v.ill be ,,.,, ,„ 

10 nl '"•:;.''"7"\"'"'"'« fi-^'''" «-o Iai.l waste fle,l into the „o..ls 
10. The tnbes to whom ambassadors were sent gave hostage., 

RKADIN(! LK.S,SOX 
The Geography of Gaul 

=jr s^r r" '^-' =» ^= 

Vocabulary 



divisu*, a, um 
incolo 3 ^olui 
institutum, i 
differo (irregular) 
inter se 
divido a -visi 

-visum 
continenter 
ad 
pertineS 2 -tinul 



divided 

inhabit 

habit, custom 

differ 

from one anotiK 

separate 

eontinuou8l3' 
at, ni^xt to 
extend 



Belgae, arum 

Aquitani, drum 
Celtae, ?rum 
Ganimna, ae 
Matrona, ae 
Aquitania, ae 
Sequana, ae 
Pyrenaei, drum 



Belgae, 

IV-liiiiiiis 
Aipiitani 

CV-lLs 

^Jaronnu 

Marire 

Aquitania 

Si'fne 

I'yrenees 



148 THE istkrr<x:ativk prokoun 

LESSON LVI 
THK INTKRKOCATIVK PUONOrX 
!• Quis quae quid who! which? what? 

SlNfill.AB I'r.lKAl. 





Maw. 


I'KM. 


Nkit. Maw. 


Fkm. 


Neit. 


NOM. 


quis 


quae 


quid qui 


quae 


quae 


(■KN. 


ciijus 


ciijus 


ciijus quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


1)AT. 


C'ji 


cui 


cui quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


A(V. 


quein 


quam 


quid quos 


quas 


quae 


A Bl,. 


quo 


qua 


qu5 quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


2. 


The Interi'tjgntivo 


Adjective is 








qui quae quod 


which? what? wliiit kind o 


? 



it Ik (Icclinetl \ike the relative qui, quae, quod. 

Strictly 8|i«al(iiig, the feminine (onns are iiaed only as ailjectivea. 

3. Examine:— 

Quis hoc fecit? Who .lid this? 

Qui puer hoc fecit? What Iwy did this? 

Quid dedit? What did ho give? 

Quod donum dedit? What gift did he give? 
The interrogative pronoun is nsed witliout a noun. 
The interrogative adjective is used in agreement with 






4- The maRculine form quis is sometimes nsed as an adjective, but it 
will he well in doing the exercise to observe the distinction made above. 

EXERCISE 

A 

I. Quis hoc dixit? Quae puetla hoc dixit? Quid hie puer dixit? 

-i. Quern laudavisti? Quem puerum laudas? Hie est puer quern 

laudo. 
.1. Quis est ille ? Qui vir est ille ? Ille est vir quem ruri vidi. 
4 Cujus liber est hie ? Cui librum dedisti ? Quem librum habes? 
'>. A qu5 est urbs condita? Qua de causa virum interfecerunt ? 
6. Quas urbes eo anno cepit Caesar? Quod consilium barbari 

fecerunt? 



IWDEFINITR FR0X0PX8 

B 



149 



5 Tt '■'''!'':'■" '"■"""■"■' •^- •'"■>• .1.,. ..,f,i,....., 

'• ";l;;;:: '''■•''''---"■•■ *..' wi...,,.,. 

' "'cl::;;;:;::;:::; -^ •''■■• -n.-^ w. ,..., 

LKSSOX LVII 
r.VDKFIXITK I'UoXorX.S 

1. The Tn.Ietinitc P.,„„„i„s .-.le .liifHy 

quis. fqua,, quid .u„l qui, qua .,", quae, quod, 

2. In tl,. com,,.,un.I.s the pronominal part alone is ,leeMne.l. 

3- In (lie iieiitei-, f„nnx i„ a„iH ...e i,««l 

fon„s i„ quod a.e use,l as ./J"!! ' '" '"■"""""-' 

4- aliquis, aliqua, aliquid ,„ aliquod „. „„„ 

quisquam, quidquam .^' ' "" 

quidam, quaedam, quiddam ,„ quoddam .■!"",.,'.','','o„ „,„.. . 

quisque, quaeque, quidque ,„■ quodque ..■„'h""'" 

qums, quaevis, quidvis ,„ quodvis a„v v„„ »i.h 

qu.l.bet, quaelibet, quidiibet n,- quodlibet anV [Z ^i 
yuidam Ills quendam. quandam w \,. si„ , ',,'i - ^ 
quarundam i.. <:,.„. I'l. ' ""' <l''0''"ndai::. 

Quis is „se,l after si, nisi, ne, num, quo .u„l quanto. 

'■■ .•„,,, .,p,„„h,ig ;„lj,.,.tiv,. ,„ quisquam is ullus, Slla, Qllum. 
Qmsquam .,,,,1 ullus an- , , ,,,i,.,lv i ,.,iv,. .,.„„. .•.,, .„ 

Quisquam is.lig|„ij. ,,,„„.„, , „^^^ ^___^^,^^^_^^ ^^^^^^ ^^.^_ 



! • . M 



150 



EXERCISB 

EXERCISE 



1. Num quisquam hoec dixit? Num quemquam vidisti? 

'2. Num quidquam audivisti? Num quidquam morte tristius est? 

3. Oratorem quendam in foro vidimus. 

4. Suos amicos quisque amat. Sui cuique amici cari sunt. 

t^. Domum suam quisque profectus est. Num quid de hac re 

audivisti ? 
0. Hunc puerum aliquis laudavit. Homo quidam mibi hoc dixit. 




KEADINri LK8S0N - VOCAHULAKY 



161 



HKADINr, LKSSON 
Dei Romanorum 

^pHer^ rtlins S.tur„i, rex deorum et hominum in c.el5 regnibat. 

Fratres Jovis appellati sunt Nq>tr„M,.s et I'luio • hie «.rn„m 
mortuorum, iUe imperium maris tenibat. ' ^ 

Uxor Jovis et regina caeli erat Jono. 

Mars, fOius Jovis et JQnonis, erat deus belli 

Mercuriu« erat deorum nuntiuset artium inventor et dux viarum 

Apollo erat deus floquentiae miisiceque et morbos depellebir 

M.uerva, fflia Jovis, erat dea sapientiae. 

Ceres homines artem agriculturae docebat 

Vesta, foe! dea, inter Romanos maxime colebatur 

Dea silvarum et venationU erat Diana 

Venus erat dea pulchritiidinis et amoris. 

Vulcinus erat deus ignis et fabrorum. 



cole Scolul 

cultum 
caelum, i 
imperium, i 
inventor, oris 
eloquentia, ae 
musica, ae 
morbus, i 



Vocabulary 



worship 



heaven, sky 

eonimand, empire 

inventor 

elcMjenee 

music 

disease 



depello 3 .puli 

-pulsum 
agricultura, ae 
focus, i 
venatid, onis 
pulchritiido, inis 
amor, 5ris 



drive away 

atfrirulture 

hearth 

hmititig 

beauty 

love 



I 1 



! ' 



152 



PAKTICIPLKS 



LESSON LVIII 

VAIITKMPLES 

I. A Participle is ii Vi-rlinl-AilJcftive. 

As a vprb, it lias voice ami tense, may I* in(xlifie<l hv an 
nrlvi'il), anil may govern an objeot in the same easi- as llie vcil> 
of wliicli it is a pail. 

As an mljectiiv, it is declined and agrees in gender, numlier, 
and case with the noun or pronoun which it modifies. 



2. 



Participles Active Voice 



T'kesknt 
l.st Coiij. amans (wliile) lovinj^ 
■2iiil Coiij. monens Iwliilc) ad^i.iinj^ 
fregens (wliilc) ruling 
' Icapiens (wliilu) taking 
4lli Ciinj. audiens (wliile) lieaiiiiii; 



.'iril Corij. 



FrTI'KK 

amat urus alMiut to liive 

monit uru<t about to ailvxK 

rect urus alimit to riilu 

capt urus ^ilMiiit to taku 

audit urus al>oiit to ii»ir 



3. Formation and Declension 

The Pre.«ent Participle Active is formed in e.-icji conjiigatinii accoriling 
to tile alHive types, and is declined like amans and prudens (Lesson 
XXXIV). 

Tlie Future I'artiiiple Active is formed tiy adding -iirus to tlie 
Supine stem, anil is deeliiied like bonus, a, um, as amaturus, a, um. 

4. Force and Meaning 

The Present Participle Active denotes time contemporaneous 
with that of the main verb in the sentence. 

Eum venientem video. I see liim eoniing. 
Eum venientem vidl. I Haw liim coming. 

Eum venientem videbo. I sliall see liim coming. 

5. Ft is rarely translated by the bare Knglish participial 
form. 

TAs I was walking 'i 
I While walking I 

Ambulans eum vidi. ^\.|,.|,. , „.,^, „,,,i,i„j, ' »"w him. 

iDiiriiiL' inv walk J 



EXEKUISE 



153 



6. The Future Participle .Utive .len.ites iH.tli f„lm-ilu and 
intfntion, 

pugnitiirus /alioiit to, jroing t<i, iiileinlinj,' to, 

I likoly to tij,'lit 
Pugnituri sumus. /^^'« '"'• Koi'-g t» AkIiI. 

(Wv inteiiil to figlit. 

Pugnitur: eramus. /^^''' "f'^ t'"i»*! t" tiglu. 
(.We iiiteiKleil lo light. 

7- EXERCISE 

I. Write out tl». pririL-ijMl parts of ti.e following vcrl.« ■ . 

laudo. .edifice do. video, moved, deled, mitto. gero. accipio 
lugio, munio, venio. "■-■-'I'lu. 

■-'. For... present a.ul future parti.iples active of each of tl.ese verl«. 

8 Two Rules for Participles 

(1) Tl.e participle must agree will, tlie „oum „r pronout. 
which it modifies. 

(2) Always put the participle at the end of its phrase. 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. Dux fortiter pugnans interfectu* est 

interfecti sunt. 

2. Climores mUitum pugnantium in urbe auditi sunt 

3. Hostes ex castrls venientes vidimus. 

4. Mihi de fratre suo roganti nihil respondit. 

5. A Caesare in provinciam discedente pacem petiverunt. 

Pater"™, ™h '"P'f '« J" ""'t™' »«niente, tela conjiciebant 
Pater fflium domo discedentem monuit 

M^i'^^' ''°*!f „*-"" ""™ ■""«"«•»*» .egressus est. 
Mul ■tud.nem Gallorum ad castra venienUum interfecimus 
Nobis de proeho rogantibus nihU respondistis 
Pnmo vere bellum gestiiri sumus. Picem f.ctiiri eratis 

ertTui!""" *"" ""*""' "■"• °'* P"*'"" i"^ f«ctari 
Duxmiiitea m ca.tr. est reductiiru.. I„ c«tris er«,t mansuri 
Barban pugnaturi climorem faciunt. "«»"". 

Puella epistolam ad matrem est missura. 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
II. 



13. 
14. 
15. 



Fortiter pugnuites 



164 



THB PRRFKOT PAUTICIPLK PAaSIVB 



K. 

'.I. 
1(1. 
11. 

12. 
13. 



. B 

I heard ynti shunting. }\c will hear us shouting. 

Miiiiy enemies were seen devtiAtuting <tur hmds. 

Caesiir intuntls to leiul liitck his forces at daybreak. 

Did yon not set; the fanner coming to town i 

Wr inttnd to carry on war with the Ganls this summer. 

We siiall st'e him departing for Greece. 

The soldiers intend to make an attack on the tiyini; enemy. 

Are you J<"ing to send a letter to day / 

<hi his departure from tlie camp Caes;ir aHsembles the officers. 

When ynu aske<l al>out the journey we did not reply. 

We heard the words of the leader as he was praising the- 

soldiers. 
Our men found many thousands of the enemy devastating the 

fields of the allies. 
The .S4ildiers intend to fictify the camp with a rampart and 

trench. 



LESSON LIX 
THK PERFECT PARTICTPLK PASSIVE 

1. As has l>een stated in previous lessons, tlie Perfect 
Participle Passive is formed l>y acJding -US to the supine stem, 
and is declined like bonus, a, um (page 33). 

2. 'riie Perfect Participle Passive denotes time antecedent 
to that of tlie main verb in the sentence. 

Hostes repulsi in silvas fugerunt. 

/■repulsed ^ 

The enemy J being repulsed '* 



[tied into the woods. 



Uiiiving Ih'cii repulsed I 
3. The Perf. Part. Pass, is often translatefi in other ways 



I ban by I be bare Kimiisb participial form. 



Homo 



captus 

/whrn iMUglit 



interficietur. 



(wiM'n eaught \ 

if , .night 
i lie man . nilvv bcini; eauglit j-will Jh- 



put to death. 



now lltat lie iw ranglil 
siM'i- hi- has iK'i-ri ^■au^h^ ) 



i It 



RXRUnxK 



155 



Scheme of Participles 



ACTIVK 

Present anuns (while) l„vii,- 

Pk'"'"^ Imviiig l„vt.,r 

FuTrRK amaturus ahmt to lovr 

/• no IVifiici Pint. Act. 

Latin lianJ no Piisi'iit Part. Pa.ss. 

[ no FutHiT I'art. Pass. 



PAS.SIVB 

(«liile)lKMiigloved 

amatus hiiving liiin lovwl 

iiiMiiit til lie loved 

liaviij^ loviil 
(wilili) lieirig loved 
aUiut to Iw loveil 



PAS.SIVK 

Pkukkit 
monit ui 
rect us 
capt us 

audit us 



AcTIVK 
PuraKNT FlITIRK 

monens monit urus 

fgens rect urus 

capiens capt iirus 

fupens fugit iirus 

audiens audit iirus 

▼eniens vent iirus 

5. Intransitive verbs have no Pert. Part. Pa»». unles.* used 
impersonally, as ,r, pugrnatum est, literally, U „„u fon,,!,, . ,/,. /„,«,, ,^ 
f"u,jl.t .- nuntiatum est, mrU ™. bro„.j/u. The ,ul,ie,t i„ ,uch eases 
IS contained in the verb. 

6. Note that 'M,i,, a,hhed,' 'hei,,,, hrani: ' >,n,„j tntn.' have the 
force and meaning of ' kari,,,, W„ ,„/,.(..,/, • /„„..,.,, V.,. /,.„,.,/,• . /,„„•„„ 
^ptuf '"''""'' """" ** "■'""'''""' "'"""'"■S'.v I'y monitus, auditus, 

EXERCISE 



1. Write out the principal parts ,,f tin- following v,rl.. 
comparo, perterreo. jubeo, c gnosco, c6g», fundo, peto. pello 
pono, munio, tito, interflcio. 

•_'. Write a sihenie of |>artuipU,B „f ,.acli of lhe.se verbs. 

a What is the rule for a participle in regard to agreentent and in 
regard to iioaition ? 

B 

1. Germani agris expulsl ad RhAium pervenerunt. 

2 Tanta multitudine hostium perterriti, trans flumen fugemnt. 

.1 His rebus coacti, impedimenta reliquerunt. 

4. Impedimenta in castris relicU ab hostibus sunt capta 



f I 



156 EXERCISE 

5. Frater consulis, a senatu condemnatus, in exilium profectiu est 

6. Hanc urbem a Romulo conditam ego serravi 

7. Viros multos et fortes urbe eductos ad pontem miseras. 

s. Legiones undique circumventae tandem se dedere coactae sunt 

9. Bellum a te susceptum a me est confectum. 

10. Regno expulsus novis copiis bellum renovavit 

11. Ab urbe condita; post urbem conditam. 



1. Ill the city fiiiindeil by Romulus. !n tlie cities taken by the 

enemy. 

2. Intii the camp pitchiMl nn the top of the hill. Of the wounded 

soldier. 

3. Concerning tlie books nrijlteii by you. Behinil the captured 

camp. 

4. The walls of the destroyed city. Tlie arms of the conquered 

enemy. 

5. With the ambassadors sent by the enemy to the general. 

6. In the camp fortifieil with a rampiirt and trench. 

7. To his brother surrounded by the enemy. To the legions 

surrounded. 

8. The letter sent by you yesterday was received by me to-day. 

it. Terrified by the shouts of the Iwrliarians, our men threw away 
their ;irms. 

10. After being seve- jly wounded, the leader fought bravely. 

11. Since they have been conipiered, the enemy will seek 

l)eace. 

12. If captured, they will be put to death. If condennied, they 

will Hee. 

13. This city, after being besieged for eight months, was at last 

suiTendereil. 



PARTICIPLK8 OP DEPONENT VERBS— VOiABULARY UJ 

LKSSON LX 

parti('iplf:,s of dkpdxext verbs 

I. Pbesknt mirans (wl.ile) verens sequens blandiens 

iidiiiiring 
FiTi KK miraturus al.,„i u. veriturus secuturus bl«iditQrus 

admin; 
PEKFKrr miratus l,avi„g veritus seciitus blanditus 

A dep,>,„.„t verb l.as three participles, the present and 
tiitiire Imiiig i.f tlie active form. 

Tl,e perfect participle is found in the third principal part. 
The future jwrtLiple is found hy chan-in- -us of the 
perfect participle to -urus. 

The perfect participle of a transitive de^H^nent verb ha.s 
(with few exceptions) an active meaning. 



got, ol)tiiiii 
am lior-n 
(lie 



*• Vocabulary 

nanciscor nancisci nactus sum 
nascor nasci natus sum 

morior mori mortuus sum 

decem annos natus, l,„n, i.„ yi.ai-.s = ,u ilu- ag,. „f te„ 
moriens, living ^ 

moriturus, aliimt tculier^" ''"*'' ''°»"i 't'' 
mortuus, duail 

Eos mortuos laudamus. ' ^^ '• '"'"'■'"' ""^"' 'wIil") ilia.l. 

1 AfliM- their dmitli we |iiai»(; theiri. 

EXERCISE 

A 

1. Oive U,e participles „f hortor. Conor, polliceor, proficiscor. patior 
progredior, agfgredior. 

'■ ^'bfa'nditr,'™""^ ""'"*'"• ""'"'■ '"""■ """'"»• •"'«''"' 
3. Progrredieas, pr6g;ressus, egrediens, egresaus; sequens, seciitu.. 



f 

I 1] 



IS8 



EXKKCIHB 



progress! copias hostium in altera ripa 



4. Nostri ad fliimen 
instructas viderunt. 

5. Consules, ford egressi. militesad Canipum Martium convocavenint 

6. Barbari, signa Romfcua procul conspicati, statim fugerunt 
". Ex urbe profecti, ad exercttum tertio die, pervenerunt. 

t*. Hostes fugientes decern mitlia passuum seciiti, magnum 

numerum eorum interfecerunt. 
Tempestatem idoneam nactus, media nocte ad Britanniam 

navigavit. 
Ex castris proficiscens, legates r.-m hostibus postero die 

pagnare jussit. 

11. Dux noster hostes impedimentl': cutiri conantes aggressus est. 

12. Equites, septem millia passuum ; '-ogressi, reverterunt. 



9. 



10. 



1. Mak» tile folltiwinj; participles agree with a subject in the 

Noiii. PI. Masc. :— While atteinptiiig, after attcinptiiig ; 
when setting out, after setting out ; while following, having 
followed ; while attacking, having attacked. 

2. At last, having ol)t,iincd suitable weather, the lieutenants set 

sail witli all the Hhij>8. 

3. Having exliorted the soldiers, they drew uj) tlio line. 

4. Having gained pc«se.ssion of the baggage and camp of the 

enemy, they sent the cavalry to Caesar. 

5. After delaying three days in the territory of the enemy, they 

set out jis <[uickly as possible f<ir the cani[>. 
ti. At the age of twenty he was maile gcnenkl of the army. 

7. Having crossed the river with all his forces, he pursued the 

enemy, for two hours. 

8. Caesar attacked the enemy while they were attempting to lead 

their forces across the river. 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 



169 



LESSON LXI 
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 
I. Examine:— 

Urbe CPU. copiis reduxit. Th. Hty having 1..,, ,„ke„. 1,., 1„, 

_ ^ '"ii^k liin forces. 

c--.^., ^., «, c..„«.,.™,,.,, 

In English the Nominative is u.se.l as the case absolute ■ i„ 
Latin the Ablative is so used. 

Atthur*"" '""'*'"'""' ■'"' ""■' ''""'"'' ""^ '" ''- ^-"-i-tive 

wi"'^rl!l'"r"^ Ablative an.l capti i, the Perf. Part. Pa.». agreeing 
HUh urbe Caesare ,s ,n the Ablative and the «ljective absente 
agrees Willi Caesare. j'^mx' anente 

2. Absohite (from ab solvo, loo..n from) means i,„Up,nd»,l A,, 
a^.s....te ph^se i., Kra.niatical.y ii,.,epe„dent of the 'Test ^ thL 

3. The ablative absolute is a very common construction in 
Latm and as a rule should not lie tran.slated literally into 
English but according to the niea.iing intende,! to be convey.nl 

The ablative absolute is use,! to designate the time, cause 
manner, conditioti, or circumstances of an action. 

4. It may !«» variously composed as follows — 
(a) A promiiii ami noim, ,»■, i,„o nmmx ._ 



te duce 



I yim (iK-ing) leader 
I upidn your leadernbip 



Caesare consulel ^'-"T ""■"''^* ™"""' 

I 111 the coiisulHhip of ('aesar 

Note that the verb sum has no pr..«eiit ,«rtieiple to represent -hH„,.' 
(b) A noun <>r jmmonii, nud an ailj.vtire :~ 

imperatore praesente m ! !„■ pn's..!,,-,. „f i|„. s;,,„,.r,U 

"• """o aitanml my wish 



160 



VOCABULARY — F.XKRCISK. 



(c) A ttoHU or irrnnotin, n»'l n present participle arlire : — 

Tarquinio regnuite in the ri'i),'ii nf Tari|uiii 
me dicente while I was Npeaking 

{il) A noun lyr /ironoiin, ami it perfect /larticipfe fmssire . — 



Caesar, opere confecto, 
mUites reduzit 



'having fiiilHhetl tlie work, 
after, seeing lliat, now that, 
sinee, a\ lien the woi'k was finished, 
after liiiisliing the wink, 
in eonM-qnence of the work l)eing 

V finished. 



Cuesar led 
baek his 
soldiers. 



Latin has no perf'-ct partiriple a<-tive {fiarhi;/ lured). 

Only Defionent verlts have a jM'i-feet participle with an active meaning. 

You cannot translate ' Inii-iiifj liik.'n Ihf i-i(,i.' • haiuiiii jiiiialirit lln- irurk.' 
literally inio l,.itin. These phrases nni-t he expres.sed hy urbe capta, 
the city liiiriiiij }ieen tiikin : opere confecto, ili" n;,rk Imrimj lieen jiiii.^hnl. 

That is, the active |>artieiple nnist he changed to the passive and the 
ablative ahsoUite used. 



absens, tis 
praesens, tis 
insciens, tis 



Vocabulary 



absent 
preseld. 
not knowing, 
ignorant 



infirmus, a, um weak 
invitus, a, um unwilling 
impero, -are lomniand 



If 81 



EXERCISE 
A 

Translate as Ablative Alisolutes. 

1 . Me imperante ; te absente ; eis absentibus ; consule praesente. 
'J. Consulibus praesentibus ; Caesare insciente ; navibus infirmis. 

3. Hostibus petentibus : castris raiinitis ; epistola accepta. 

4. Pompeid et Crasso consulibus ; itinere confecto ; te duce. 

5. At Cae.sjir'H command ; in my absence ; in the presence of the 

whole army. 



KXKRCI8I! 



161 



6. With..u. ,lu. k,.,.wle.l,.. „f the Kencrnl ; „„.ior my Ie».l..n„,i„ 
'• A««,„st ,h« wish ,.f his .....„her; „„ ,h„ J,,,,,. ..f ,.„ 
enemy. 

** '^'fltlT "' "'" '""^•^^""^ ■■ "'"^^'- •'"• ''-a^tat,.,.. ..f 
». I..a.much « the c»v«lry were route.. ; havi„„ ,„tehe.l the ca.np 



B 

1. Militibus comparitis, beUum est gestum 

3 Re nuntiata, puerum ad te mittam. 

4. Omnibus armU triditis, in rtnes hostium veniemus. 

b H« rebus cognitis, irapetum in hostes ficimus. 
,. Hoc nuntio audito. barb«i castr. in monte posuerunt. 
« Imp«rator his rebus adductu, exercitum comparivit 
■'. Castris munitu. mflites quieti se dederunt 



4! 



1. When they receive.l the mes.sage, they ,„..ved the c»„>p 

2. Hhv,„k heard these- words, he set out fro,,. Ro,„e with live 

lei;loii8. 

3. After all fi«„l hn,l l»en .suMued, Cae.sar hastened t„ Italy 

4. Ihe hoy after the death of his father, was sent to Athens.' 

«. When I had d.me these things, I hastened home 

' ' tree""' '""'""' "** "''"'"'''' "' ""-' '"''"'"• "■" "" ''••'' "'^' ■"■•"■'"^'- 
8. After the capture of the town, we ^ave up our arms. 

'"-;-;."— "f the defeat of the enen.y, «„.at pmise was 
Kiven ti. our ijeneral. 



II 



»««OCOPy .iSOWTIOfl TBT CHAM 

(ANSr o„d rSO TEST CHART No. 2) 





162 



READINO LKS80N — VOCABULARY 



READING LESSON 
Caesar defeats the Britons 

Caesar, exercitu exposito, locum castris idoneum cepit. Cohortibus 
decern ad mare relictis, cum reliquis militibus de tettia vigilia ad 
hostes contendit Ipse noctu progressus millia passuum circiter 
duodecim, hostium c5pias conspicatus est. 111! equitatu atque 
essedis ad flumen progress! ex Ioc5 superiore nostros prohibebant.i 
Repulsi ab equitatu se in silvas abdiderunt'', locum nacti egregie 
et natiira* et opere" miinitum quern domestic! belli causa* jam ante 
praeparaverant Ipsi ex silvis rari propugnabant' nostrosque intra 
miinitidnes ingredi prohibebant'. At milites legionis septimae 
locum ceperunt eosque ex silvis expulerunt. Sed hostes fugientes 
longe Caesar su5s prosequi' non passus est. 



' Observe the force of the imperfect tense. ' (went) into the wood-' <and) concealed 
themselves. ■■■ Translate idiomatically by adverbs. * Always placed after the word it 
governs. ' Observe the force of pro. ' 



Vocabulary 



ex pdn5 land 

noctii (adv.) in tluMiight 

atque and al»o 

esseda, ae cluiriot 

natiira, ae nature 

egregie (adv.) admiraWy, 

excellently 



domesticus, a, um domestic, civil 



causa 
prae paro 
rarus, a, um 
expello 8 -pull 
-pulsum 
longe 



for tiio sake of 
prepare beforehand 
thin, far apart 

drive out 



KEVIEW OS PARTICIPLES— SPKriAL POINTS 



163 



LESSON LXII 
REVIEW ON PAUTICIPLKS SPECIAL POTNTS 

1. English participial fonns m.i.st i.i all oases 1„. traiislaKtl 
into Latin according to their real meaning and f.,n.v. 

2. Examine:— 

('0 When st■ttill^'mlt from canip, lip wanu-,1 t\w li.Mt.-iianls. 

E castris proficiscens legatos monuit. 
(A) Setting out at daybreak, he reaehed .Minp l„.f„re mulUy. 

Prima luce profectus ad castra ante meridiem pervenit. 
(<•) Hearing tlie shout, the enemy fluil. 

Clamore audito, hostes fugerunt. 
In (/,) and (r) the present participles ' ...itlu.j „„r :uul 'h., „■;„.,• have 
the foree of perfeet participles and u,ea„ ' h„ri,„j „t ,.„r an,l ■'/„„■„,„ 
heard, and are translated as such. 

3- Examine :- 

Feaihig an aniliush, the general led hack his forces. 
Insidias veritus, dux copias suas reduxit. 

In this sentence 'fiarh,,,- has a causal force and means ' .h ' ,„■ 

because he /mred.' The perfect [mrticiple of a deponent vch will 
represent the English present participle when used in this sense. 

4- Examine: — 



(«) Ha\ hig heard the speech 
(A) Having followed the enemy 
((•) Having set out 
{</) Having fled 



- oratione audita 
= hostes secijtus 
= profectus 

- postquam fiigit = after he Ih,! 
You cannot translate the perfect participle „f ,„, inlrans;. i^,. 

verb in English by a participle in Latin nnle.ss y„„ have an 
equivalent deponent. 

5. Examine:— 

(■0 Consul creatusmmtescom^rripsit. Having been elected <o„.„l, 

he enrolled .soldiers. 
('.) Consulecreato, milites conscripti .\ ,„nsul having !„.„ dcid 
*""'• soldiers were en ,1. 



164 



EXEKCISE 



I! i 



(c) Urbem captam deleverunt. 
((/) Urbe capta, discesserunt. 



(They<le! 
Having 



,_, (lestroj-edthecitytaken. 
ving taken the city, they 
; (lestroye*! it. 
I They took and destrnyeit the 
\ city. 
Having taken the city, they 
departed. 

A noun <.r pronoun cannot l,c in the al.lativo al.solute if it 
i« the subject or object of anoll>er verb. (See e.xau.ples 
(o) and (c). 

Notice that the l)est way t« translate such an idiom as 
(c) is by two co-ordinate verbs. 

EXERCISE 

■ ^ 

1. Consulibus creatis, multi urbe excesserunt. 

Consules creati urbe excesserunt. 

Hostes repulsi obsides statim dederunt. 

Hostibus repulsis, dux noster copias suas in hiberna reduxit. 

Duce Tulnerato, mUites perterriti fugerunt. 

Ducem Tulnetatum roilites servaverunt. 

Cicero. postquammult6sann6sR6n«evixit,Athenasprofectusest. 

Barbari centurionem circumventum interfecerunt. 
Postquam ad flumen pervenerunt. castra m ripa P»»»"';"' . 
Hostibus fortiter pugnantibus, equites :mped.ment.s non pot.ti 
sunt. 

B 

Ho called the contnrinns toirether an.l exl,.,rtcd then,. 

AtStgthe enen.y with all their forces, the Uon.ans drove 
them into the woods and nionntanis. 

Abandoning their bagg^^e, t'- «— '» '-'''"^'' """" "" 

Q,Sy gathering all -heir fore... they set .,ut against the 
barburians. 



VOCABULARY— INPIMTIVE 



165 



6. Hearing a ,h,„u l,ehi„,l .heir o.,„,,, ,1,., ene-.y flo.I i„t„ tl.e 

7. Advancing ^x ,„iles i„ fl,„ „i.|„, ,„„„ ,,,^^..|,„, ^,_^. 

caiiip at (laylinali. ^ 

8. l^Bina •!- sanu, ,„e„ fas) ..ides. >l,ey a.lvanced against ,i,, 

light imig ,,f 1,111- aiiny. 



T,^„,la.e int„ idi„„,alic K„.h,h, ,v,„h.,i„. „„. r,,,,, ,„„i,.i„l..s 

i::;;;-^'"" ™-'">-^"«' '■-•^ .h.. ....L, :t: 

His dimissis et ventum et aestum uno tempore nactus secundum 
date s,po et sublatis ancorls, c.rciter millia passuum se^eTabTo 
loco progrressus, aperto ac piano litore naves constituit. 

Vocabulary 

dimitto .li,s„,i.,s circiter (Adv.) „i„„a 

t'^.rfLtuir '^ ■""■ :r^-- - 

sublatum .aiso, wei.d, planus, a, um kvel 

ancora. ae anchnr constituo 



LESSON LXIII 



TXFINTTTVK 
I- Am 6 am are amav i amat um 

AfTIVK 

Presknt am are to l„„ 



I'KUFEOT amav isse /„ /,„,.,■ to„«/ 

FuTiiRK amat urus esse lo he „lm,.t i„ /,„ 



I'AsarvK. 

fo In- /ut'ftf 



IVrfiipt Sli'rii I 

-isse 
Fiilure Partiuiph. 
^ esse 



I'KEsKNT am ari 

I'KRFKfT amat us esse >„ /„„., /,„„ ,„,,,,, 



-are of Active 

chaiigerl to -ari 

Pcrfi'ft ]'attiei|ih' 

'^-KK amatumiri .. ,. .,,,„u.. ,. ,„., S^'" ^ '^' 



; 

f: 



156 






INPtNITIVR 






2. 


Mone5 

Rego 

Audio 


mon 

reg 
aud 


ere monu i 
Sre rex i 

ire audiv I 


n\onit um 
rect um 
audit um 








A( TIVE 






Present 
Perfect 
Future 


mon ere 
monu isse 
monit urus esse 


reg 8re 
rex isse 
rect iirus esse 




aud ire 
audiv isse 
audit iirus esse 








Passive 






Present 
Pei;ke(.t 
Future 


mon eri 
monit us 
monit um 


esse 
iri 


regi 

rect us esse 

rect um iri 




aud iri 
audit us esse 
audit um iri 



Tlie present infinillre active, is learned with the principal 
parts. 

Note well the ending of the present infinitive passive of 
each conjugation. 

First -ari ; Second -eri ; Tliird -i ; Fourtli -iri 

3. Capio cap 8re cep i capt um 

cap «re cep isse capt iirus esse capi cap tus esse captum iri 

4. Intransitive Verbs 

fu i fut urus (See page 46, Footnote) 

nig i fugit um 

ven i vent um 

, . ( fut iirus esse 

fu isse , 

I fore 

fiig isse fugit iirus esse 

ven isse vent iirus esse 

Intransitive ve.l)» as a rule have no pasaivo infinitives. When these 

occur tliey are used imper.sonally. (Compare Lesson LIX, 5). 



Sum 


esse 


Fu^lo 


fug Sre 


Venio 


ven u'e 


. 


esse 




fug 8re 




ven ire 



5. Examine:— 

; () Ab alils laudiiri est gratum. 

(h) Parentesamareestlaudabile. 
(■•) Fallere est semper turpe. 
(</) Bellum gerere parat. 
(<■) Omnes discedere jubet. 



To he praised hy others is a 

pleasant thing. 
Fihal affection is praiscwortliy. 
Deceit is always l)asc. 
He is preiMrhig to carry on war. 
He orders all to dejiart 



EXFIiOISE 



167 



Observe :- 



An infinitive may U, „s(,..l iis tli.^ sul.j.-ct of a verl>. It is 
then regarded as a neuter ii,nin an.l ,i prmlicate adjective is 
m the r-iuter singular, as in (a), (4), (c). 

An infinitive may l)e translate' l)y an al)stract nonn, as 
in (i), (c). A C,mi/)/emnilai-y i.ihnitive may serve in the 
predicate of a sentence, as in {,1), («). 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. Write the p.,ncipal parts „f deleo and pello. Write- a list of the 

mfii.itives of each of these verhs, ami state after ea.h iiilinitive 
the rule for its formation. 

2. Write the principal parts of the following verbs an.l a list of the 

infinitives of eacli : — 

occupo, do; jubeo, moved, video; fundo. gero, mitto, peto, 
pond ; munio ; maneo ; vivo. 

B 

1. Deleturus, dcletiirus esse ; deletus, dcletus esse ; deleri, deletum 

iri. 

2. Mittens, mitti ; misisse, missus esse ; missunis esse, missum iri. 

3. Iter per Galliam facere p.irat. Ex civitate discedere parant 

4. Bellum gerere est semper periculosum. 

5. Per agros vere ambulare est nobis gratissimum. 

6. Caesar hostes friimentum ad se mittere jussit. 

7. Castra munire constituerant. Fortiter pugnare est vincere 

8. Hostes friimentum dare coegit. Nostros circumvenire conaci 

sunt. 

9. Romanos in fines suds ingredi non patiuntur. 
10. Castra vi expugnare conati sunt. 



To give, to be given, (wliile) giving ; about to give, to be aij< 



to give. 



To have given, to have been given, having been given ; to be 
about to be given. 



168 



ACCrSATIVF. WITTI INFINITIVE 



3. Til Iw scekiiis, to l>o snufilit ; t<i lie Hiij,'iii',', t.) Ik- wageil ; to lie 

eciiiiiii;. 

4. The iiwistei' onluis tliu slavu U< do this work. 

5. (Jrder the skve to come home. To leiiiiiiii in the eonntry is 

(hinge rolls. 
Ci. Tlie Roniiuis will jireimre to ciiiiy on w.ir :ii;iiiiist tin- (iiiiils. 

7. Hesitation (dubitare) in liiittle is defeat. Te:u■llin^' lioys is not 

always pleasant. 

8. It is better to yive than to receive. 

9. Writinj; letters to friends will always deli;.!ht ns. 

10. He did in)t allow them to depart. They will attempt to take 

the eainp. 

11. They will force us to leave onr territory. 



LESSON I.XIV 
ACCUSATIVE AVITll INFINITIVE 

I. In EnglUli we say either 

I know tlial he is a good man, or 
I kiKiw him to be a good man. 

Latin uses only the latter construetion : 

Scio eum esse virura bonum. 

This construction is called the Acriimtitv with Infiiiitirp 

It is used after verbs of ■iiii/imj, lieiiriliij, Ihiiikimj, hdieniiij, kiiuwiiiti, 
and tlie like, and after sueli e.xpressions as it ii nrtaiii, il it vmiiifeM, 
it iii trtti-. 

f =1 know the liov lo be lirave. 
2. 1 kno« that tlio Irny is brave , g^.^^ ^^^^^ esje fortem. 

He said that the enemy were J = He said (lie enemy lo be e.miing. 

coming L Dixit hostes venire. 

f=He lias lieanl the enemy to lie 
Ho has heard that theeiiemy will I .^i^^^i^ (,, ^^^^^^^, 

™'ue I Audivit hostes ventiiros esse. 



ACOUSATIVK wrril INPIXITIVK 



169 



H is iimnifrst iliiu tli,. .ii.mhv | '' '''"'""'''■"' '''>' '■■"••my 1. 1 Iuivb 

haw. i-ciine | '"'•nie. 

>■ Manifestum est hostes venisse. 

j ■= II is plain rliil.lii.ri to In.- l„v,-,l 

n iH plain that cl,il,lr,.n an l„v,.,i ( l,v llnir ,wr. nts 

1..V tl„.i, pa,..„ts Manifestum est liberos a 

{ parent! bus amari. 

3- The Tense of the Infinitive 

The tense of tlie infinitive will h,. the tense used in the 
indicative, if the speaker's Nv„nls were aitf.allv leporte,! ■ the 
perfect infinitive representing all past tenses „f the indicative. 

ACTIAI. \VoKI.S Rk|>OKTKI> Sl-EKIH [,^t,^ 

'i^'" '"'^' '" « '• I "^ ™." """ 'I- l-y ."K-l. Dicit'puerum 

Puer est bonus. f «. C 

' esse bonum. 

He said that tin- l,oy was g„o,l Dixit puerum 

esse bonum. 
The boy was «,x»l. |He says that the U,y was g.,o,l. Dicit puerum 

Puer erat bonus. / , ■ *"""'" 

He said that the 1, ,v was .o,„l. D.-xSrpuemm' 

ThelK,yhas<.o„,e. ■, Hesaysthat the l„,y has .:„„,e. ^-''''^ "Onum. 

"*""'■ . - <='"»•-■■ I Dicit puerum 

*'*"™"""° wa»,.o„,ing. I venisse. 

The boy will con.e. He says that the boy will co.ne. Dicit puerum 

Tentfirum esse. 
He said that the boy Mould come. Dixit puerum 

venturum esse. 

4- Agreement of Participles 

Examine • - 



/"puerum esse amatum. 
puellam esse amatam. 
r,j.,;^Jpueros esse amatos. 

Ipuellas esse amatas. 
donum esse amatum. 
dona esse amata. 



■that the Iniy had been loved, 
that the gill had been loved. 

He said- "'"' ''"^ *"'•*' '""' '"■'■" '"*'«'• 
that the yiils liad bun loved, 
that the gift had lH;en h)ve<l. 
that the gifts had been loved. 



170 



EXEKCISB 



EXERCISE 

A 

1 . Ego omnia pro patria feci. Dixit se omnia pro patria iecisse. 
■2. Urbs ab Romanis capta est. Nuntiat urbem ab Romania esse 

captam. 
:<. Romani ab Gallis victi sunt. Nuntiavit Romanos ab Gallis 

esse victos. 
4. Oppidum a Caesare non est captum. Negavit' oppidum a 

Caesare esse captum. 
.'). Nos milites ex oppido ducemus. Dixenint se milites ex oppido 

esse ductiiros. 
<). Urbs a nostris capietur. Dixit urbem a suis captum iri. 

7. Manifestum erat Gallos in Italiam esse venturds. 

8. Respondit oppida expugnata esse et hostes arma traditur's esse. 
!). Caesar cognoverat copias hostium augeri et castra miiniri. 

10. Died te hoc fecisse. Dicis me Romae mansisse. 

11. Dicit se me eo die '^Misse. 



B 

1. He says tlmt I wiis .■vt Rome on tliiit day iiiul that you were in 

the country. 

2. Tliey said tliat the cavalry liad been defeated and that tiie 

camp h"l been taken. 
y>. They replied that tliey would aljandou the baggage. 

4. It is inuiiifi'st that many states will give hostages. 

5. He said tliat Ids ijrother Iiad carried on ni.-iiiy wars. 

0. He t'.iinics tliat the enemy will assemble new forces and renew 

the war. 
7, Tlie .si'oiit lirought back word that corn was being collected. 
,S. It was clear that the e.ieniy would attack the camp, 
i). We have heanl that the army has been defeated, that the 

enemy are coming, and tliat they will soon attack our city. 
10. The consul .said that tlie enemy's ships were very many and 

that tlie journey would be long. 



' nego,- are, tlt-ny. 



TIIK TIIRKE pATM 



171 




172 



READISn I.ESSOX — Affl'^ ATIVF. WITH INFINITIVK 



UKADINC LKSSON 
The Fates 

Parcae erant sorores. tres numero. Alter scriptor dicit eas futise 
filias Noctis, alter Necessitatis. Nomina Parcarum erant Clotho, 
Lachesis, Atropos. Hie versus officia earum exponit : 

Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat. 
Parcae res deorum et hominum gubernant. Etiam Jupiter ipse 
tmperio Parcarum paret, neque quisquam eas effuKere potest. 





Vocabulary 




Parca, ae 


Fati. 




neo 2 nevi netum 


spill 


scriptor, oris 


wiitur 




occo -are 


hreak, rut 


versus, us 


line, verse 




gubemo -are 


rule, govern 


officium, i 


iluty 




etiam 


.also, e\eii 


expend 


shew fortit. 


till 


pared 2 (goveriin 


olM*y 


colus. i 


ilislatf 




Dill.) 




re tineo ■-' -tinui 


Il..M 




potest 


is at.le 


-tentum 











LESSON LXV 

ACCrs.VTlVR WITH INFINITIVE (Continukb) 

Deponent Infinitives 

1. Keview Lesion L, 4, Principal Parts ; also Les.son I.X, 1. 

2. Pkkskxt mirari to admire 
PERFECT miratus esse to have admired 
Fi'Tl'iiK miratOrus esse to be aliout to admire 

N'lite that tUe J'liturfi injinitive of a (leponenl veil) is of llie 
iii-tife form. 

vereri sequi blandiri 

veritus esse seciitus esse blanditus esse 

veritiirus esse seciiturus esse blanditiirus esse 

pati mori 

passus esse mortuus esse 

passiirus esse moriturus esse (^ee Lesson TA'. .*!) 



^ 0, 



A0CU8ATIVK WITH INFINITIVF.—VOCAIU'LAHY 173 

3. Hcpe, promise, undertake, swear 

Examine : - 

He hopes to loiiie t" Riiiiif. ^ 

II.' lio|H'.s tliat lie will loiiii- to Kiiiiii'. J Speratse Romam venturum esse. 

He promises to ilo this. | 

He p..iiiii.se» thiit he will do this. | Promittit se hoc facturum esse. 

Vou uiKlerUke to carry on war. Suscipis te bellum gestiirufn . .se. 

Tiiev «weur not to return. ^ 

Theyawcarthatthevwillnot return. /■'"'""*'' "°" "'ersuros esse. 

Rule:— The vei\is hoju-, jn;,mis,; lunWlake, '-eai; Uikv in 
Ijitiii tin. iiL-fusati\ e of the pronoun luid the future infinitive, 
where in Kiigli.sli tliey tak.,' the present intiiiitive alone. 



4- Pronouns 

Review Lesson L|I, Exercise A. 



S Vocabulary 

spero, I, -avi, -atum hope 

prdmitto, .t, -misi, -missum^ 



poUiceor, -eri, poUicitus 
suscipio, :i, -cepi, -ceptum 
juro, I, -avi, -atum 
credo, :{, credidi, creditum 
puts, I, -avi, -atum 
existimo, I, -avi. -atum 
arjitior, -ari, arbitratus 
nuntiatum est 
te certiorem facio 

eos certiores facio 
certior factus sum 
certiores facti sumus 
certior factus 
certiores facti 



pronnse 

undertake 
swear 
lielieve 



think 



[ it was nnnounced 
\ word was l,rought 

I (make you more certain) 
inform you 

I inform them 

1 was informed 

We were informed 

I having iieen informed 



174 



EXERCISE 



EXERCISE 

1. Write llie iriliriitivo« of liicli of tliu following verbs : - 

hortor, conor ; potliceor ; proficiscor, iitor ; progredior, 
aggredior ; potior ; audeo. 



V i': 



1. Nuntiatum est hostes agmen nostrum sequi. Nostri putaverunt 

COS non secuturos esse. 

2. Credebant Caesarem prima Itice esse profectiirum sed Caesar 

suspicatus erat barbaros legionem aggressiiros esse. 
.;. Oixerunt se ducibus ad se missis non usiiros esse. 
4. Sperant hostes tmpedimentis non potituros esse. 
fj. Arbitrati sunt Caesarem in Italiam esse profectiirum. 

0. Thuy thouglit Hint our forces liad followed the enemy across 

the river. 

7. Hc! believed that Caesar would not set out to (Jreece at the 

he^iuning of winter. 

8. Word was brought that the leaders were dead and that the 

soldiers would not follow the consul's lirother. 

9. It was manifest that the consul would not attempt to lead his 

forces acrods the river. 

B 

1. Pr5mittd me Romam esse venturum. Sorores promittunt se 

esse Venturas. 

2. Suscepit se epistolam esse scripturum. Susceperunt se esse 

scriptiiros. 
.'!. Sperat sororem suam esse reversiiram. Speraverant se urbem 

esse captures, 
4. Se obsides esse daturos polliciti, statim domum profecti sunt. 
.'> PoUicitus sum me libros tibi esse datiirum. 

tJ. I hope that you will do this. I hope to see you in the country. 

7. He swore that he would eonrpier the enetuies of tlie state. 

8. He undertook to do this worli. She undertook to write a 

letter. 

9. Did they not ])rouiisc to save their native land ? 

10. Having promised to follow their le.ider, the soldiers renuvined 
in camp. 



VERBS THAT GOVERN THE DArlVE AND r.ENITIVE 175 



">! 



1. Dixit me librum suum habere. Dixisti me librum eius habere 

2. Dixerunt se eum non secuturos esse. Uixerunt eum esse 

mterfectum. 
.3. Crediderunt custodem se interfecisse. Credideruct eum ab 

custodibus interfectum iri. 
4. Dixit Caesarem sibi legionem dedisse. Died te ei librum 

dedisse. 

f). Tliey said that they would sut out at once. 
(>. Tlu^y thought th.it he Imd set out at (kyhreak. 
7. They said that he h.id killed himself, 
a He said that the .soldier had killed them. 
!». He hopes to see you. I hope to .see him. 

10. We hope to see thum. They hope to see us. 

11. I inf.)rai, d Caesar. Caesar informed us. He was informed. 

They were informed. 

12. Having been informed about the arrival .,f Caesar, they at once 

turned back. 



LESSON LXVI 

VEIIBS THAT fiOVKRN THE DATTVE AND 
GKNTTIVR 

I. In r^vtin, only those verbs that govern the accusative 
are calletl Transitive. 

There are verbs wbicli in English are transitive, but the 
Latin equivalents govern the genitive, dative, or ablative, 
and these verbs in Latin are Intransitive. 

2. r#arn the principal parts of the following verbs : - 
(Where the conjugation alone is i,Kll,.ale.l, the principal parts are reipilar.) 

P'""°' - P''-"'-'' dis pliceo, 2 displease 

faveo.L>.favr,fautum fa>..,. obsto, 1, obstiti oppose 

confido,.l,connsussumtnist diffido, .1, diffisus distrust 
subvenio, 4. -veni, .lid. help sum 

"""*"'" noceo, 2 injmv 



176 VERBS THAT GOVERX THK DATIVE AND GENITIVE 



credo, 3. credidi, creditum 


believe 


persuaded, '2, -suasi, -suasum 


persuinle 


impero, 1 


command 


pared, 2 


obey 


serrio, 4 


serve 


resisto, 3, restiti 


resist 


pared, S, peperci, parcitum 


spare 


ignosco, 3. -novi, -.lotum 


piirildii, forgive 


invideo, '2, -vidi, -visum 


envy 



3. Examine: — 

Res omnibus viris placuit 
Fortuna fortibus favet. . 
Eg;o tibi subveniam. 
Puer mihi credidtt 
Pater puero persuasit 
Rex legibus paret. 
Dux militi pepercit. 

4. Rule : — The following verbs govern the Dative : 

pteane, favor, trmt, nMift ami tlieir runtriiriet : also, helirw, persnailf, 
command, ohey, Kerne, rmUl, threaten, spare, pardon, eninj, and he angry. 



The matter pleased everybody. 
Fortune favoi-8 the brave. 
I siiall come to your aid. 
The lioy believed me. 
Tlie fatiicr persuaded the Imy. 
The king obeys the laws. 
The leader spared the soldier. 



5. Examine:— 

Caesari confisus 
Tempore confisus 



trustinji t o Caesar 
trusting to tlie time 



6. Rule: — Fidd atul confidd take the Datire of a Person; the 
Ahlatire of a Thiinj. 

7. Verbs that govern the Genitive 

Tlie \exha pitii, (and sometimes) remember ixnd fori/ii govern 
the Genitive in Latin. 

misereor, -eri, miseritus pity 

reminiscor, -i remember 

obliviscor, -i, oblitus finget 



EXERCISE 



irr 



EXERCISE 



Orator nob.s persuasit. Consul civibus non persuidebit. 
Hostes mulieribus liberisque pepercerunt 
Pauperibus non invident. Mnites imperatori parebunt 
Galli exercitui Romano multos annos restiterunt 
Impetui equitum non resistunt. Imperator eis non credet 
M.h. non persuadebunt. Tempestas navlbus nocibat. 
Hostibus ignovit. Dixit se eis ignoturum esse. 
Dixerunt se duci non paritiiros esse. 
Nuntiaverunt tempestatem navibus nocere. 
Miseremur senis. Injiiriarum obliviscor. 



Hill m.t tliu s,il,lii.r oliey hig 



B 

1. \Vu please many citizens. 

fdnunaniler? 

2. Will he not Leliove y„„ ( They l.elieve.l the l,„v 

3. We sha .esist the enen.ies „f the state. They ;.e.si»te.l „.s. 

4. " o sliall (il),.y ,„ii- paients in all tliincs 

5. Caesar will ,sp,.re the enen.y. V„„ spared the conquered. 

«. Iar,lo„„u.. Spare the enemy. Ohey the laws. Serve the 
knij^. 

7. They .said that the judge wouhi j.ar.h.n us. 

«. We said that we would ii,,t l>elieve th.i man 

9. I heard that they had persuaded tli, ir nei-hbcrs 



178 PASSIVE USE OF VERBS TKAT OOVERS THE DATIVE 

T.ESSON LXVII 

PASSIVE USE OF VERBS THAT GOVERN THE 
T^ATIVE 



I. Examine:— 
Mihi paretur. 

Tibi invidetur. 
Navibus nocebatur. 

Militi parcetur. 
Ei persuasum est. 



(It is obeyed to me. 
I am obeyed, 
f It is envied to you. 
\ You are envied. 
It was 1 eing injured to tlie ships. 
The ships were bcinif h.ainied. 
Harm was being done to the ships. 

(It will be spared to the sohlit :. 
Tlie soUlier will lie spared. 
Mercy will bo shown to the soldier. 
( It was persuaded to him. 
\ 



, He was persuaded. 
You cmnot say jxireor, for / am obeye,!, or invideor, for 
/ am envied. 

2. Rule :— A verb that governs the dative in tl:e active is 
used impersonalli/ in the passive. 

3. Passive Conjugation of verbs that govern 

the Dative 



Present 



mihi pel suadetur I am persuaded 

tibi persuadeiur you are per- 
Buailed 
ho is persuadeil 



nobis persuadetur we are per 

suadeil 
vobis persuadetur 



i persuadetur 



iMrERFECT 
FlTTCRE 

Perfk.<;t 
T'l.rrr.nFKf T 

FlITlTKK I'KKKKI T 



eis persuadetur 

mihi persuadebatur, etc. 
mihi persuadebitur, etc. 
inihi persuasum est, etc 
mihi persuasum erat, etc. 
mihi persuasum erit, etc 



you are per- 
suailed 

they are per- 
suaded 



EXERCISE — VOCABULAKY — SUPINES 179 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. Nobis persuasum est. Ei persuadebitur. 

2. Pauperibus non invident. Pauperibus non invidStur. 

3. Regi diu restiterunt. Regi non diutius resistetur. 

4. Mihi non p<!rsuadebunt. Vobis persuasum est. 

r>. Eis ignoscitur. Mihi ignoscetur. Imperatori parebatur. 

B 

1. We will be persiia U-d, He will ii,,t ]n- hcli,.v,'(l. 

2. Will not the nii.s.senger lie l)elieve,l. Y.,n were ii,,t .,l,eye.i 

3. The general was not ol.eye.l. They were sp.u ,,1. 

4. We are not envied. You are not i.anh.Ded. 

The Coward's Fate 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. 
Mors et fugacem persequitur virun., 

Nee parcit imbellis juventae 

Poplitibus timidoque tergo. 

Vocabulary 

decorus,a.um seemly, hefittinj; poples, itis liam. hnu-l,. knee 

fugut, acis apt to Hee, fleeing timidus.a, urn ti,i„d, eowaidly 

imbellis, e unwarliko tergum. i :)aek 

juventa, ae youth 



LESSON LXVIII 

SUPINES 

The Latin verb lia.s two supines, one in -UHl, the other in -u. 
amatum amatii 

monitum monitii 

rectum rectii 

auditum auditu 



I. Examine:— 

Legates auxilium rogatum miserunt. 
Liidos spectatum venit. 



They sent envoys to ask ;iirl. 
He eaine to see the gaiire^. 



jgQ EXERCISE— VOCABULARY 

2. Rule:— 

The Supine in -Utn is used witli verbs of motion to express 
purpose. 

3. Examine :— 

Difficile est dictu. It i» iliHieult to »ay. 

Hoc est optimum factu. This is the h.st thnig t.. .lo. 
Th.- Supi.H- in -ii is US..1 with a few a.lje. tives, facilis, difficilis, 
incredibilis. ete.. an.l with f<u est, nefas est, opus est. 
There are only a few in common use :— 

audita, c- j;nitu, dictu, factu, visu. 

EXERCISE 
Pacem petitum legatos miserunt. Haec res est facilis cognitu 
Auxilium postulatum veneriant. MiraWle dictii ! M.rab.levsul 
E6 die imperator decimam legionem pabulatum raisit. _ 

Ex ea civitate profugi ad senatum Romam venerunt mjunas 
;oci6rum questua*. 

Vocabulary 

mirabilis, e womlerful 

profugus, i exile 

injuria, ae «"■""*■'• '"i"'>' 

pabulor, -ari, pabulatus forage 

queror, -i, questus ecinpliiin ("ft 




TiiK tjMAHiiiT Rack 



READING LESSON— VOOARULARY Igl 

READING LESSOX 
How a Roman Schoolboy spends his day 

Marcus Patri S.D.' 
paucis verbrs. Prima 'nee consurgin,us omn^s wVne als htu™ 

Max^a spectaw ubi au.,ae Im i„rs. sur.;rte:"d.^r 

fu r i^r :rvr "■" "- ^^^-^ -- -^ -^^« --: 

'In R,,„,a„ le.tc,-., S.I). = Salutem dat (-vi.l. I),,,.), ,.ive, ,.™, ,„ 



bene est, ego valeo ; if \; 



HI Hiu wi-11, it is Hi'll, I am hc 



consiimo ;) -sumpsi spend 

-sumptum 
consurgo 3 -surrexi ii.«, 

-surrectuiti 
interdum 
tardus, a, urn 
benignus, a, uiii 



Vocabulary 



plerumque 
venia, ae 
lego 3 legi lectum 
poema, atis (X.) 
rL-ito, I 

nonnunquarn 
quod 



iiMUllli! 



kiii.l, 

pliii.s;nil 
i,'i-|l>T,l|I.V 

panli.ii 
riMd 
P"cm 
ri'ud ainuil, 



lieuausu 



prandium. i liniikfast, 
luii.liuon 
saltus, us li.ipiii^', 

jiimpirrg 
cursus. us nihni]!^:, r.nci 
natatio, onis .■<« iniijiiin' 
Juvenalis. is .hivnud " 

IIImIILIII K;l|i|is|) 

usurpo, I rii.di.- us,-,,f 

verbum, i s.i\ iii.,r 

sanus, a, um s.iwnd 

aurlga, ae ihaiii.i,,.,- 

cena, ae dimur, 
.sniipt-r 

imus „,. ^„, 

quies, etis i.,,i, iTpn,,. 



182 



OERDND 



I^ESSON LXIX 

(JKRUND 

1. The Oeruiul i< a verbal noun corresponrtins to tlie 
English verbal noun in -imj. It is declined in the singular, 
l)Ut lacks the nominative case. 



(Jen. 

DAT. 

A<'<;. 
Abi.. 

Okn. 

DAT. 

Ar.n. 
Abl. 



amuidi 
amando 



of loviiiK 
til, for loving 



amandum loving 
amando hy loving 



monendi 
monendo 
monendum 
monendo 



of iulvising 
to, for ftdvising 
ailvising 
l)y advising 



regendi 
regendo 
regendum 
regendo 



capiendi 
capiendo 
capiendum 
capiendo 



audiendi 
audiendo 
audiendum 
audiendo 



2. The gerunds of deponent veiV)s are formed similarly, 
according to their conjugation : — 

mirandi, verendi, sequendi, patiendi, blandiendi. 

3. The nominative is supplied by the intinitive. 

Ambulare jiicundrtm est. Walking is delightful. 

4. Examine the .oUowing examples of gerunds of intransi- 
tive verbs : — 
Gkn. 



studium pug^andi 
cupidus pugnandi 
praedandi causa 
Aqua utilis est bibendo. 
ad praedandum missl 
Abl. bene vivendo 

Mens rogitando alitur. 



Pat 

Arc 



desire of fighting 

desirous of fighting 

for the purpose of plundering 

Water i.s useful for drinking. 

sent for the purpose of plundering 

by living well 

The mind is nourished hy reflection. 

5. Examine the following examples of gerunds of iransitiv. 
verbs with a direct object : — 

Gen. legs "is mittendi causa for tlie purpose of sending legates 
Abl. epistolas scribendo by writing letters 

As a rule, the gerund with a direct object is limited to the 
genitive, and the ablative without a preposition. 



VOTAHULARY— EXERnSE I83 

6. In the case of intransitive vrbs tl.a( goven, U.e genitive, 
datu-e or al,lat,ve, the geru.ul .ill govern tl.e san.e ease a 
the verb froiri wliieh it is derived. 

parcendo hostibus (I),it. ) by «,„„■!„. ,|„. „,„.„,y 

7- Observe :- 

TliH (Jerund is a Verlial Noun ; 
As a won,,, it is iluclirieil ; 

it may !„, g„vern«l l.y „ „„„„, ,„ljc„tive. pro,K,.si,i„„ 
or verb. 
A. a .er/,, it ,„ay ,.,jver„ tl.e san.e .as... as ,l,e verl, f„,„, wl.i,!, i, is 

it may Iw -uodiHeil l,y an advorl.. 



Vocabulary 



facultas, atis (F.) 
occasio, onis (K. ) 
potestas, atis (K.) 
studium, ; 
consilium, i 
tempestas, atis(F.) 
bello, I 

praedor, ari, praedatus 
friimentor, ari, frumentatus 
consilium capio 

ad ^ with ace, ami placed hr/urf) 

causa with gen. and placed nfler J ^f'"" ihe purpose of 



ipportiirnty 

privilege 

desire, zeal 

plan, purpose 

weather 

be at w^'ir. war 

plundei 

get grain, forage 

fiirni a plan 



EXERCISE 

A 
Ars scribendi est diiScilis. 

Equites praedandi friimentandique causa missi sunt 
Spes praedandi studiumque bellandi mHites ab opere revocabat 
Tempestatem ad navigandum idoneam nactus est ' '"°""""' 
Ex pugna excedendi facultas non dabatur 
Magna erat navigandi difficultas. 
Facultatem pro6ciscendi habemus. 
Ad pabulandum aut praedandum progress! erant. 
Consilium castra expugnandi ceperunt. 



184 



THK (iKHl'NDlVB 



B 



1 The .irt of liTinn well ; the ..,.|H.r(unity of t«kin« the towns. 
2. The i-hin ..f foUowins; the eiu.ny ; the o,,,».,t....iiy "f takn.. 

U|> lU'lllS. 

:t. For the i>ur].oae of tiikiug the tmviis (use causa). 

4 We MV piepaivcl for (ad) aettiiiy out. 

.-,. I!y oheyiiij. the hiws ; l.y spariiii? the ehil.lreii. 

0. He giive then, the opiiortniiily of .leimrting. 

7. For'the purpose of seiuliiig hostages (use causa). 



I I 



LESSON LXX 
THE OERUNDIVE 

1 T-ivtiii has a verbal adjective oi- participle for which 
En-lish has no eorrespon-li.ig foini. U is called the 
(lerini'lii'^'. 

amandus. a. um to he love.l ; ought to, houUl mu8t he love.l 

monendus. a, um to he a.lvise.1 ; ought to, shouM, must be a.lv.s.,1 

regendus, a, um to be ruled : oug!- :o, shouUl, must be rule.l 

capiendus. a. um to be t.^ke,, ■, ,.ught to, shouW must he u.ke,. 

audiendus, a. um to be heanl ; ought to, should, must 1h= hear.1 

2 The gerundive of a deponent verb lia.s a passive meaning 
mirandus,Zum to be a,lmire.l, verendus, a. um tojM, feare,!, 

sequendus,a,um toV,.' followed, partiendus, a, um to be shared, 
etc. ''''■• 

patiendus, a, um to be endured, 
ete. 

3 The iicnnidive is declined like bonUS, a, um. 

4. Tli.^ierundivehas («■« distiwt iises ;— 

(1) lis use -vith the meaniii,c; of tlie gerund. 

(2) lis use to detiute duty or necessity (Lesson LXXI). 



TIIK fJERrvniVK |g5 

Gerundive Construction instead of the Gerund 
5. Compare:— 



(>i-niiiil (,'niiKlnicliim 
Spes urbem videndi 

'I'liv liii|K' ..f »L-(!iny thu city 
Oelector epistolas scribendo. 
I iitii ili-liuhtc-d Willi writing Icitirs 



flprn mil IV C'nimtnirtirm 
Spes urbis videndae 

Till- l|,l|H. llf 11,,. ,ity to )k> Sr.-M 

Delector epistolis r^ribendis. 

I 11 ililighl.il Mill, |,.|t,.|« t(i-l)... 
"rittiMi. 

Inslea.l of the (icnit.v,- ,„■ Al.lahv,. of tl„. (i..n„„l «;tl, „ Di,,.,! 

O .jf,t. Latin g..„,.™ily us... ll„. (;c.,Mi„liv,. Constiu, t Tl,.- I.i„.,t 

<»lij,-.i ,s put i„ tl„. ..ase of the (i..n,,Ml, an,l tl,.- (Umm v,. I'utidpl.. 

IS iisi.l III agiecnifiit witli it. 

Who,, thefioruiut gov,.,„i„g the Dire.l Ohject «o„I,| l„. i„ ,)„. native 
or .-ml. .« goven,..,! l,y a IVepo^itioii, the .Jer.„„liv.. Cn.fueti.u. 
shoul.l always 1« „se<l except in the <«,es nientioia,! i„ «. 

Do „„,: use ad urbem videndura l.ui ,«, ad urbem videndam 
m epistolas scribendo in epistolis scribendis 

6. The Gerund Construction necessary 

The Gerund must Ije used : 

(a) With all intransitive verbs ; 

parcendo hostibus l,y spariujr the enemy 

ad mihi persuadendum f.„- th,. purpo».. .,f ,M.|sua,ling me 

(A) With transitive verl.s when the direct .ilyeot is omitted : 
natus ad regetidum lioru f,)r ruling 

(c) Ti> ,ivi)id ambiguity ; 

aliquid docendi causa f.ir the sake of teaching somethi,,., 
(alicujus cuM be either luase. som^om, or neut. .om.thm,j) 

(d) For the sake of euphony ; 

_ arma rapiendi causa for the purpose of taking up arms 

(armorum capiendonim cauU wnul.l lot soun.l wll The,e 

gcnun-e ph.ral en.lings are generally, though not always, avoi.h^ ) 



180 



KXERCIHE 

EXERCISE 



In oirh c^ .la.f the r.a,on for ..nm^ ,!.,■ partKi.lar conrtrurtion thai i. ..«rt. The 
,l.iliM. in ».. *l.lni .1 that i... .Aaml.l.-. ..f it are Kiveii. 

I. studium pugnandi 

•J. oppida expugnandi causa 

;t. aliquid faciendi facultas 



4 urbe excedendi occasio 
.'i ad frumentandum 
(i. ad tibi parendum 
7. pugnando ; scribendo 
s. multa pollicendo 
'.>. in agendo 
III. parcendo hostibus 



1 1 . urbis videndae studium 
I-.', oppidi expugnandi causa 

13. pontis faciendi causa 

14. consilium belli renovandi 
I'l. ad pacem petendam 

1(1. ad urbes capiendas 
17. epistolis scribendis 
IK obsidibus dandis 
111, in pa;e petenda 
20. de republica servandi 



B 



1. Ad arma capionda parati sumus. Ad ludos videndos profectus 

■' Ad ea lacienda, quae Caesar jussetat, convenerant 

H Aq duas legiories transportandas naves viginti miserunt. 

4 Subito Galli belli renovandi legionisque opprimendae' consilium 

ceperant. 
.-. In consiliis capiendis Galli sunt mobiles.^ 
0. Neque consilii habendi neque arma capiendi spatium' est datum. 

c 

1. Cnn-rruhv^ ll.e taking of tl,.. ...«» ; for the puri,'«e "f ««eiug 

2. \v'i'k,n!.ir«c.,,- si.nt f r tlu- imrliosc of prfi^rint; sl.ips (1) 

causa; [-) ad r i .^i 

.-i. Wc l,av,. ll.e opportunity .. s.tvii.- tl.e «tate-of leav.t.g the 

4. The'cllinls were ,le.siro„s of wiisiing war -of driving out the 

5. O,,o' h"'i.rwa.s sent for the purpose of foraging-of seizing the 

hrid'^t'. 

Special Points 

7 Utor, fruor, fungor, potior, inasnnuh us they were transitive an.l 
,,„v,.r,Ha tlH-.u-.-nsative in early Latin, regularly admit the gerundive 
i-uusiivu-tiim ; 
spes pot'undae urbis 
' ^opprimo, :.. -preasi, -preaaum, .n.sh. ^mobilis, e, tlokle. spatium, i, 
tiiiii-, si'«ft. 



tlie hope of g:»J">»g poseossi'Ut nf the city. 



nRRUNDIVR DKNOTINf; I.HTV, OKI.I.iATION, NKCK8SITV 187 

8. With thi- (i.nitiv..» mei, tui, lui, nostri, Testri, llif (;erai.,l .,r 
<.eruii.livi. form ii, hJj i» u»f.l, without reftrfii.e I., the ueiuler or 
numlwr ot thi- pmnuuii ; 

iui serrandi causa for the »,ik.- .,f «avi.,K herself, himself, 

-.. *>r theiii.HelveH. 

9. Observe:— 

OlMides Aeduis custodiendos tridit. He han.ls over the hostages i„ 

the Aedlii to j^Uiini. 

Caesar pontem faciendum curavit. <-'ae8arha(l,il,riilgcl>nilt:,.rovicl,,l 

fortheeonstriatiiiiiof a l,riilj;e 

naves, quas faciendas curiverat «hip», «hieh he hu<l hail hmh 

Pontem faciendum condiixit. He to.,k a eootraet for the buil.l- 

ilig of a bridge. 

With d6, trada, euro, loco let a uontra<t, condiicd, take a contraet 
susapio, uiKlertake :— 

The OeraiKlivt acqinret a Final gnine ; it denotes the eii.l or purpose. 



LESSON LXXI 

THE GERUXDIVE DENOTING DUTY, OBLIGATION 
NECESSITY 

1. The Ge ndive has another use quite distinct from the 
one explained ... tlie preceding lesson. 

2. Examine:— 

Pax petenda est Peace is u) be sought. Peace must Ih- sought. 

Dona mittenda sunt, (iifts arc to Iw sent, fiifts must U- sent. 

The Gerundive is used to denote d.'iy, uhlujation, or necessiti/. 

In this case it is generally accompanied with some form of 
the verb sum expressed or understood, and is translated })y 
ought, should or must. 

3. In conjunction with sum a whole conjugation may be 
formed ; — 

Pax pet-enda est. Peace is to be sought. Peace must ite sought. 
P^.,: petenda erat. Peace was to Iw sought. Peace had to be sought. 
Pax petenda erit. Peace will 1»' to-lie-sought. Peace will have to 
be souifht. 



188 (iERI 



'NIHVi; UKNOTINO DUTY, UBLl.iATIOS, NEOKSSITY 



4. Examine: 



We must si.-i'k ikmi« 

P('ii4T iH to Ix^ soiiglil l>y US. 



\t>-. 



Pax nobis petenda est. 



Obsides ei sunt raittendi. 



Hi' must sL'iid liosUigi's 

Hiislii^i's art; to !«■ sent liy liim. J 

(,<) The Opiundivf lias a passiv., meai.ii.g. Tlierefore if 
the Kii-lish is ill llie A.'tivo fonn, it iiuist 1* turned into the 
Passive l)ef()ie it call lie translated ii.lu Latin. 

(/,) The .\-eMt with the (ieiumlive is expres.sed. not by the 
ablative wilii .< or ah, as in pOx .1 .ohU petlla .< but by the 

5. Examine:- . .^ ^^ ^^ j^__^^^,_^ ,^_,,^^.^^,_^. ,,y j,,„ 

MilitibusfortiterpugnandumJ ^„^,li^.,.., 
est ^T|,u scilihiTB must tight l.nivcly. 

(It is In lie iilieyeii to the law 
Legibus parendum est. | Laws must lie olieyiil. 

.'There is to lie a using of shi, . 
Navibus iitendum est. (ships must lie used. 

(.) Tnti-ansitive verbs must be used impersonally, and if the 

verb governs the i;enitive. dative or ablative, an object may 

be e.xpressed in the proper case. 

6. Examine : - , , 

j It is to be oheyeil to 1 



; I»v von. 



Mihi a te parendum est. '(you must (ih.y me. 

I It is to lie (itieyed to you by me. 
Tibi a me parendum est. | , „,„,, „\,^,y y,,,, 

(d) To avoid ambiguity in the ease of verbs that govern the 
Dative, the Agent is expressed by <~i or ah and the Ahlattn: 

Summary of Rules 

(<0 The -Aeliv,. form in Knglish nuisl he luiued int.i the Passive. 

(/.) The Agent is expressed liy the Dative. 

((•) Intransitive verhs must lie used impersonally, hut admit their 
own else eotistructioli. 

(,/) Toavoidamhiguityintheeaseof verhs tliat govern the Dative, 
the .\gent is expressed liy a or ab .ind ilie .\Kliitive. 



EXERCISE 



189 



EXERCISE 



1. Bellum statim renovandum est. Navis parandae erant 

■- Haec facienda sunt. Opus erit faciendum. 

•i. Hie homo interficiendus est. Hae urbes delendae sunt 

4 Hi homines nobis ex civitate pellendi sunt. Castra els muni- 

enda sunt. 
•V MUites imperatori hortandi sunt. Fortiter pugnandum erit. 
(_.. Omnibus est moriendum. Itaque nobis bene est vivendum. 
. Mih. aut cum his vivendum aut pro his est moriendum 
s. Puero credendum est. Copiae in fines hostium ducendae sunt. 
•'. Karthago est delenda. Media nocte nuntio proficiscendum est. 

B 

1. Tl,e letter must l.e written. Letters iiinst lie written 

2. Tlie city must l,e t^ikeii. Tlic cities l,,i,l to he t.iken 

:i. Tlie t...vii sl„M,l,l l,e taken. Tlie towns will have to l,e t.iken 

4. \Ve must c.m,|uer the e„e,„y. The enemy st sen.l hostn-es 

0. ^_ou must; WHi^e tlie wnr. They must ilestroy the l.ri,l.,es ' 
C. K.rees imist l,e collected. C-.esar lia.l to encourage th^sohliers 
/ . We s„all l.Mve to t.ike up arms. This opportmiitv must not he 
lost. 

H. Vou must, .set out at once. I must live with these men 
9. Vou must not helievc the orator. The soldiers had to fhdit 
hravely. " 

Vincendum aut moriendum, milites. 



Gerundival Infinitive 



Hoc nobis faciendum est. 
Hoc nobis faciendum erat. 
Hoc nobis faciendum erit. 



\\'e TMIlst ilo Ihi.s. 

\\'e should have doiip this. 

We shall have to do liiis. 

In Accusative with Infinitivo Construction these .s.-ntences 
hecoiiie 

Dixit hoc nobis faciendum esse. He sai.l that we must d„ ,hi. 

Dixit hoc nobis faciendum fuisse. He said that we should have d 

lids. 
Dixit hoc nobis faciendum fore. He -.,id tlwi «,- uo.dd h.,v.. ,„,lo 

this. 



190 



BEADING LESSON— VOCABULARY 

EXERCISE 



Either of tlio proceiling cxricisos iTiiiy 
some ai>proi)riate wuid as the iiuruiluciiig ' 



lit! used by using dixit or 
fill. 



READING LESSON 
Difficulty of Caesar's Landing in Britain 
Britanni, consilio Romanorum cognito, praemisso equi^tii, 
reliquis copiis subseciiti,' nostros navibus egredi prohibebant'. Erat 
Ob has causas summa difficultas quod naves propter raagnitudinem 
nisi in alto constitui non poterant; militibus' autem magnj et 
gravi onere arraorum oppressis siraul' et de navibus desiliendum- 
et in fluctibus consistendum' et cum hostibus erat pugnandum. 
Barbari autem paulum in aquam progress! audacter tela conjiciebant 
nee nostris egrediendi facultatem dederunt. Quibus' rebus nostn 
perterriti, atque hiijus omnino gen»ris pugnae imperiti, n5n eadem 
aJacritate ac studio quo' in pertestribus uti proeliis consuerant, 
iitebantur. 

Vocabulary 



causa, ae reason, cause 

quod because 

nisi unless, except 

altum (neuter) ileep (water) 
poterant were able 

oppressus, a, um weiglic.l ilown 
desilio 4 -silui leap down 

-sultum 
consisto S -stiti come to a stand 

-stitum 



paulum 

omnino 
imperitus, a, um 

(governs (Jen.) 
alacritas, atis 
consuescd 3 

-suevi -suetum 



a little, a short 

distance 
wholly, entirely 
unskilled in 

eagerness, alacrity 
I beeonio accus- 
tomed 



consuevi(pi'rfeci) I am accustomed 
consueive)rant were accustomc.l 



. The force ol 8Ub i» ' closely.' = Note Ihc force of the ,„„.f. te„se .ml al>o that 
prohlbeo U.ke. the ace. with inHn. meaning' ■ prevenl from.' ■• Dat of Ak-eht. 
. U one and the ™ne ttae. ' erat is un,ler,too,l. • Note how ,n L„Un narrat.ve 
each sentence is conneclwl will, the previous one l.y son.e i.Mrodnctory «"" ■ ^^' 
relalive pronoun i» l.r^-el; n.e,l for this purpose. Transl ,.e I, usn,. ,he , leu.ons ra .v 
pronoun. ' quo is in aBreen.ent will, the nearest a.Uece.lent, studio, au,l is .n 
the ahl. after uti. 



THE SDBJUNCTIVE MOOD 

LESSON LXXII 
THE SriiJUNCTIVK MOOD 
I. The Subjunctive Tenses c.f sum, esse, ful are :_ 



191 



Present sim 

Imperfect essem 

PERKErr fu erim 

Pi.f PERFECT fu issem 



Present Iiiliiiitivc + -m 



2. Present 

SlNlilLAR 1. sim 
'2. sis 
». sit 
Pl.irRAi 



Imi-erpict 
esse 
esses 
esset 



IVrfi'it Sicrii 
Perfect Stem 

Perpe(T 
fu erim 
fu eris 
fu erit 



I. simus essemus fu erimus 

•-. sibs essetis fu eritis 

3. sint essent fu erint 

Observe that the personal en-lings ar,. i„ all tenses the san, 
-m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt. 



i -erim 
+ -issem 

Pl.rPERFEfT 

fu issem 
fu isses 
fu isse't 



fu issemus 
fu issetis 
fu issent 



3. No gen,.ntl rule oa,i l,e given for the f„rn.ati„n „f the 
present subjunctive that will hold good for all the regular 
con^gattons. The for„,ation for each conjugation n-us^ be 

for?,;::;:.'"""' ■■"'"^■'' '"■ *'"' '■"" "'''"^ ^-^' '-'^ ^-^ 



Cosj. 

KiRST 

Secom 
Third 



PRE3F.NT 

amem 
moneam 
regam 
capiam 
KdirRTH audiam 



Imperfect 
amarem 
monerem 
regerem 
caperem 
audirem 



♦• Pres. amem 
ames 
amet 



Perfect 
amav erim 
monu erim 
rex erim 
cep erim 
audiv erim 



Pi.I'pehfect 
amav issem 
monu issem 
rex issem 
cep issem 
audiv issem 

audiam 

audias 

audiat 



moneam regam capiam 

moneas regas capias 

moneat regat capiat „„„„, 

amemus moneamus regamus capiamus audiamus 

amens moneat.s regatis capiatis audiatis 

ament moneant regant capiant audiant 



I i 

1 i 



' I.: 



192 



THK SraiCNCTIVF. MOOn— EXERCISE 



TMpr. araarem 
amares 
amaret 



monerem 
moneres 
moneret 



regerem 
regeres 
regeret 



caperem audirem 
caperes audires 
caperet audiret 



amaremus moneremus regeremus caperemus audiremus 
amaretis moneretis regeretis caperetis audireta 
amarent monerent regerent caperent audirent 



Pkrf. 



amav 
monul 
rex j 
audivJ 



erira, eris, erit, 



erimus, eritis, erint 



Pmipf. amav\ 

'"°°" issem, isses, isset, issemus, issetis, issent 
rex I 



audiv 



livJ 



Meaning and Use 



No meaninsH have been given t., the S«l,junc.,ve forms. 
The sul.junctive is use.l in p.iMoipal sentences but far n.ore 
extensively in suboniinate clauses where as a rule the hngl.sh 
affords no key to its use. The uses and the n.eanings, there- 
fore, can be learned only in detail. 

EXERCISE 

Oivetheprinnpal parts an,l a s.v,u,psi« in t\n- 1st Sing, of the ««h- 

^"uudl da!'Iedmc6; deleo, maneo, video ; mitto. pello. p5n6 ; facio, 
fugio ; munio, venio, erudio. 



THE SUBJl-.NCTIVl. IN- SIMPI.K SKNTENCKS 193 

LKSSOX LXXIII 
THK SUBJUXCTIVK ].\ SI.MPLK SKNTKXCKS 
Tl,(. MKiin us,.s of tl.e Snl,j„„etivo in Sinii,!,. Sentences iu-e:- 

1. Hortative: used in the first person jiiiiral. 

Patriam amemus. L,.| u» l„v... ,,iir ,nui,t,v 

Ne hostibus cedamus. Lei us ,„n yiel.l i„ 1 1..^ ,.,k„h . 

2. Imperative: 

Veniat. I.et liin, eo.„e, Ne audeant. Let tl,e,„ ,„„ ,|„,,, 

Uswl e^speciillly also in negative eo an.is with the -ntl 

person, m whieh the /«,y«.< s,,/.jnnrtirr is j.en..f,tlly use,l. 
Ne hoc feceiis. l).,ii't ,|„ i|,js. 

3. Optative: used with ,„■ witliout utinam to .-xpress 

Veniat ,.,■ Utinam veniat. .\hiy l,e en,„e. O tlmt he ,„av ,„,„e 

Utinam veniret. \v„ul.l tieu lie were eoni ' 

Utinam venisset. W„„l,l ,i..t he had eon,:. I wish he 

had come. 

(a) If the wish may be i-eali/.ed, use the Pieseiit SnUj. 

(b) If the wish cannot l.e ivalized, use the Iniperfe.t or 
Pluperfect Suhj. ; the Imperfect for present titne ; the 
Pluperfect for past time. 

Utina™ nmy „r n.ay net go with the 1 Vesent. I,„t always aceo,n,,ani, s 
tne tnipt. or IMupf. 

Ne veniat. May he n,.i ,,„„e. 

Utinam ne veniret. Wo.d.l that he were not ,-«n,i„j;. 
Ohserve the use of ne for „ot in the Hortative, Imperative 
and Optative siihjunetives. 



4- Deliberative: 



Quid dicam? \Vhat an. I to .sa> ? 

Quid dicerem? W|,,,t „,.,« | u, r^-n ■> 

An te non rogem? .\,„ I „„( ,„^„i; v„'„.. 



194 



EXERCISE— SUBJUNCTIVK PASSIVE 



5. Potential : to express a possibility or soften an assertiou. 

Credas. ^"^ *""•'* t>el'>^*'« 

Non crederes. You would not liave believed. 

Aliquis dicat or dixerit. Someone may say. 
Note that non i» the negative in the Deliterative and Potential 
Subjunelive« an.l that a question in the Deliberative Subjunctive .» 
introduced often by an. 

EXERCISE 
A 
1 Fortiter pugnemus. Ne hoc facial. Ne hoc rogaveris. 
" Beatus sis. BeatI sitis. Utinam Caesar viveret. 

3. Quidfaciam? Quid facerem ? Vix crediderim. 

4. Oratorem audiamus. Cives raei beati sint. 

5. Utinam eum videam. Utinam eum vidissem. 

6. Quid faciamus, mUites? Quid faceremus? 



B 



\ViiHld that he were living 



1. Othat I may see you t.)-niorrovf. 

to-day. 
2 Let us not do this. O that he had warned us. 
3. What was I to do in so great danger ? What am I to say ^ 
4 Are we to love the enemies of the state ! 
5'. Would that I had seen him before. Let «s not give hostages. 



LESSON LXXIV 

SURIUNCTIVE PASSIVE 

I The Subjunctive Passive is as follows :— 
'present ' amer ->" °f A.live changed to -r 

IMPEHFECT amarer -n "f Active changed to -r 

PKRFKar amatus (a, um) sim Perfect Participle + sim 

l>,,rrKBKKCT amatus (a, um) essem Perfect Participle + essem 

IMI.KKKKOT PF,KKtX,T PlUPERFKCT 

monerer monitus sim monitus essem 

regerer rectus sim rectus essem 



?. 



Prksent 

monear 

regar 



capiar 
audiar 



caperer 
audirer 



captus sim 
auditus sim 



ciaptus essem 
auditus essem 



3- Pre8. amer 
ameris 
ametur 



EXERCISE 

monear regar 

monearis regaris 
moneatur regatur 



amemur moneamur regamur 

amemini moneamini regamini 

amentur moneaatur regantur 

Impf. amarer monerer regerer 

amareris monereris regereris 

amaretur moneretur regeretur 



amaremur monereraur regcremur 

amaremini moneremini regeremini 

amarentur monerentur regerentur 

Pkhf. amatus sim sis sit amati 

PurPF. amatus essem esses esset amati 

The IVrf. and I'lupf. .Si,l,j»„,.tivo of „ll„.,- 

same way. 



195 

capiar audiar 

capiaris audiaris 
capiatur audiatur 

capiamur audiamur 
capiamini audiamini 
capiantur audiantur 

caperer audirer 
capereris audireris 
caperetur audiretur 

caperemur audiremur 
caperemini audiremini 
caperentur audirentur 

simus sitis sint 
essemus essetis essent 

vcrl).s arc fiiinii',1 m Wu: 



EXERCISE 
A 

1. fiive a synopsis i„ thr- 1st Si„^r. „f ,„, S„l,j„„,,i,,. |.,„,j,,, „f . 

libera postuia, moveo, augeo, cognosce, diico, vinco, interficio 
conjicio, munio, mvenio. mterncio, 

3. Utinam urbs ne capiatur. Utinam hostes victi essent 

4. Tela m hostes conjiciamus. Nostram patriam liberen.us 

" a^gTrenlr!""" """ '"'*^fi<=«t«r. Utinam copiae nost-a. 

B 

1. Let us not yieM t„ tl,e oncny. l.,, „s ,.n,„,nc.r tl„. ,.,„.,„> 

-'. O that we may not l,e .seen. () tl.ul wo l,,ul „ot I,..,,,, secr 

.'i. Let n.. devastate their fields. I,et „s de,„„„d l,o„, 

1. <> that ,i,eelfy ha,i i,ee„ f„r„tied. A[,,v they ,„„ 1„. ,.,„„,„er,.d 



196 



READING LES80N— VOCABULABT 



READING LESSON 
Horatius at the Bridge 
Porsena. rex Etrusconim, ad quern Tarquinii perfugerwit,' se 
RomSacne TuperatuW «bitratus. infesto exeratu Ronuun 
^I Nan unquL. alias' ante Untu, terror -natum -«que 
^vasit- adeo magnum erat Porsenae nomen. Is ]"".=»»'"» 
ep^nLlpetu cfpit etjam in urbem ipsam Pof « J"^^-'^'^ 
nrScessurus. Roma vero virtute v." unms est servata. Nam 
Horatius Coclescum socils duobus, extrema pontis parte occupata, 
"xercitum Etruscorum totum cohibuit. Intenm Roman, pontem 
escindebant. Cum jam pons paene interruptus est, ^oc-os «gred^ 
jussit : ipse impetum hostium solus sustmmt. 111. virtutem mn.b. 
Romani m-.riit-., aliquamdiu cunctati sunt ; him damore sublato .n 
unum hostem undique tela conjiciunt. Tandem ponte resasso 
Sixit Horiitius: "Tiberme pater,' haec' arma et hunc mil.tem» 
«:cipias." Ita, sic armatus, in Tiberim des.lmt et mcolum.s' ad 
suos tranavit. 



Vocabulary 



Etruscans 

a Taniuin 

hostile 

ever 

at another time 

terror, frij^ht 

come upon, 

attack, seize 
BO, to such an 
extent 
repentinus,a, um sudden 
cobibed 2 -hibui hold hack, clieck 
■hibitum 



Etrusci, drum 
Tarquinius, i 
infestus, a, um 
unquam 
alias (adv.) 
terror, oris 
invado 3 -vasi 

•vasum 
adeo (adv.) 



rescindo 3 -scidi 

-scissum 
cum jam 
paene 
inter rumpo 



hreak down 

wlieii now 
almost 
hreak ilown 



aliquamdiu (adv.) for some time 



midique (adv 
sic 

ita (witli verb or 

clau.'ie) 

( (witli adj. or 
**""■(_ adv.) 
trano -are 



from all sides 
thus 
thus, so 



>so, tlms 



swim across 



. per .trensthens the meaning of the simple verb. » esse ot the fut ,„nn »c t 
and pT infin. pL- i» verj- often omitted. ' on no r«mo„. occa.,on • AW. ol .Means. 
r,m i, the properword to indicate ;h, nu.nj- " Tlberlnus P^t^--' "'>'.*; J '^ 
addressed J a river-.od. ' Note the true force ot hic • t.e.. h.m,eir Note the 
"e 01 the aJj. where Ensli.h would use an a.lv. This » the regular id.om. 



THE SUWUNCTIVE ,.V I.KPK.vr.KNT .LArsES 197 

LESSOX LXXV 

THE .SnuCNCTIVK IN OKFE.VDK.VT (MrSES 

Final Clauses Sequence of Tenses 

(nnis^!;rls:;::;'::;:^'■■^'' "•---'' ^"'■^■- '-"^' 

He is con.ing that I,,, may see the city 

He is cnmiiijr t„ s,.i- llie city. 
Uo not use the infinitive i,. L,ti„ ,„ .:,p,e,, p„,p,„^ 

2. Examine.- 

_ IK..MAKV TKNSKS AN,, rKIMARV «KgrKNCK 

Vcnio r eome, am eoming^ 

Veniam I sl.all ,.,„„„ I „t ^^^^^ ft" see. 

Venero I sl.all liave e„i„e j I "'■" ' ""^y see. 

H.STOKtCA., TKVSKS AN,. ,„ST-,K,rA,. SK^-KN, . 

Veniebam I was eoininj ^ 

Jj!"'' '-■•■"- ' [utvideremi""---. 

Veneram I liad come ) I tljai I might see, 

3- Observe: - 

Tl,e tenses in the fiist "i-onn take ri... „ 
.,f, . „ ^ .J =>'>"P rake tl,(; sjune construct on 

•i»ei- tl,em, ut videam-that I may see. 

The ten.ses in th(' .second "rout. tiL-o tl, . 
.-.fte,- them, ut videretn -that'? .,;St::t: *'" ■'""" -'^'--^-" 

TJ.e tenses i,t t,. firs, .foup -.p.-e^ent, Future, at.l Ku„„.. 
' ' itccl, a,-e called J'>;„u,n/ Tenses. 

s a., Historic.,., Te,„e .„„ ,,ke, the ,,,.:"":;'■;'"' ^'T' " """' "'''-I"' 

"f" it mean. / hac, r„„„, ,„„,• ,,e called the p, ■".■ . ''""'■'■""■'"■'■• Veni 

'■■■""'■. the l,i«l„ri™l IVrte,',. """" ''""^-l."'"! »h^n it ,„ea,„ 



198 



EXF.RCISB 



The U.tise» in the last g.oup-Imperfe.,t, Perfect, and 
Pluperfect— are callc<l ffixtorieal Tenses. 

The construction o\)serve(l .ilx-ve is calk i the /.aw of the 
Sequence of Tens-.^. It may be stated thus :— 

4. Rule for the Sequence oj Tenses 

A Primary Tense in the principal clause is foUowe.i by a 
Primary Tense in the (Icpemlent clause ; 

An Historical Tense in tho principal clause is followe.l by 
an Historical Tense in the dejiendent clause. 

The first case is called Primarij Sapience. 

The second case is called Ilisto-ical Seyueiice. 

5. In Final Clauses only two tenses are used : — 
Present Sul)junctive for Primary Sequence ; 
Imperfect Subjunctive for Historical Sequence. 

6. Observe:— 

Proficiscar ne eum videam. I ^hall »et out that I may not see l.im. 

Profectus sum ne eum viderem. I set out that I ...iyht not see hun. 
In Final clauses, that— not, in order that— not in ne. 

EXERCISE 
A 

In each case state the sequence. 

(ut agros vastent— ut pontem deleant— 
1. Milites mittent -y^^ urbem capiaut— ut castra muniant. 

ine agri vastentur— ne pons deleatur- 
•2. Mitites mittuntur |^j ^^ capiatur-ne castra muniantur. 

fut ducem laudarent- ut regem viderent— 
;r Legates miserunt j^j pacem peterent ut eum audirent. 

f ne muri aedificarentur— ne copiae augerentur- 
4. Legati missi erant|„j bellum gereretur~ne homo vinciretur. 
-,. Hanc epistolam scripsi ut de adventu meo scires. 
(1 Mihi scripsit ut de periculo moneret. 

7. Ex civitate discessit ne patriam eversam videret. 



suaiuNCTivK or DEPONKNT VKKI.S-INi.,kkct qv 



;CT <}L'KSTIONS 109 



B 



1. I, 



"fihling y„„ l*^"* J'"" '"">• '""''' '1^'f yon may ,eo- 
'"'"^ >■ ••'>■ 'iv- tl,,,r y„„ „my „„,„.,l. 



2. We Hill bu sfiit 



3. You sent us 



tl'at ».. ,„ay „ot give-that we may i>ot 
remain — 

that we may not iweertain-tlmf «,■ may n..t 
liear. 
p" Kive them arms-to order them— 
jt" lead them-t,. d.. the «„rk to fortify 



the town. 

aiiat the forces might not be recalled that 
4. He uas sent \ '"* "''«''t '">' •'« seen-that the enemy 

might m,t be hard pressed-tlmt the man 
I might not be imnishe(' 

t.. Many praise (hat they may be praised 

7. Caesar Imilt a wall that the enemy might be kept back 

pur:ut~.""'' '"" "'^' "■"""' '" "'"' "»■■ -" ""«>- not 



LESSON LXXVI 

SUBJUNCTIVE OF DKPONENT VERRS 

INDIRECT QUKHTIONS 

1. The subjunctive of Deponent verbs is in each conjugation 
formed like ine subjunctive passive of the regular verbs 
Coxj. Present Imperfect Perfect Pi ,-,.e,.kfct 

SKcov.. vereir """"" miratus sim miratus' essem 

verear vererer veritus sim veritus essem 

sequerer ecutus sim 

paterer passus sim 

blandirer blanditus sim 

EXERCISE 



,..„ fsequar 

I IIIKU . 

I patiar 
KouRTH blandiar 

2. 



secutus essem 
passus essem 
blanditus essem 



raonorj experior, mentior, orior. 



2(l0 gUBJlINCTIVK OF DKPONENT VKHBH-INIIIRK<rr QUKMTUlNM 



Indirect Questions 



A. Quid facis? 

Wiirtt art" yttu doing ? 

Ubi eru? 

Where w<-'re you ? 

Quando veniet ? 
When will he eome ? 



IMIIKKCT Qlf-STION» 

B. Scio quid facia*. 

I kiiuw ultat you are iloing. 
Audivi ubi esses. 

I heanl wliere you were. 

Quando ventiirus sit, est incertum. 
When he will come i;) uiicertuin. 



Observe that the ile|>emlent elauses in B. iK'j^iii with an interrognlive 
woril ; that they may he the ohjcet or Buhjei t of a verh or of a veilwl 
ex|)res8ion ; anil that they contain the subst.inee of a ilireet i|uestion. 
Sueh elauses are ealletl Indirect QHestioui*. 

4. Rule : —Indirect Questions require the Subjunctive. 

5. Sequence of Tenses 

The rule for Setiuence of Tenses holds in regard to Indirect 

Questions. 

Primaky Skqiknck 

Rogo I ask, am asking -| quid facias what you are iloing. 

Rogavi^ I have askeil 

Rogabd I shall ask 

Rogavero I shall have askeil 



1<! 

I quid feceris what you haveilone 

I quid factiirus what you are going 



to do. 



HlSTORICAI, SEQUKXCK 



quid faceres whatyouwereiloing. 

have I quid fecisses what you liiiil done. 

I quid factiirus what you were going 
esses to do. 



Rogabam I was asking 
Rogavi I asked (I 

asked) 
Rogaveram I had asked 

6. Examine:— 

Die mihi num venerit Tellmeif(whether)hehaseonie. 

Utrumveniatan domimaneat, nescio. nVhether he is coming or 
Veniatne an domi maneat, nescio. / staying at home, I know not. 
Utrum venerit necne, nescio. Whether he has come or not, 

I know not. 



'Sometimes the Pres. Pf. is refranli'd as .1 I'ritiiary tense. 



EXKIK'ISli 

Observe :— 

• //■ or • ,rM„r- i„ a sinK-lu i,„|i,v,.t .|,„.,ii„„ j., „„„, 
Imliiect IKml.le Questions ui.. i„ti,«l,„...,l l.v utrum 
•ne . . . an. »"uni 

' Or not ' in ,in indiicit iiiicstion ix necne. 

7- List of Interrog:atives 

Give the Liitin for :— 



301 



> an, or, 



who ? 

how yreal : 
whiTc ; 
whv? 



what ? 
how many ? 
whiiicc ? 
when t 



liow bro,ul ? how often » 



whicli of two? 

of what kinil, of what character! 
whither? 

how, in what way ? 

liow long (of time) ? 



unde 



ti. 
7. 

S. 

9. 
10. 



EXERCISE 
A 
Sdo qui. sit ubi yivat. Scivi quis esset, ubi viveret. 
viS!!^', "' """' ""''^- Audiveram ubi fuisses, 

'^Ms^t.'"''' *^'"'"'' ""'" "'"" •^-t' l-^Oo Profectiiri 
Cogrnov'erat quo proficiscerentur, quando profecti esse.-t 
Die mUu quare morati sint, quamdiu Romae n»nserint 

Videbo quid fecerint. quid faciant. quomodo vivant? 
'.^V"""" "^ """ '"'^™ "'• Nescivi quot ho.tes 

Non dixit utrum profecti essent an domi mansissent. 



He asked me when I ha.l come, if I had seen his son 

I torn h,m when I arrived, what I .saw, how many .soldiers there 

Tell me where you were, whom yon .,aw, what you did 

Do y.,„ know why they are con.ing, whether they have written 

We did not hear whether he was at home or not. 

VV e have ascertained where tl,c enemy have pitched their ca.np 

VVe do not know how he died, where he lived 

He found out why they had attempted to advance 



202 



ItKAIllNd M:sSON — VOCABULARV 



? 


i 


i } 


X 








. 




; 




; . 




■ 





KEADrXd LKSSON 
Second Expedition to Britain (B.C. 54) 

His rebus gestis, Labieno in continente cuir tribus legionibus et 
equitum millibus duobus relicto, ut portus tut.etwf et rem friimen- 
t-iriam provideret, quaeque' in Gallia gererentur cognosceret, 
consiiiamque pro'^ tempore et pro re-' caperet, ipse cum quinque 
legionibus et pari numero equitum, quem* in continent! reliquerat, 
ad soils occasum naves solvit; et leni Africo prSvectus, media 
circiter^ nocte vento intermisso," cursum non tenuit; et, longius 
delatus aestu, orta luce,' sub sinistra" Britanniam relictam conspexit. 
Turn rursus aestus commutationem seciitus, remis contendit ut eam 
partem insulae caperet." qua optimum esse egressum superiore 
aestate cognoverat. 





Vocabulary 




continens. tis 


main lainl, coii- 


delatus, a, urn 


carried down 




lilR'Ut 


aestus, lis 


tide 


tueor -eri tuitus 


jtrntoct, walL'li 


orior -iri ortus 


rise, arise 


pro video 


fcnuset', provide 


sub (prep, takes 


uuder, on 


consilium capio 


form a jjlaii, 


at>l.) 






adoptapolii^y 


sinister, tra. 


left 


lenis, -e 


jicntlf 


trum 




Africus, i 


sout!i-wesl wimi 


commiitatio, onis 


ehallge 


pro veho .! -vexi 


cany forward 


remus, i 


OJir 


-vectum 




contendo 


strive 


intermitto 


disi-olitilUH' 


qua (sc. parte) 


where 


cursus, us 


ctturst' 


egressus, iis 


laiidiiig 



'quaeque quae, mui. pi. of quia • -qui, and. = Li.-conlini! to. ■icimim- 
»laru'c~. 'pari quern, wiual (li> thiit)-«hii^h. ■■t<.warils, al)oat. '• living dicil 
down. M.itfnilK, liglit haviiii: risen, "sc. manu. ' reaeh. 



SUBJUNCTIVE I.V DEPENDENT cr.AUSES 



203 



pvpr'sses tli(. 



LESSOX LXXVir 
SUBJUNCTIVE IN DRPKXDKXT CI A USES 
Consecutive Clauses Cum v ^th Subjunctive 
I. A Consecutive Clause is ,me «'l,i 
oonse,,uence or result, of an action, as .•- ' " " 
(") Such was till- fear that nil fled. 
{''} He live,l such a life that all love,! l.ini 
(<■) .So blind « he that he ,li,l „ot see me. 
W Ho was so g, od as to be loved by all 
^^ Generally the principal clause has son.e'such word as .0 

T/uit in a con.secutive clause is ut, thnt -not is ut -non. 
(a) Tantus erat timor ut omnes fiigerint. 
('') Ita vixit ut omnes eum amarent. 
(<■) Tam caecus erat ut me non viderit 
W Tam bonus erat ut ab omnibus amaretur 



2. 



Sequence of Tenses 



In Cons„cut,ve Clauses the rule for sequence of tenses nee,I 
not be considered. The tease of the English will , e 
sufficient guide if the following points are oh.^erve J :_ 

(«) The I,nperfect Subjunctive, like the in.perfect in.licative 
•lenotes co,ai„„ed action (see (b) and (,/) above). 

(6) The Perfect Subjunctive, like the perfect indicative 
represents two tenses, the P,-e.:t P.rf', „, R,,,.,,':" J,' 
Lave' and the nUori^al l'„M, representing a si 
definite act or fact. "ingle 

F'ugnant Thev fight -> 

Pugrniverunt They have tam fortiter jut ab omnibus laudentur 

Pugnaverunt Tl^^'tghti "' ""'^' I '"" '"^^ ""^ ■'■"-" ''^ <"■■ 



204 



SUBJUNCTIVK IN DKPr.NDKNT CLAUSES 



^rut ab omnibus laudarentur. 
I iIkU tlic> Huie [liaised l)y all (routiimoua 
Tam fortiter pugnaverunt| wiinii). 
'I'lifv UmiAil SI) bniv.lv ] ut ab omnibus laudati sint 

•' " • I . . ._ , ,.. ,,11 ^:,:„,Jle, 



vcly ] ut ab omnibus laudati sint 
I that tliey were piaisi'il liy 
\ dflinUe urt or fuel). 



3. Cum, "inee or n-h-n, with the Subjunctive 
Examine : 



(") Cum periculum esset magnum, 

omnes timebant. 
(Ii) Cum ad Caesarem venirent, 
de hoc proelio audiverunt. 
Cum Caesar nuntios misisset, 

responderunt. 
Cum haec dixisset, discessit. 



Since the danger was girat, all 

were afraid. 
When they were coming toCaesar, 

they heanl of this liatlle. 
When Caesar sent messengers, 

they replied. 
Wlien he had saiil this, he went 

away. 



4. Rules:— 

('«) Cum, niPiiuing .«!»cp, alway.s takes the Subjunctive. 

(ft) Cum, wh^H, referring to the past, take.s the Subjunr'ive 
(imperfect <ir phiperfect) to denote the accompanying circum- 
stances or situation, 

Tlie Imperfect denotes the mme. thw (isUliat of the principal 

The Pluperfect denotes time prior to J verli. 

5. n..view Lesson LXTI, 3, and observe that you have 

another way of translating the Englisli Present Participle 

when it ha.s a rnnsal force. 

feiuiiiK =veritus or cum timeret 

thinking = arbitratus or cum putaret or cum existimaret 

6. Heview Lesson LXII, 4, and observe that you have 
another way of tran.slating the English Peif.'ct Participle 
Active. 



Having spoken thes 



ivords = (I) his dictis 

(■i) haec locutus 

(S) cum haec dixisset 

postquam) . . 

ubi I 



KXKRCISB 



205 



EX,.RCISE 
A 
I. Tantus erat numenis hostium ut omnes timerent 

'■ I*^** '"' '""P"*^^ "' ''""^ ""« in Portum pervenerit. " 

3. Tam dihgens erat puer ut nihil temporis amitteret 

4. Ita vixit ut nemo ei crederet. 

5. Such wa^ the valor „f ...■ n.e,. that they easily e.,„,,uere.. the 

<i. Such is his courage tliat even the enen.y a,I,„ire it 
:. The cavalry charged .so fiercely that „o o„e esca,,e,l 

B 

1. Cum ad ca^tra prima luce pervenisset, omnia parata invenit. 
-. Postquam Capuae multos annos vixit, Romam demigravit 

eUm mL^r™- '"" '^'--' ™^"- -~ 

'■ "Z:^!:^::^^^^-' — . i„ mo„t..us drcum. 

Translate the participial da.ise in all possible «,., , ■ ^ 

5. Having advanced to the river, he saw the enen.vs forces 
'1-wn up on the other bank, advance -procedo , progredior 
•-■ Havn,g led his army across, he at once fortiHed a can,,. 
-. Having devastated tl,e fields of th,. Ren.i, he returned to can,,, 
devastate ^vasto ; depopulor ' 

«. Having oLserved the Ron.an standanls in the distance the 
barhanansHedintothewoods. ohserve-conspicio, conspilor 



Cum miUtes c.rc.ter trecenti e:c his navibus essent expositi 

nam' Ifi"'" ""'^"■'"-'- M°"- 1"- Caesar „ BrC 
mam profioscens pacatos reliquerat. spe praedae adducti 

Snr""" "■"""' ''' circumstetJnt L arnL po„e« 



206 VOCABULARY — KKADINO LKSSON 

■2. German!, post tergura clamore audito, cum suos interfici 
viderent, armis abjectis signisque militaribus relictis, se ex 
castris ejecerunt ; et cum ad confluentem Mosae et Rheni 
pervenissent, reliqua fuga desperata, magno numero inter- 
fecto, reliqui se in flumen praecipitaverunt ; atque ibi timore, 
lassitudine, vi fluminis oppress: perierunt. 

Vocabulary 

pacatus. a, um peaceful, at peace praecipito I nuil headlong 

tergum, i 'lack lassitudo, inis weaiiness 

mUitaris, e military opprimo .) -press! criisli, ovi r- 

confluens, tis confluence -pressum wlielni 

circumsto I -steti surround perierunt they |RTislieil 

KEADIN^} LESSON 
Death of Epaminondas 

Omnium Thebanorum fortissimus et clarissimus erat Epaminondas. 
Cum vicisset Lacedaemonios apud Mantineam, simulque mortiferum 
se vulnus accepisse animadverteret', primum quaesivit, salvusne esset 
clipeus. Cum salvum esse fientes sui respondissent, rogavit essentne 
fusi hostes. Cumque esset renuntiatum vicisse Boeotios, extrahi 
jussit earn, qua erat transfixus, hastam. "Satis," inquit, "vixi; 
invictusenim morior." Tum fcrro extracts confestim est mortuus. 





Vocabulary 




Thebanus, i 


ThelKin 


cumque 


and wiien 


apud 


at, near 


ex traho 


draw out 


simul 


at the same time 


transf igo 3 -fixi 


pierce tlirough. 


mortifer, a. um 


deadly, fatal 


-fixum 


transfix 


salvus, a, um 


safe 


invictus, a, um 


uncontiuerod 


flens, tis 


weepinj; 


ferrum, i 


iron head, 


sui 


his (friends) 




spear-point 


Boeotii, drum 


Hiieiitians confestim 
5~animum adverts, turn the mind lo 


at once 


' animadvert 


t>orceive. 



IRREGULAK VKUBS 207 

LESSON LX XVIII 

IRREOULAH VKUBS 

Compounds of sum 

1. All till, coinpi.unds iif sum iii.- imijugaleil like sum, ixicpi 
possum aixl prosum. 

2. Principal Parts 

Possum posse potui (potis, ai.le + sum) am aWe, lan 



3- Indicative 

Pres. possum I am al)le, caii 

potes 
potest 

possumus 

potestis 

possunt 

Impf. poteram 

Fit. potero 

Pekp. potui 

Pi.ri'F. potueram 



Subjunctive 

possim 
possis 
possit 

possimus 

possitis 

possint 



FcT. Pf. potuero 



I was ahlc, cniild 

I shall l.e aMe 

I was al>lc, (tmiM 

I hail been able 

1 shall have been alile 



possem 

potuerim 
potuissem 



Infini':ive 

Prks, posse t(ilK'al)le potuisse i" have been able 

4- The present participial form potens is used as an adjective = 
pou^er/uf. 

5- Principal Parts 

Prosum prodesse profui lielp. benefit, am servicoabh- to 
Prosum is a compiiund nf prod (uhl form of pro) and sum. It retains 
the d before e, but loses it elsewhere. 

6. 



Pres. 



Indicative Subjunctive 



prosum 
prodes 
prodest 

prosumns 
prodestis 
prosunt 



prosim 

ptosis 

prosit 

prosimiiS 

prositis 

prosint 






{: I 



IBHEfiULAR VERBS 

Impk. proderam prodessem 

FiTT. prodero 

Perf. profni profuerim 

Vi.vn: profuerara profuissera 

Flt. 1'k. profuero 

Imperative 

PkES. 2. Sin;.', prodes '-'■ I'l- prodeste 

Infinitive 

I'BES. prodesse Perf. profuisse K. t. profuturus esse 

Participle 

Ki r. profuturus 



Compounds of sum 



ab sum 
ad sum 
de sum 
inter sum 



ab esse 
ad esse 
de esse 
inter esse 



ab fui 
ad fui 
de fui 
inter fui 



prae sum prae esse prae fui 



aiti iiUscnt, am diatant 

am )iii.'ii'iit, am in-ar. lii'lp 

am lacking, am ■»-aiitinj4 

am among, am present at, take 

part in 
am at the liead (if, oonmiaiiil 
super sum super esse super fui am left, .survive 

8. All e,.mpoun<ls of sum except possum and absum lake the Dative. 
Absum is generally eonstrued with a ..r ab an.l the Ahlathr. 

g. Observe: - 

quam miiximis itineribus - hy »» 1»"« ■""■^'"''' «' P"^""''" 

Quam maximis (potest) itineribus 1 He hastens int., Italy hy a. long 

in -Italiam contendit. / "'a'ches as i„«s.l,le. 

The appropriate form of possum (otherwise un.lersloo.1) is someti.nes 
expresscil. 



10. Observe:— 

Hoc facere possum. 
Hoc facere potui. 
Hoc facere potero. 



I am able, can, do this. 
I r was ahle to do this. 
I I ccmlil have done this. 

I shall beahle to do this. 



Tlie U'tise 
not change in 



„: the iiifiiiilivo ihiit a.^cnipanics jms.^ii 
Liitiii, as in English. 



E.XKHflSE 



208 



EXERCISE 
A 

'■ lf\lt" """^ .-"'" '""" P°'"'^"- """• »°" Poterit. 
i^. His leiratis persuadere non poterat. 

3. Caesar copias quara raaximas comparavit. 

4. Inimicis nocere tibi non proderit. 

rt. Tibi in rebus adversis adero ; neque tibi unquam deero 

6. Caesar exere.tui Romano praefuit. Nemo civium tibi aderit 

-. H.C v.r eo d.e abfuit Oppidum a flumine mille passQs aberat 

S Ille dux multis proeliis interfuit. 

U. In omnibus rebus vobis prodesse poterimus. 

B 

1. We can hoar, wo could l„ue I,ea>-,1, we will (,„ ,.Mo t„ l,o..r 

2. He was al.le, he had heon ahle, he will havo hoon ahlo 

5. They are, were will he, ahsent Few .survive. Many survived 
4. Caosar wa., at the head of the army on that day. 

o. He colloetod as many ship.s as possible. 

6. He .set out as quickly as |ios8il>lo. 

7. Those men will not he serviceahle to th.-ir eountry 

8. He lacked shrewdnes.s' but not boldness 



' .Sa,v. shrewdness (conatlium) was lack 



i"S^ti) liirii. 



'■ "iom'f!^a:;f""' "'"'"'""■ """'• ""''" ■""-- -p- 

' '^'^ss\"t" "'"''' '""*""" ''"™"' "' hostesarmacaperenon 

3, Hostes, cum ad flumen pervenirenon possent, domum reverterunt 

4. Eum rogavi quare' eo die abfuerit. "erterunt. 

^' ''ab!',r"' '"'"" """^"" ""^ '■•■ "'"■'^ '" "<""»• "I'y I wa. 
6. He «Mll set out as quickly as possible so that the eneu.y , .ay 

.. We w,ll gatK.r so large forces that they will not be ahle t. 

resist our hrst attack. 
8. Siuce_youjire no. able to ,.ome to n.o, T shall e, ,„ y.,„, 

' unlversf. ae, a. nil lOKCtlier, in a Ijorti -onnrim,, , ™ ~ 

Tiish. quare, «hv. "PP"™". ■'. -pressi, -pressum 



•!*:'■ 



210 



V0I.O, NOLO, MAI.O 



LESSON LXXIX 
Volo, Nolo, Malo 







I. Principal Parts 


— 






volo 


velle volui 




am 


williiij;, will, wish 


nolo 


nolle nolui (non, lu.l + volo) 


am 


unwilliiij!, will not 


malo 


malle malui (magis, iiioif Fvolo) 


preffi-, hail rather 


2. 




Indicative 






I'KKS. 


void 


nolo 




malo 




vis 


non vis 




mavis 




vult 


non vult 




ma vult 




volumus 


nqlumus 




malumus 




vultis 


non vultis 




mavultis 




volunt 


nolunt 




malunt 


ImI'F. 


volebam 


nolebam 




malebam 


KrT. 


volam, voles, i^ 


c. nolam, noles. 


utc. 


malam, males, etc. 


Pekf. 


volui 


nolui 




malui 


Fi.ri'F 


volueram 


nolueram 




malueram 


Fdt. i 


F. voluero 


noluero 
Subjunctive 




maluero 


Pres. 


velim 


ndlim 




malim 




velis 


noris 




malis 




velit 


noUt 




malit 




velinius 


nolimus 




malimus 




velitis 


nolitis 




malitis 




velint 


nolint 




malint 


Impf. 


vellem, velles, i 


to. n611em,n611es,otc 


mallem, malles, etc 


Pkkf. 


voluerim 


noluerim 




maluerim 


PlAl't 


voluissem 


noluissem 




maluissem 



Pkes. 
Pekf. 



velle 
voluisse 



Imperative 

Pres. noli, nolite 

fnolito, uolitote 
*'^"^- Inolito, nolunto 

Infinitive 

nolle 
noluisse 



malle 
maluisse 



EXEROIRR 



211 



Participle 

Pres. volens v.illi..g nolens umvilling 

.nfi^ti^**''""'""' "°'°' •"""'''"• ''■"""■•■■' ''^ ^' ' I'' ."'-y 

Romam venire vulL H^ wmhps i„ ,.,,„„■ t.. H„„„.. 

4. Note --The in,,».n,tivo .,f nolo «i,!, ,„, inlinilh,. ;■ „ 
commonest f„r,„ f,,,- a „.,,„n,. i,n,.r.,n.: ,„■ ,.,..,.i,.,n.T 
Hoc facere noli. Ijimt .1.. iliis. 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. Write out the six forms baH,.,l „,„,„ „„. ,„,,,f,.,, ,„ f ^„,g 

2. VV hat ,. the rule for the formation of ,l.e i,n„f. suhj. act ° 

3. Vult, volet ; noluit, nolet ; malebat, malet 

4. Utmarn velis; utinam vellis ; utinam voluisses 

fi ^^■T^-".'^' '^" """* '"'■"'<="'"■ Nolite ad me venire 
/. Utrum domi manere an rus proficisci maluit 

clsSt ^ ""'"^ "'"'"'• ^^-" '^^ ^-'- ^^^-.'^ 
9. Cur^non vis? Quem videre vis? Mih. dixit quem videre 

'"• Dixit se manere nolle. Putavit mUites pugnare velle. 



B 



1. 



They will wish to set out. You proferrc.I to stav at h,„„.. 
-. Do you wi.sh to see the city ? Do you not prefe,- to eo,,,,,..,. 
.1. Write to me, plea.,e.. Don't al.a.„lo„ vour fri.M„l, 

4. He sent Labienus to the legions that they mi.^ht 1,„ will t. 

ngnt. 

5. The storm was so great that he preferred t,. stay at ho„,e 
•'• They told me that you were unwilliug to depart 

;• V7. ""'* T"" ''■''''"'• "" y™ •^••'y *''••" I '-''^ •'""■illin. 
«. lell me why you were unwilling. I shall .ask wl,-,t I,. "„ i i 

.». Smce y,m ara_m,wiUmg^toj«.rito, .^e„d a nu.ss.nj^er t„ „,e. 

'sis=si vis -i( joii pleMc, plea™: imperative of"di^s die' 



if 



212 RKADINC. LKHSON-VOCAIlUI-AnY 

READING LKSHON 
The Battle of Cannae (B.C. 216) 

P.™. aesUte -uo consu.s f^--i:;^^';Z^^:^'^i:^s 

Romani erant ^..ulus ei var.u eauitibus Nunudis 

Ramanasmoxdrcumv^m^^^^^^ 

Romani occidebantur. MimaierequmM » ^ - paucis 

millia circiter quinque capt. sunt C°"^"' J"'" j^-^ r^^-, 

Karthaginiensibusnunuavit. '"T' *'^! m„i°^, „,be perterriti 

„„.QHHt Verbis atque factis populum de re pubUca nunquai 
dJsX^re iusir O Jes senserunt Hannibalen statin, contra urbe.n 

Z Roman, statim proficisceretur hortatus est J^"" ^^^^j^ „ 
procedam" inquit Maharbal "et diebus <1">7- I" ^^^^ '^^^^^^^^^ 
Hannibal Umen nolebat. Turn Maharbal: Eheu ! scis vm 

Hannibal ; victoria uti nescis." 



Vocabulary 



Cannae, arum r-.wm-M- 

Numidae, arum Kuniiiliiins 

occido S occidi kill, sbiy 
occisum 

clades, is ( V. ) 

simul ac 

pavor, 5ris 

desperatio, onis 

jussu 

fortitudS, inis 
praesto I praestiti 
praestitum 

verbum, i wonl 

' 1 Arc. lie.-ausii nioli.m is iiiiplie<l. 

SL-l out. 



(Iceil 
fi.fl, think 



(liHaKtur 

UK soon as 

fear, paiiit' 

clrspair 

liy order 

com-agi% fortiuuli- 

sliow, iliKlilay 



factum, i 
sentio 4 sensi 

sensum 
victor, oris (Adj.) 
agere cum 
inire 
veto I vetul 

vetitum 
ceno I 
scio scire scivi 

scitum 
ne scio 
eheul 

,t»l\K. thaTheThonia^sLt o.it = iirit<"l "• «> 



victorious 
tirat Willi 
to enter 
forliiil 

dine 
know 

not know 
ala.^ '. 



FKRO 



213 







LESSON LXXX 








Fero 






I. Principal Parts:— 






AcrivK fero 
I'asshk feror 


ferre tuli, 
ferri latus 


latum 
sum 


l)i';ir, carry 


2. 


.\l- 


IVK 


Passive 




Indic. 


Subj. 


Indie. 


Subj. 


I'RKS. 


fero 
fers 
fert 


feram 

feras 

ferat 


feror 
ferris 
fertur 


ferar 

feraris 

feratur 




ferimus 

fertis 

fenint 


feramus 

feratis 

ferant 


ferimur 
ferimini 
feruntur 


feramur 
feramini 
ferantur 


iMJ'f, 

Fi r. 
Pkhf. 

PLIfK. 

Frr. Pf 


fere bam 

feram 

tu!i 

tuleram 

tulero 


ferrem 

tulerim 
tulissem 


ferebar 
ferar 

latus sum 
latus eram 
latus ero 


ferrer 

latus sim 
latus essem 


Pres. 

FUT. 


Imperative 

^" ferte ferre ferimini 

ferto fertote fertor 

ferto ferunto fertor feruntor 


Pres. 
Fit. 


ferens 
latiirus 


Participles 

Pekf. latus 
<iEri. ferendus 




Pres. 

Pe|!F. 
FuT. 


Infinitive 

ferre 
tulisse 
latiirus esse 


ferri 

latus esse 
latum iri 








Gerund 








ferendi, - 


do, -dum, -do 







latum 



Supine 



lata 



214 



KXKRCISe 



3- 

The compounds 
for rcfereiRf. 

ad- 

ab- 

con- 

dis- 

ez- 

in- 

of- 

pro 

re- 



Compounds of ferO 

of fer6, conjugated like the simple verb, are given 



affero 


afferre 


aufero 


auferre 


confero 


conferre 


differo 


difTerre 


effero 


efferre 


infero 


inferre 


ofFero 


offerre 


profero 


proferre 


refero 


referre 


sufTero 


suBerre 


ItoUo) 


(tollere) 



attuli 

abstuli 

contuli 

distuli 

extuli 

intuli 

obtuli 

protuli 

rettuli 

sustuli 

tastuH 



allatum 

ablatum 

collatum 

dilatum 

elatum 

illatum 

oblatum 

prolatum 

relatum 

sublatum 

sublatum 



l)ring to 
take away 
bring together 
put off 
carry oflF 
bring again&t 
present 
carry forward 
bring back 
endure 
lift, take away 



4. Note:— 

Four verl«-dic6, duco, facio, fero -drop -e in the •2nd sing, 
pres. imperative active : die, diic, fac, fer. 



5. Phrases :- 

arma ferre 
signa ferre 
auxilium ferre 
aegre "> 
graviter Vferre 
moleste -' 



to bear arnia, iight 

to Iwar on the standards, ailvance 

to bring aid 

to liear with difficulty, to l>e annoyed at 



ferunt 
fertur 
in silvam ligna ferre 



they say 
it is said 
to carry coals to Newcastle 

EXERCISE 
A 

1 Write out the six forma baaed uiwn tlie perfect stem of fero. 

2' Show that the perfect and future participles and infinitives are 

formed regularly. 
3. Eos, qui arma ferre non poterant, doraum discedere jussit 
V Hos'tes impetum nostrorum ferre non poterant 
r.. Nos omnes scimus te dolorem aequo animo tuUsse. 



"" 816 

8, H«nc rem moleste ferebant 

7. PoUicitus est M eis auxilium esse liturum. 

9. Didt le injuriis diu tulisie. 



B 

1. Since they were not able t„ beararn.s, he left the,,. i„ ,he cau.p 

2. They were sent f„r the purpose of .,ri„„in^< aid to the U.,„i ' 

big rfarti::""^"' " '""' '"""-"'• ^-»^ "-""^-^ - 

*■ ^'sSrds*^ '"'" ""■' ""^ "•'"■'' """"""« '" ••«- ■■" "'<-■ 
5. There was no opportunity of bringing aid 



LESSON LXXXI 



FiO 



I. Principal Parts :- 



fid 
(Act. facio 



Pbes. 
Impf. 

FUT. 

PllRF. 

PHIPF. 

FuT. Pk. 



Pkes. 



fieri 
facire 



'act s 3:>m 

fp r'l 



Indicative 

fio fis fit 

fimus fitis fiunt 

fiebam 

fiam 

factus sum 

factus cram 

factus ero 

Imperative 
n nte 



factum 



am niado, becorau 
make, do) 



Subjunctive 

fiam fias fiat 
Hamus fiatis fiant 
fierem 

factus Sim 
factus essem 

Participles 

Pekf. factus 
Gkr. faciendus 



216 





EXERCISE 




Infinitive 


Pbes. 


fieri 


Perf. 


factus esse 


FuT. 


factum iri 



3. Compounds of faciO 

4. Prepositional eonipoun.ls <,f facio (page l'.>3, e.,inp<.u.i.l») <lmnge 
a to i and foiin tliiir passive re),'ularly ;— 

interficio interficSre jnterfeci interfectum 

interficior inteHicI interfectus sura 

Other compounds retain a and have -iio in the passive :— 
patefacio patefacJre patefeci patefactum open 

patefio patefieri ■ patefactus sum 

EXERCISE 



1. Haec nuUo modo fieri possunt. Hoc fieri posse dixit 

2. Undique iino tempore impetus in nostros milites factus est. 

3. Eum de Caesaris adventu certiorem fecimus. Certiores fact! 

sumus. 

4. lUe a populo Romano est factus imperator. 

5. Copias e castris diicite et impetum in hostes facite. 

6. Utinam ne consul factus esset. N5nne rex fieri volebat ? 

7. Legatis dixit quid fieri vellet. Rogaverunt quid fieret. 

8. Tam celeriter progressus est ut quid fieret cognoscere non 

possent. 

B 

Ho says tliat this could have been done by you. 

\Vu can do tliis. This cannot l)e done. 

We will inform him. He will be informed. 

He will be made consul. Does he not wish to l)e made consul? 

When he saw what was being done, he moved liis camp. 

He will be killed. He does not wish to be killed. 

What has been done 1 He found out what had been done. 



8. Do you know by whom this was done ? 






READING LESSON — VOCAIIULARY — EO 



217 



HKADINfl LKSSON 
How Troy was Taken 

Graeci bellum contra bem Trojam decern annos gesserant nee 
earn capere poterant. Ad extremum dolo usi equum ligneum molis 
ingentis aedificant in quo viros fortissimos abdiderunt. Reliqui 
Graeci autem ad Graeciam rursus se abire simulant ' Trojani 
longa obsidione fessi gaudid magna ex urbe excedunt et ad arcem 
equum ligneum trahunt. Eadem nocte Graeci qui ad Tenedum se 
receperant, ad oram Trojae multis cum navibus redierunt et socii, 
equo egressi, portas patefaciunt. Custodes interficiuntur et urbs 
Troja expugnatur. 



Vocabulary 



ligneus, a, urn 
moles, is ( F. ) 
abdo 3 -did! -ditiun 
simulo 1 



wootleri 
HlzVt mass 
hide, conceal 
pretend 



obsidio, onis siisie 

fessus, a, um vtcariid 

gaudium, i joy 

me recipio I lietaku myself, 



' Note the idiom ; / pretend io yo:=Simul6 me ire. 



LESSON LXXlvII 



E6 



I. Principal Parts :— 







eo ire ivi 


itum go 




2. 


Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Pkes. 


eo 


is it 


eam 


eas eat 




imus 


itis eunt 


eamus 


eatis eant 


l.MI'K. 


ibam 


ibas ibat 


irem 


ires irct 




ibamus 


ibatis ibant 


iremus 


iretis jrent 


Fl-T, 


ibo 
ibimus 


ibis ibit 
ibttis ibunt 






Pkuf. 


ivi (ii) 




iverim (ierim 


I'MI'F. 


iveram(ieram) 


ivissem 


(iissem) 


Kit. 1>f. 


ivero (iero) 







m 



218 






BZERCISB 


I'BES. 
FUT. 


Imperative 

i tte 
tto ttote 
ltd eunto 


Particirles 
Pres. iens (fiEN. euntis) 
FuT. itunis 
Gek. eunduni(Neut.) 


1'rf.s. 
I'ekf. 

FUT. 


ire 

ivisse (iisse) 

iturus esse 


Infinitive 






Gerund 


Supine 




eundi, -do, -dum, 


-do itum itu 



3. Compounds of eo. 

In the perfect system of eo and it's compounds the forms with v are 
extremely rnre. 



abeo 


abire 


abii 


abitum 


l^o away, depart 


adeo 


ad'ire 


adii 


aditum 


go to, approach 


exed 


exire 


exii 


exitum 


go out of, leave 


ineo 


inire 


inil 


inituni 


go into, enter upon 


obeo 


obire 


obii 


obitum 


meet, face 


redeo 


redire 


redii 


reditum 


go back, return 


pereo 


perire 


peril 


peritum 


perish 


transed 


transire 


transii 


transitum 


go across, cross 


intereo 


interire 


interii 


interitum 


perish 



EXERCISE 



Paucis diebus redibunt. Ex oppido abierunt. 

Omnes pcrierant. Puerum domo exiisse dixit 

Ibisne? Nura puer ivit? Quando rediisti? 

Ante meridiem redibimus. Nemo montes transibit. 

Auctumno aves abeunt et vere primo redeunt 

Quo is? Unde rediit? Quot perierunt? Quis exibat? 

Eos rogavi quando rediissent. Utinam ne pereant 

Nobis eundum est. Consilium urbis capiendae inierunt. 

Duces misit ut tiiti redirent. In silvis se abdiderunt ne perirent. 



DEFECTIVE TERB8 



919 



B 

1. We will go. Did he go? Have they not gone ? Go home. 
Z. He saul they would go. I s«y he has returned 

3. Begone. We say that he is leaving the city 

4. We are going. Let us g„. O that we were -oing 

5. O that we may all return. Did anyone peri.sh ? 
b. They told us why they had crossed the river 

7. We shall set out at once that we may return .safely. 

8. When they returned to camp, they found everything ready. 
in Zl^'V" '"'"''' •■•''"'•"'ng ; since they have crossed. 

10. Why did you go away ? You told me why you went away 



I, 

verbs. 



LESSON LXXXIII 

DEFECTIVE VERBS 

Memini, Coepi, OdI, N6vl 

Verbs that lack some of their forms are called Defective 



2 The following are entirely or almost entirely lin.ited 
to the Perfeci System: 



memini 
od! 



I remember 
I hate 



coepi I have begun, I began 
novi I know 



Perf. memini 
fi'CPF. memineram 
^'l•T. Pf. meminero 

I'KRF. meminerim 
I'l.u. Pp. meminiuem 

mementd 
fflementote 



Indicative 
coepi 
coeperem 
coepero 



Subjunctivg 

coeperim 

coepissem 

Imperative 



odi 

oderam 

odero 



oderim 
oditsem 



novi 

noveram 

novero 



noverim 
novissem 



220 



EXERCISE 



PerF. 
FUT. 



Infinitive 

coepisse 
coepturus esse 

Participle 

coeptus 
coepturus 



5disse 
osunis esse 



osus 
osurus 



notus 



3 Note tlie meanings :—- 

memini, I renietnbei- ; memineram, I luniuinlierwl; meminero, I shall 
remember. 

odi, I liate ; oderam, I hateil : odero, I shall hate. 

novi is properly the perfect of nosco (-gnosco in cmiipouiids), 
I learu ; novi, I have learned = I know. 

cognosc5, I learn ; cognovi, I have learned, or, I know. 

consuesco, I l)ecorae aecustomea ; 

consuevi, I have become acci rjmed=I am ."cciistomed. 

4. Examine: — 

Urbem aedificare coepit. He began to huilil a city. 

Urbs aedificari coepta est. The city licgan to Ik; l)uilt. 

Coepi (active) is used when an active infinitive follows. 
Coeptus sum (passive) is generally used wlien a passive iiilinitive 
follows. 

5. Review Lesson LXVI, 7. 

memini ifUh Atr. = 1 remember, retain in mind 
wilh Geii. =1 am niiiidfiil, or regardful of 

obliviscor wilU Ace. = I forget, lose the memory of 
le'Uh Gen. =1 am forgetful of, disregard 

EXERCISE 
A 
1. Nunquam amicorum oblitus est. Quam mutta senes meminerunt ! 
■2. Iter in ftaliam facere coepit. Pons aedificari coeptus est. 

3. Inmiirum lapides jacisuntcoepti. Omnes malos oderat. 

4. Hiijus die! usque ad extremam vitam meminero. 

5. lUi cum equitatii progress! nostros prohibere coeperunt 

6. Haec Caesar ab Remis cognoverat. Nondum hostium consilia 

cognoverat. 

7. Ab hlbemis in luliam Caesar qui>tannis discedere consueverat. 



EXERCISE 



221 



B 

1. The barbarians began to hurl darts iit our men, 

2. Darts liegan to be hurled at oiir nii-n by the barlxirians. 

3. We cannot forget tlie valor of that man. 

4. Nor shall I ever forget that day. 

5. Caesar knew that the Gauls were desirous of change. 
(). He had ) irned their plans from messengers. 

7. They were accustomed to cross the river yearly. 

8. We are accustomeil. They will remember. Have y. m learned ? 

9. He sent cavalry to ascertain their plans. 




CAii'a JcLli H Cakhak 



222 



RBADmO LESSON — VOCABULARY 



READING LESSON 
Death of Caesar (44 B.C.) 

Caesar, bellis civOibus toto orbe terrarum confectis, ad urbem rediit 
Deinde dictator in perpetuumi creatus, superbius' insolentiusque^ 
agere coepit. Omnia munera, quae a populd antea deferebantur, 
amicis suis mandavit. Cum Antonius, qui in omnibus bellis Caesari' 
aderat, diadema capiti* ejus Lupercalibus* imponeret, haec res ei 
displicere non est visa. Quam ob rem multi cives eum potestatem 
regiam petere sunt suspicati. Itaque in eum senatores equitesque 
sexa^ta inter se conjiirationem fecerunt. Hujus conjiirationis 
duces erant Brutus et Cassius; hie Caesari inimicissimus, ille amicus 
sed patriae amantissimus. Hi Caesarem de improviso' Tdibus 
Martiis in curia confodere constituerunt. Itaque cum Caesar in 
curiam Idibus Martiis venisset, conjiirati eum circumsteterunt et, 
strictis pu^onibus, tribus et viginti vulneribus occiderunt. 





Vocabulary 




miinus, eris (N). 


duty, office 


conjiiratus, i 


conspirator 


defero 


oflFer, confer 


curia, ae 


senate-house 


mando I 


enjoin, bestow 


confodio 3 -fddi 


stab 


diadema, iitis(N.) 


crown 


-fossum 




impono 


place on 


stringo 3 strinxi 


draw 


videor^ri visus 


seem, appear 


stnctum 




regius, a, um 


regal, royal 


pugio, 5nis 


dagger 


senator, oris 


senator 


occido 3 occidi 


slay 


conjiiratid, onis 


conspiracy 


occisum 





' perpetuus, a, um, pontinuou§ : in perpetuum, for all time, forever, for life. 
•See page 88, 6, for force of Comp. The adverbs are superbe from BuperbUS, 
a, um, proud, haughty ; and insolenter from insolens, tis, haughty, ineolent. 
» Dat. after a compound verb (aee Lesson LXXr\'I. 4). < Abl. of 'time when' ; 

Lupercalia, lum (N. Pi. ), the Lupercalla, a sacred festival. • impraviBUB, 
a, um (in, not, pr6-vlde6, foresee) unforeseen ; de imprdviso, unexpectedly. 



IMPERSONAI, VEHB8 



223 



LESSON LXXXIV 
IMPERSONAi. VERBS 

iJpeltlvettr/" "" '""" ^'- ^^'"»-— ea„eH 

pluit. it rains ; tonat, it thunder, ; ningit, i, «„.,„„. 

2. As in the case of other verbs, the infinitive determines 

he conjugation; and when the prin-ipal parts are leTrne" 

the whole conjugation should be known. Usually they have 

no imperative, participles, or supine. ^ 

3- Principal Parts:— 

CoNj. Prbs. Indic. Pkes. Infin. 



First 
Second 
Third 
Fourth 

4- 
Pres. 
Impf. 

FPT. 

Perf. 

PHTPF. 

FcT. Pf. 



Pres. 
Impf. 
Perf. 

Pl.UPF. 



Pbes. 
Pbrf. 

FUT. 



constat 
licet 
accidit 
evinit 



constat 

constabat 

constabit 

constitit 

constiterat 

constiterit 



constet 
constaret 
constiterit 
constitisset 



constare 
constitisse 
constatijrum 
esse 



constare 
licere 
accidjre 
evenire 



Perf. Indic 
constitit 
licuit 
accidit 
evenit 



Indicative 



licet 

licebat 

licebit 

licuit 

licuerat 

licuerit 



accidit 

accidebat 

accidet 

accidit 

acciderat 

accident 



Subjunctive 
liceat accidat 

liceret accideret 

licuerit accident 

licuisset accidisset 



Infinitive 



licere 
licuisse 
liciturum 
esse 



accidere 
accidisse 



it is admitted 
it ia allowed 
it hapjHins 
it liappens 



evenit 

eveniebat 

eveniet 

evenit 

evenerat 

evenerit 



eveniat 
eveniret 
evenerit 
evenisset 



evenire 
evenisse 
eventurum 
esse 



224 



tMPEKSONAL VERBS 



S Note the Phrase:— 

It is admitted ],y all = inter omnes constat. 

May Might 

6. Permission — may, miyht~\s expressed by licet licSre 

licuit = it is allowed. 

I may do this. Hoc mihi facere licet. 

I might have done this Hoc mihi facere licuit, licebat. 

I may, shall lie allowed Hdc mihi fac -e licebit. 

to, do this. 

OtherH may \x cowards. Aliis esse ignavis licet. 

Observe :— 

The infinitive does not change as in English ; the change is 
in the main verb. 

A predicate adjective after esse agrees with the word to 
which it refers. 

Ought Should 

7. Duty, obligation— o7»/A<, shonld~ma.y be expressed in 
three ways : — 

(«) debeo, debere, debui, r owe, I owjhl, "scd jHTsonally, with Infin. 
(6) oportet, oportere, oportuit, it Mwirx, used impersonally, with 
Aec. aiirl Infill. 

(c) Most commonly by the (iernnrtive (Les.son LXXI). 

I ought to, should, ,lo this. liJ?' i^"' '•i""- 

I. Hoc facere me oportet. 
I ought to, shouhl, have done ( 

this. J Hoc facere debui, debebam. 

It was my duty to ilo this. 1"°'= facere me oportuit, oportebat. 

I ought to, should, do this ( 

(future). J Hoc facere debebo. 

It will be my duty to do tliis. ( ^^""^ facere me oportebit 

Observe :— 

The infinitive does not change a.s in English ; the cliange is 
in the main verb. 



EXERCISE 



235 



Must 

8 Note that the Oerun.live (I...ss„„ I.XXI) ^-ill translate o„,l„, 
Ao«, .,r ,.,„.,, .,„t that, debeo a,„l oportet will translate o,„,/,/o 
slumU, Imt not muM. 

9- Necessity— )«»»^-iMay 1«. expressed in two ways :- 
(a) Uy tli<" Gerumiive ; 

(h) By necesse est with the Dative and Infinitive. 
Hoc facere mihi necesse est. It is „ece.,sar,- for n,e to d„ tl,i„, 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. Write out a synopsis of oportet, oportere, oportuit 

2. Tibi ire licuit. Ei proficisci licet. EL-, ire licebit 

3. AliB esse ignavis licet, vobis necesse est viris fortibus esse 

4. nter omnes constat Romam fuisse caput orbis terrarum 
•>. Ire debes. Ire debuisti. Ire debebis. 

6. Sequi possumus. Sequi poteramus. Sequi poterimus. 






B 

E.,;n-e^h,jth, ihnualh.: I ought to do this ; I .,„j;ht to have 

done this ; I ouglit to do this (future). 
E^p,:.ss ia thr,e ,-•„,,,,; VVe ought to go. We ought to have 

g.me. Tl.e soldiers ought to have ol,eye.l the general 
Ihey ought not to destroy the city. 
I can go. I may go. I ought to go. I must go. 
He could have remained. He might have remained. 

ought to have remained. 
You shall he ahle to he present. V„u may he present. 

shall he your duty to he present. 
All admit tliat Caesar was a great general. 
This man ought to have been put to death. 
We should have come. Y<m ought to send. 

the laws. 
Vou may not leave the camp. V„u n.iaht have returne.l 
Ihe citizens will not he allowed to speak. 



Ho 

It 



All ought to ohey 



236 



IHPERSONAL VERBS — VERBS OF FEELING 



LESSON LXXXV 
IMPERSONAL VERBS VERBS OF FEELING 

I. Principal Parts:— 



miaeret 


miaerere 


miseruit 


it pities 


poenitet 
piget - 
pudet 
tMdet 


poenitere 
pigere 
pudere 
taedere 


poenituit 
piguit 
puduit 
taeduit 


it repents 
it vexes 
it shames 
it wearies 


2. Examine: 


— 







Me pueri miseret 
Hominem stultitiae poenitet 
Me mei piget ' 

Puerum ignaviae pudet 
Me dubitatidnis taedet 



I pity the !»} . 

The mini repents of liis folly. 

I am disKUSteil with myself. 

The boy is ashameil of his cowardice. 

I am wearv of hesitation. 



3. Rule:- 

Miseret, poenitet piget. pudet taedet : 

Take the Accus. of the person who feels ; 
The Gen. of the cause of the feeling. 

4. Interest, interesse, interfuit, it is of interest. 
Examine :— 



Interest omnitun. 
Mea interest. 



It is the interest of all. 
It is my interest. 



S Rule:- 



Interest takes the Genitive of the person o- thing concerned ; but in 
the case of pronouns, the Abl. Sing. Fern, o he Possessive Adjective 
is used. 

6. Opus est, opus esse, opus fuit, there is need. 

Examine :— 

fThere is need to me with help. 
Opus est mihi auxilio. ^ „„^.,, |„,,p 



227 



EXEHCISE— RBADINO LESSON 

Rule:— 

Opus e$t, thtre i» nrfd : 

Takes the Dative of the person «ho „ee.la ; 
The AbUtive of the thing need,-,!. 

EXERCISE 

A 

I. N™.ne te stultiti.. puduit. Ilium vitae Uedebat. 
i. Me tu. mi«,ru.t. Eos pudebit. Patrem poenituerat 

4 or * "'»" "^ *■'""'• "^^ P""*"" hoc dTx sse 
4. Onmmm mterent urbem servari. Tua intererat. 

«. Nobis .rm„ opus est. Nos ill.us viri miseret 
B 

1. I an. ashatned „f y„„r fo|,y. Have j„u tepente,! ' 

2. You have need of friends. It i. y„nr interest t„ «„ 

3. We repent. We repented. We will repent. 

o. It was the niterest of all the citizens to bo .,,.ve.I by tl„. c | 
^. All need your help to-day. They are vexed and «eari,..l 

RKADING LESSON 
Romulus (753-716 B.C.) 

Imperium Romanum a Romulo exordium habet Is ortfiH^.™ 
urbi Romae vicimu invitavit ,t Ps - - - ' ^ ''"'°* nat.ones 

o'^'s^^^rterpre-r^nrer^^r^^^ 

A.a. ' " " ** °*=""* "Ommum est sublatiie aa 

<l«>sjum«sejiblatura^ivescrediderunt. ™ *" ^""^'"^ Ad 

' = to deriMi., in mocker}'. = crritd on. " 



228 



UATIVR OF PURPOSE — DATrVE WITH COMPOUNDS 



Vocabulary 



I I 



exordium, i iH'ghiuing 

irridens, tis laughini; in 
(lorision 

moenia, ium(N.) whIIh 

tranailio 4 -silui li'ap over 

-sultum 

exiguut, a, um 8ni»ll 

leg^O .1 leg! th(M>i<e, select 

'ectum 



senectus, iitia old age 
finitimui, a, um neiglilxiring 
rapio 3 rapui neize, carry ufT 

raptum 
tricesimus, a, um tliirtieth 
inspicio 3 -spexi looli upon, 

-spectum inspect 

subttd (Adv.) ^Bmldenly 
repente (Adv.) Juiwxpoctedly 



LESSON LXXXVI 

DATIVE OF PUnPOSi-. DATIVE WITH 

COMPOUNDS 

1. Examine . — 

Maloesthominibusavaritia. Avarice is fur an evil to men, 

an evil 
Quinque cohortrs castris Heleftliveeohortaforaguardtothecuinip. 

praesidio reliquit to'guiird tlie camp 

Venit nobis auxilio. He came for an aid to us. 

to aid us. 
Gallis magnd erat impedi- It wa» (for) a great liindrance to tlie 
mento. (iaula. 

2. Rule:— 

The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, generally 
with another Dative of the person or thing affected. 

3. Examine:— 

Labienus exercitui praefuit. Labienua was in command of the army. 

commande<l 
Caesar Labienum exercitui Caesar placed Labienus in command 

praefecit. of the army. 

Consiliis consults obstat. lie opposes tlie plans of the consul. 



VOCABULARV—EXERCHK 



229 






4. Rule:— 

■d, ante, con, de, in, inter 
Ob, port, prae, pro, tub, super 
Intransitive verbs ,0 compounded goverr the Dative ; 
^Transitive verbs so con.poun.led govern tl.e Accusative and 

^ "^Snt*^"""" '""*''"" ■'•"' '*"""'"" """"= *- "Po" «he 
'• eiieniv. 

th«^°v'T^"u'"T.'"''''"'- "'" ^'"=- "^ ""• "'^^i^-^ becomes 
the subject; the Dative after the compound remains. 

6. Review the compounds of sum, Lesson LXXVIH. 
Vocabulary 

infero, -ferre, -tuh-, Ulitum l,ri„g against 

Ob »to, -stare, -stiti 

prae ficio, 3, -feci, fectum 

sub venio, 4, -veni, -ventum 

bellum infero 

bellum indico 

praesidium, i 

sobsidium, i 



iisus, lis 



oppose 

place in i;omman(l of 

come to tiie aid of 

u-,ai£e war upon 
declare war 
guard, defence 
support, reiiiforcement 



use, service 



EXERCISE 
A 

I- Galli finitimis bellum intulerunt. 

-' Interdum fortnna nostris consiliis obstat 

•I Caesar legates legionibus praefecit. 

*■ Hunc imperatorem bello praeficient 

• E6 die tibi aderam. Dumnorix equitibus praefuit 



230 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES 



6. Duci audacia, vi.-tus militibus deent. 

7. Legio decima illo proelio interfuit. 

8. Pauci Romani pugnae Cannensi superfuerunt. 

9. Consul civitati multum proderat. 
10. Legatus Alio circumvento subvenit. 



1. He left the tenth legion to gaard the baggage. 

2. He Hent the cavalry to the support of the infantry. 

3. This thing wan of great service to our men. 

4. Pericles gave his lands as a gift to the state. 

5. He will be placed in command of the war. 

6. The Germans commenced hostilities against the Gauls. 

7. In the consulship of Caesar, war was declared against the Gauls. 

8. He was sent to the aid of 'the Athenians. 



LESSON LXXXVII 
SUBJUNCTTTE IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES 

1. The following summary contains the kinds of clauses to 
be considered in studying the uses of the Subjunctive in 
Dependent Clauses. In some of them the Subjunctive alone 
is used, in others either the Indicative or Subjunctive. 

2. The Bule underlying all uses of the Indicative and 
Subjunctive ?s : — 

The Indicative is used in stating /acts; the Subjunctive 
makes assertions, not as Jacts, but as conceptions present to 
the speaker's mind. 

3- KiNU OP CuiuBS Mood Used 

(1) Final Clauses Subj. 

(2) Indirect Questi<>n.s Subj. 

(3) Consecutive Clauses Subj. 

(4) Clauses of Characteristic Subj. 



HEADmo LESSON— VOCABULARY 

(5) Substai.tive Clauses— 

(a) of Purpose §„{,: 

(6) with Verbs of Fearin« Subj. 

(c) of Result Xuijj 

W with y«orf i„di^ 

(6) Clauses withyumand^HoTOi,,™ Subj. 

(7) Conditional Clauses 

(8) Causal Clauses 

(9) Concessive Clauses 

(10) Clauses of Comparison 

(11) Temporal Clauses 

(12) Indirect Narration or 

Oralio Obliqna 



231 



Indie, and Subj. 

Indie, and Subj. 

Indie, and Subj. 

Indie, and Subj. 

Indie, and Subj. 
,'Acc. with Infin., and Subj. 
t (Indie, occasionally) 



READING LESSON 
Numa Pompilius (B.C. 715-672) 

(The .«„„<, king o, R„„e. He «t.bU,hed Uw. and «lig,o„. rit,. , 

POPU.US postuU.w?':; r^fie^ "^Z^Tu^Z TZ^'^T^ 
sapientissimus. est lechi. i. k.ii -. ''ompihus, hom5 

Rominis constituit et wrium deLi»dt in rf^ ^^ -noresque 
Romae permulU^ aedifiaWt ^ "^ ""*' «' '«'"?'« 



primo 
modus, i 
postulo I 

' Abl. o( Uanner. 



at first 
manner 
demand 



Vocabulary 

quidem 
describo 
mensis, is 



' ^''« '""•• ot per i» wry. 



indeed, it is true 
divide, niupout 
month 



232 



FINAL CLAUSES 



LESSON LXXXVIII 

FINAL CLAUSES 

ut, ne, quo 

1. Recapitulatory (Lesson LXXV) :— 

ut = not ; ne = that not, or lest. 

Pres. Subj. is used after Primary Tenses ; 

Iinpf. Subj. is used after Historical Tenses. 

Do not use the infinitive in Latin to express purpose. 

2. The Relative Pronoun qui (called qui Final) is often 
used like ut to express purpose : — 

Legates misit qui pacem peterent 

He sent ambassador J *'"' »■"»"''' '*«'' P*''<* 
l.to sue for peace 

A Relative Adverb — ubi, where; unde, whence; qu6, 
whithei — may be used in the same way to express purpose : 

Non habebant quo se reciperent 

They hail not whither they might betake themBelves= 
They had no place to betake themselves to. 

3. There are in all eight ways of expressing purpose in Latin : 
He sent aniWssadors . . to sue for peace. 



Legatos mIsit 



qui pacem peterent 
ut pacem peterent. 
ad pacem petendam. 
pacii petendae causa, 
pacem petitum. 
pacem petituros. 



(Rel. with Subj ) 

(ut with .Subj.) 

(Gerundive) 

(Gerundive) 

(Supine) 

(Fut. Part., rare) 



In the neces.sary cases (page 185, 6) the Gerund would be 
substituted for the Gerundive : 

... to persuade the enemy. 
ad hostibus persuadendum. 
hostibus persuadendi causa. 
He sent noMiers. . .to plunder — for the purpose of plundering. 
ad praedandum. 
praedandi causa. 



EXERCISB 



233 



4- quo = by which, wliereby 

MUitibus praemia promisit He pron.ised rewards to the «,l.lic™ 
quo fortius pugrnirent. thattl.ey„,igl.tflght„,„re."™ir 

Rule :— 

Use quo for ut wlieu a comparative follows. 
5- Examine:— 



Porta clausa est ne 

quis exiret. 
Abil ne quid viderem. 



The gate was shut that no one might go out. 

to prevent anyone going out 
i went away that I might not see anything, 
(liat I might wee mitiiing. 
to avoiil seeing anything. 
In Final clauses— that ... not = ne 

that. . .nobody ne quis 
that. . .nothing ne quid 
that. ..no ne ullus 

that . . never ne unquam 
When a seeond finai cUus. i. added, it is intro,l„eed by neve or neu • 
Abibo ne eum videam neve audiam. I slndl go away Lt iZ^ll 

see nor hear him. 

EXERCISE 



1. Hoc factum est ne quis ex civitate pelletetur 

-. Captivosomnesinteriicijussitquocelerius iter faceret 

4. Se interfecit ne patriam eversam unquam videret. 

5. Ad urbem statim redibit ne absens condemnetur. 

6. Non ali*i naves habebuit q.,.-,us domum navigarent. 

nun^ireT'''' '"^ '''"° ~°"°"" " """ '*■" """""us 

8. Multa mentitus est quo jiinior videretur 

9. Homines vivus laudivit ut ab eis mortuus laudiretur. 

Z » '--'°'. "' ""''"" ^P'" R*°'«"'"> s«iul posset 

postern m flumine faciendum curivit atqu. ita^exeS 



231 



IXniRKC-r <}UEST10NS — ADAPTATION 



B 

1. Translate in all possible ways:— 

((() He sent siddiera to st<>riii the camp. 
(h) He will send ciiviilry across the river to plunder. 
(<;) They »aid he ought to have returned to the city to set. 
his friends. 

2. Caesjir sent the cavalry to pursue those who had fled. 

3. To avoid being killed the anibassadois remained in camp. 

4. We will set out in the morning that we may reach the city 

before night. 

5. He will return in the night that no one may see hiiu. 

6. Since the woods were burned down, the cnemv had no place to 

betake themselves to. i 

7. That he might cross the river more easily, he sent two thousand 

cavalry to build a bridge. 

8. We shall carry on tlie war by land and sea that we may the 

more quickly force the enemy to surrender. 
U. To ascertain these things, he sent his lieutenant ahead with a 
warship. 



LESSON LXXXIX 
INDIRECT QUESTIONS ADAPTATION 

1. Recapitulatory (Lesson LXXVI) :— 

An Indirect Question requires the Subjunctive. 

The Rule for Sequence of Tenses is observed but in general 
the English is a sutticient guide. 

2. Examine:^ 

Quot essent hostes rogavit He asked how many the enemy were. 

the number of the enemy. 

ETs diximus quo iremus. We told them whither we were going 

our destination. 



MERCISE—BEADl.Vff LESSON— VOrAUl'LARY 



235 



EXERCISE 

Ad,pt to Indirect Question ronetructio,, and tr.n.late :- 

1. I tell you the nature of the dnn<'er 

2. He sent scouts to ascertain the mnnher of the enemy's shins 

3. Can you tell us the date of his de,,arh,re fron, h„n.e ? ' 

4. We have learned the reason for his return 

5. He wishes to know the nun.ber and si.e of the harbors. 

7. We shall never know the manner of his death. 

8. They cannot tell us the size of the river 

10. Hepo,nte.louttheease with which the Ro,..a,.s n.ight, „. .^h 

11. We wish to tell you our o,.i,.io,. about the n.atter. 

READING LESSON 
TuUus Hostilius (B.C. 672-6^0) 

F.11.011. tight between the Horatii and Curiatii 



interrez, regis 
exorior 
finio 4 
forte 



Vocabulary 

interrex ,^.5 

start up, ari»e foedus, eri» (N) 

finish, e..,l its 3 j^j i^j^^ 

by oliance 



airange 

treaty 

strike 



^•o^^iionTh^"- "^'" """""■ '»- •' " ««-■ 



'iron=iword. <on thii 



236 



CONSECITTIVE CLAUSES — EXERCHE 



LESSON XC 
CONSECUTIVE CLAUSES 

1. Recapitulatory (Lesson LXXVII):— 

In Consecutive clauses, ut = tliat ; ut. . .non = that .not. 

The English is a sufficient guide for the tense of the 
Subjunctive that is to be used — Present, Imperfect or Perfect. 

2. The Relative Pronoun qui (called qui Cotmeciitire) is 
sometimes used to express result : 

Nemo tam audax est qui hoc faciat. Nn one in an Imld .is to <1o tliix. 

3. Examine:— 

Talis erat ut nemo ei crederet. He was of such a character 

that no one helieved him. 



.not =ut non 
.nobdlj' ut nemo 
nothin){ ut nihil 
no ut nullus 

never ut nunquam 



In Consecutive clauses— that, 
that, 
that, 
that, 
that, 
nor, and not neque 

4. Distinguish:— 
Celeriter proKressi sunt ut castris potlrentur. Final Clmisr 

They .advance<l quickly that they might get posse .. 'on of the camp. 
Tam celeriter progress! sunt ut castris potirentur. ConsenUire Clause 

They advanced so quickly that tliey got possession of the camp. 

EXERCISE 

1. The enemy were so cruel Uiat they did not sjmre even the 

women and children. 

2. I returned home that I might save the state, but so numerous 

were the enemy that I was not able even to defend the city. 

3. Our men advanced with such speed that no opportunity was 

given the enemy to take up arms. 

4. So terrified were the Germans that they threw away their arms. 
6. The walls were so high that the city was not taken nor was 

anyone killed. 



CLAUSKS OF CIlAHACTERlSTIf 



237 
traii8|M.rteil 



6. So many ships wer« l„.s. ih.u the. nriny cM.ld „ot l,e 
before winter. 

imglit iidvaiiro more ciuickly. 
8. So great was the ston.i th.u .uai.y perished in the sea. 



LESSON XCI 

CLAUSES OF CHAliACTEHISTIC 
1- Compare: — 

Non is sum qui hoc feci. I am not the n.an who ,Ii.l j,. 

Non is sum qui hoc faciam. I »„, not the ,„an I " ''" *""''' '"^ "''»■ 

(to do this. 

The relative clau.se with the Indie, n.akes a statement of fact 
about an antecedent which the relative directly represents. 

The relative with the Subj. characterize., a class of persons 
implied .„ the antecedent, which the relative represent Ta 

CUr,u.i..r.Hc In such a clause the relative means 'of such 
kind a. to and the Subj. is closely allied to the Subj. i„ 
•consecutive clauses. '' 

2. Qui is .similarly useil with the Subj.:— 
(a) After dignus, indignus and idoneus. 

Dignus est qui ametur. He is worthy to U- loved 
('') After quam with a ooniiwrative 

Facta eorum majora sunt quam quae dici possint 
Their deeds are ftrr'-'i'ter than which are able to he told 
1 t<x) great to be told. 

3- Note:— 

sunt qui = there are some'who 
erant qui = there were some who 



r 



238 



EXERCISE — READING LESSOM 



EXERCISE 
A 

1. Sunt qui putent me fnisse crudeliorem consulem. 

2. Erant qui dicerent eum interfici oportuisse. 

3. Quis est qui putet hoc esse verum ? 

4. Idoneus est quern miremur. 

5. Non erat iddneus qui rex fieret 

6. Lapides majores sunt quam qui moveri possint 



B 

1. There are some who believe that he will leave the city. 

2. There is no one who belieVes that he will remain. 

3. He is not the man to tell a falsehood. 

4. They are not the men to be terrified by danger. 
6. There was no one who would dare to defend him. 
6. Who is there to whom these temples are not dear ? 



READING LESSON 
Fight between the Horatii and Curiatii 

Icto foedere, trigemini arma capiunt et in medium inter duas 
ides procedunt Consederant utrimque pro castris duo exercitiis. 
Datur signum infestisque armis juvenes concurrunt. Ut' primo 
concursu increpuere' arma micantesque' fulsere' gladii, horror ingcns 
spectantes perstringit. Diii et acriter pugnatum est et tandem uuo 
Horatii, mulUs vulneribus acceptis, alius super alium mortu! ceci- 
derunt; et Ciiriatii omnes graviter sunt vulnerati. Exercitus 
Albanus, cum hoc perspexisset, gaudio conclamavit; jam omnis 
spes legiones Romanas deseruerat quci Horatium iinum tres 
Ciiriatii circumsteterant Is vero adhuc integer* fuit, nequaquam 
tamen solus par universis.' Dold igitur usus, ut hostes distraheret, 
fugere coepit. Quam celerrime sequuntur Albani, 



> ut meaning (U or u>A«n takes the Indic. ^Srd pi. perf. indio. *UMd as an adj., 
gkaming. 'wholes without a scratch. ^ for all together. 



VOCABULARY— SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 



239 



Vocabulary 



medium, i(sL'. 

apatium) 
consido 3 -sedi 

-sessum 
utrimque 
concurro 3 -curri 

-cursum 
concuraus, us 
increpo 1 -crepui 

-crepitum 
mico 1 micui 
fulgeo 2 fulsi 
horror, oris 



tlie niiilillc 

sit ilowii to- 
gether.encanip 

on either nide 

run togetlior, 
rush together 

charge, assault 

clash 

gloani 
flash 
fear, dread 



perstringo 3 

-strinxi -strictum 
super (I'rep. 

governs Ace. ) 
perspicio 3 -spexi 

-spectum 
con clamo I 

adhuc 
nequaquam 
dis traho 



move ileeply 

over, after 

observe, per- 
ceive 
sliout 

together 
as yet 

hy hn means 
sepjirate, 
divide 



ut hoc facias I"'"' J'™ *' this 
Ito do this 



LESSON XCII 
SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 
Substantive Clauses of Purpose or Indirect Commands 
I. Examine:— 

Te rog:at He asks you 

Tibi impeiat He commands 

you 
Te monet He advises you 

Tibipersuadet He persuades 

you 
■"■s hortatur He exhorts you, 

fOgavit He asked you 
Tit,i imperavit He . ..mmanded 

you 
Te monuit Heailvisedyou 

Tibi persuasit He persuaded 

you 
Tehortatusest He exhorted 

you -' 



ne hoc facias 



rthat you do not 
) this 



rthat you 
ias I this 

Uiot to do t 



/•that you should 
ut hoc faceres-l ilo tliia 
Uo ihi this 



ne hoc faceres 



ftliat you shouM 
\\ not do this 
'^riMt to do tliis 



240 



8UBSTASTIVK CtAURKS 



2. Rule: — Such vRrbtt as ask, commatut, ailvise team, 
exhort, persuade, take ut or ne with the Subjunctive to 
translate the English infinitive. 

3. Rule for Tense :— The same as for Final clauses. 
Sequence is observed. Only two tenses are use<l. 

Present Subj. for Primary Sequence ; 
Impf. Subj. for Historical Sequence. 

4. The following verbs take this construction : — 

ask, beg 
pray, iiitreat 
demand 
advise, warn 
urj(e, exhort 
urge, persuade 

i,„_ , , , command ; commission ; 

praecipiS ; edico J go^'^™ "*'. ^^^ instructions ; announce 



5ro I ; rogo I ; peto (ab) 
opts I ; precor I (ab) 
postulo I 
moneo ; admoneo 
hoitor; adbortor 
■uadeo; persuadeo (Dat.) 
impero ; mando I ;\ 



5. Exceptions:— 

jubed, ordtr, and veto, forbid, take the Ace. and the Infin. (See 
page 165, 5 (e); 166, Obs.) 

6. Observe:— 

Caesar in Italiam redire statuit. Caesar flecided to return to Italy. 
Caesar statuit ut legiones redirent. Caesar deeiiled that the legions 

should return. 

7. Rule:— 

statud, decide, constituo, decide, decerno, decree, take the Infin. 
when the action of the Infin. refers to the subject of the main verb ; 
otherwise they take ut or ne with the Subj. (Sequence as above), 

8. Note the phrases : — 

id ago ut =1 make it my aim to 
operam do ut - T take paiua to 



EXERCISE 



241 



EXERCISE 



1. Me oribi. ut «cum e«„. Te orift ut secum ire,. 

2. Eum rog.„t ut mihi monrtriret ubi librum posuisiet 



10 



Mihtes hortatus est ut fortiter pugnarent 
A Cesare petlverunt ne c«tra propius m moyeret. 
Eum monet ut iter caute faciat ne ab hctibu, videitur 
FuutimB persuiserunt ut «cum proficUcerentur. 

"Td'Lr "' °"'"' -"'^•'-' "*- P^Pe ca.tr. e^™ 

Eos hortamur ne tantam sul liberandi occasionem omittant 
H- Opus sutin, conficere statuit Decreirit .» ~" °™""'- 

ficeretur. Oecrevit ut hic homo inter- 

im Constituit sibi diutius non dubitandum esse. 

B 

1. He persuades )ii„i n„t ,„ g„. He has vi-,.r.w.,l h- 

9 II .„ , i> ne lias ttanieU hiiu not to come 

«;:;;; P->"«i« Him iiot to «o. H.. h.. warned iiim not tt 

'• ""t-tS ""' ■""^^'"'^"^ '" -'-' '- '"- to advance 
4. He was warnd not to land from the ship 

' 'rw'"""" "" ""^^ ^■'"-"- """^ ""- -^ «et o,.t 
0. The^wiHas. h.m to ,... them three .,a,s' time to assemble 

7. We determined to stay at home on that day. 

8. He made it his aim to raise an army. 

0. We t.K.k pains to learn the plans of the enemy 



243 



READIItn LE8S0K — SUBSTANTIVE CLAU3B8 



READING LESSON 

The Fig^ht between the Horatii and Curiatii 

(Continued) 

Cum jam aliquantum* tpatii' ex eo loco, ubi pug:natum est, 
aufugisset, respiciens videt unum e Curiitiis haud procul ab sese'' 
abesM. In eum magno impetu redit, et dum exercitus Albanus 
inclamat Curiatiis ut opem ferant fratri, jam Horatius unum hostem 
occlderat et alterum petit.* Turn Romani, clamore sublatd, militem 
saum adhortantur et pug^ defungi' festinat. Mox alter Curiatius, 
qui non procul abest, interficitur ; et jam duo soli ex sex supersunt, 
nee spe nee viribus pares. Horatius gladio Curiatium aegte 
anna sustinentem conficit,* et jacentem spoliat. Roman! ovantes' ac 
gratulantes' Horatium accipiunt et domum deducunt 



aliquantus, a, um 
re spicio 
baud (adv.) 

in clamo 
ad hortor 



Vocabulary 

fK)me, coliaiilerable 

look Itack 

not (used before adja. 

and ailv^.) 
call out to 
urge on 



jaceo 2 jacui lie 
spolio I xtrip, despoil 

OTo -are exult 
gratulor 1 rejoice, 

congratulate 
de diico escort 



■Neut of the adj. used aa a luhat. =Part. den. ; something; of difUnce=aoine 
dUtanoe. -^Strantr form for fiitnp]e ae. *i8 makint; for. <>Compou]id of fUntfOr 
govenu the Abl. to AniMh. "putt an end to. ^Translate freely. 



LESSON XCllI 
SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 
With Verbs of Fearing 

I. Examine:— 
Vereor ne veniat. 
Vereor ut veniat 
Veritus sum ne veniret, 
Veritus sum ut veniret. 
Vereor ut rediturus sit. 



I fear (that) he will come. 
I fear (that) he will not come. 
I feared (that) he would come. 
I feared (that) he would not come. 
I am afraid he is not likely to come. 



KXERCISB 

2. Rule:— 

Witli v..rlw .,f f...iri,ig n6 ///-./, .»' hri; 

Ut = (hal . . . „nt 
•Se<)uence of Tenses is olweivml. 
Tvv., lenses only-Pros. ,„„| r,„pf,__a,v i„ j;..,„.,,,| 



S43 



■I" 



3. Note the various ways of tniiisl.itin- the sni,, ,,„.,,,. 
tlie dependent eliuise : 

Vereor ne veniat. 



icl. 
!■ In 



'II 



I fear tliat In- i» loinin, 
may c<iim>. 
Veritus lum ne veniret I feare,l that he was c..,,,,,,;;, « ,„ i, , , 
"I- iiii^ht loin... 

4. Principal Parts: — 

vereor, vererl, veritus sum j 
timed, -ere, -ui I. ' f»'»i" 

metud, -ire, ui, -utum | ' am afrai.l 

periculum est riure i. a .lander 

EXERCISE 



Vereor ut hoc f«ciat. Verebar ne hoc faceret 

Timui ut puer domum rediret. Timeo ne pueri domum redeant 

Metuerunt ne hanc rem hostibus dicerent. 

Veriti sunt ut satis frijmenti haberent. 

Timed ut posters die proficisci possitis. 

Metuimus ne milites urbem hostibus dederent. 

Pater meus est veritus ut domum ante vesperum redirem 

Periculum erat ut nostri barbaros fliimen transire prohibere 

B 

I am afraid tlwt he will not ho a)ilc tn rotiirii. 

We were afraid that the l).,y w,„d.l not do this 

We all feared that he w.,uld inform the enemy almut our plans 

I am afraid that they will not be able to defeat the enemy 

The man was afraid that his son would ilie. 



244 SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF RESULT-CLAUSES WITH QUOD 

6. We were afraid tliat nil wonld not )>e »l)le to return to camp. 

7. There was tlie greatest (laiigur tliat tlie enemy might seize the 

b<!ats and cross tlie river in the night. 
B. The citizi'ns were afraid that tlie consuls would lie defeated and 
that the enemy w(mld imme<liately assiiult the city. 



LESSOX XCIV 

SUBSTANTIVE CL.M'SKS <tF HESULT 
CLAUSES WITH QUDD 

I. Substantive Clauses of Result occur with :— 

(n) facio and its loniiiouiids, efficio. conficio, perficio, do, 

accomplish : impetro, I, I olitiiiii ii icinicst. 

Efficiebat ut commeatus portari He Inoughi it alH>\it that supplies 
posset. "'"'d 1« liniii^lit. 

Impetravit ut sibi parceretur. He obtained his iei|Hist to l>e 

sparcil. 

(ft) Inipersonal veriis ami phrases ; 

accidit, evenit, contingit 

accedit 

sequitur 

fieri potest 

nullo modo fieri potest 

tactum abest ut . ut 

ex qu5 factum est 
Accidit ut nema adesset. It happ.nid that no one was present. 

Fieri potest ut erremus. It is posaililo tlial «e ai-e niistuken. 

Tantum abest ut eum culpem So far am I from l.laining him tliat I 
ut etiam laudem. even cuunneml liim. 



it ha]»pt'ns 

it is ailded 

it follows 

it may he 

it is quite niipo>sil(Ie 

so far from. . .that 

the result of tills was 



2. 



Quod Clauses with ladic. 



Quod Regulus rediit, nobis mirabile Tliat Regulus nturiiid seems 
videtur. wonderful to us. 

Note that the .sUtement in the quod clau.sc witli indie, is 

regarile>l as a. fact. 

quod thai, tlie fact tlial 



EXERnsE 

EXERCISE 
A 



340 



Magnum est hoc, quod victor victis pepercit 
Quod tu mcolumis domum rediisti. mihi gratum est. 

ven'^Zr"" "" ""''" """^ P"''^"'- «^-"-' '" castra 
Accidit ut esset luna plena. 

A Caesare non impetrare poterant ut discederent. 
Ex quo factum est ut mulUe civitates Caesari se dedcrent 
caSetu^" "' '*= ""'"'^"" "' ^'"*>'" =«''» "c^d- 

B 

The fact thHtjm, l,etmy«l j„ur tm.nfy ,,s en„u..!. 
-. It haiiiieiifil thiit nu h,i-,! „l,sui,t 
:.. They oht,u„e,l their re,,„...st to ren.Hh, i„ the eu,„,, 

... N.fH me«ef,..„„„.l„M„„g thU ,„„„ ,l„.t »o thn.k he .„..h, 

0. The result of thi.s whs that they e„uhl n,„ „, e,,sily ,„,,ke wtr 
oil their iieighl..,rs. "y miM «.ii 

7. I .s„ceee,ie.l in having the n.an lil„.,.at..,l , I |,,„„.,„ ,, („ ^.^, 
that tiie man »,is fn-ed . ' 

«. Shall we not obtain o„r re,|„..s, u, ^jive hostages ! 

l!i:.\|)IN(i l,K.SS()N 
The Death of Servius Tullius 

alt!rr'f T'""°-5."' "«»extU5 Rominorum rex. -rant filiae du.e 



246 



yOCABULABT 



l.l: 



if;, 



;l^ 



"estinivit • sed cum can.- .n iniret, a Lucio crudeH»»ime compreheiMus 
rradibus est dejectus et dcaium vulneritui refupens est interfectus. 
TuUuu raw ferox, carpento vecU» in fonim properiTitet conjugem 
prima regem saluti»it. Postei cum e turbi et tumultu decewuet 
et domum rediret corpus patris vidit et muUonem cunctMtem et 
frena inhibentem super ipsum corpus carpentum agere* jussit. Ex 
quo factum est ut ea via appellaretur Scelerata.' 



Vocabulary 



Tiolentus, a, um 
ingeuium, I 

jungo 3 junxl 

junctum 
similitudo, inis 
cito 
indto I 



violent 
nature, 

disposition 
join 

likeness ; 
soon, quickly 
instigate 



saliito I 
gradus, iis 
carpentum, i 
turba, ae 
tumultus, us 
mulio, onis 
frenum, t 
' in hibed 



salute 

step 

carriage 

crowd 

rising, tumult 

(nule-) driver 

rein, bridle 

hold in, draw in 



'•Abl of 1itKnf^on.ofliUdUp<mtion. = Historic Prewnt. It may take either 
«,«' ce V^T^Jdinr,. '\Zr<«. » Via Soelerftta, the Wicked 8t«e,. 




DliATil o» Sssvius Ti 1.1.11'" 



CLAUSES WITH QDIN AND QUOJIINUK 2*7 

LESSON XCV 

CLAUSES WITH QUIN AND QUOMINUS 

Quin 

..y U n^^:]"' if '""" "' ^'"- ''"°'^" (-6n) = where.„. not. that 
»y It not , 01 in some ca8e8=qni (quae, quod) non. 

Uses of QuIn 
Z Quln may denote Negative Result = ut n6n ■ 

3- QuIu may introduce a Clause of Characteristic : 

= qul (quae, quod) nan. 

Nemo est quin credat There i. no „„e but telieveH 

4- QuIn may introdice a Substantive Clause : 

(a) With verbs and phrases of doubting and omi«m^ ■ 
N6n«rt dubium quin hoc f«:ere There i. „o doubt that they are able 

"^ ■ to <lo this. 

Nee multum abfuit quin onmes {^"'^ ""' """''' *»"'"'« '>«t that we 
interficeremur. 1 """'' "" '''"«'■ 

"•And we were very near beingall killed. 

(b) With verbs of hindering, preventing, opposing : 
Retineri non poterant quin tela conjicerent. 

They could not be reatraiueil from hurling their dart». 

5- Quin requires that the princip.l verb or phrase must 1« 
negative or virtual negative. 

6. Words and phraaes followed by Qufa :— 
nemo est quin .i 

nan dubito quin here ,«„„ one but 

n6n est duWum quin ht'i "S M 

face™ „r r ""^ '" "•"•"" '« ■'"-■'• """ 

facere non possum qum , ,^„„, ,,,,p ^ , ^^.,^^^ ^^^^ 



m 



iil 



IIP 



248 



EXERCISE 



it (.annot be but that 



fieri non potest quin 
minimum abesse ) , . „ fto be very near 

haud multum abesser'*'' ■">?«■■«">»")' jto be within a very little 

1 leave nothing undone to 
( I cannot control niynelf but 
\l cannot refrain from 



nihil praetermitto quin 
temperare mihi non possum quin 

7. Note:— 

dubito may alfto take the Infin : 
Hoc facere non dubitat 



He floes not hesitate to do this 



8. Quominns 

it the less. 



QuOminus 

=qu6 minuS"Ut eo minus, by which the less, that by 



9. QuOminus is used V'th verbs and phrases of preventim/, 
hindering, opposing, in Substantive Clauses akin to final 
clauses : — 
Naves vento tenebantur quominus The ships were prevented by the 



wind from reaching the harbor. 
It was owing to you that I ilid not 

return to tlie city. 
What prevents us from doing 

this ? 

or virtual 



in portum pervenirent 
Per te stetit quominus ad urbem 

redirem. 
Quid obstat quominus hoc facia- 

mus! 

10. The verb or phrase is generally negative 

negative. 

* EXERCISE 

A 

1. Negari non potest quin mentiri sit turpe. 

2. Non dubito quin R5mam iturus sit. 

3. Facere non possum quin litteras ad te mittam. 

4. Fieri non potest quiu Crasso subveniam. 
li. Quis dubitat quin hoc verum sit ? 

6. Non erat dubium quin domum venturus esset. 

7. Nimquam eum audivi quin laudarem. 

8. Nemo est quin sciat eum multa mentitum esse. 

9. Nemo est quin hoc saepe audierit. 

10. Dubitandum esse non existimavit quin proficisceretur. 

11. Non cunctandum existimavit quin cum Germanis pugnaret. 

12. Nequ? multum abfuit quin nostri castris expellerentur. 



IteSuuseieKeit-.^en^v 



CONDITIONAL CLACSH 

B 



MS 



1. TTieroisnodoubtthtthe BelgaeHre the bravest of all theOauls. 
Z. They were very near being all taken prisoners 

3. Nothing prevents you from doing this (use quominus) 

4. There is no doubt that he intends to set out at <,iice 

5. Whodonbtsthatit is better for us todiefree than toliveslaves 
B. Ihe snii« wtre within a very little of being all built 

7. There is no one but l«lievos that he w,w put to .leath 

8. You were the cause of our not winning the day (use quominu.). 
». i cannot help admiring this citizen. 

10. They could ...* be prevented from setting out (use quominui). 

LESSON XCVI 
CONDITIONAL GLACISES 
I. A Conditional Sentence consists of two parts : 

If he says so, he is wrong. 
These two parts are : 

(a) The if-clause, containing the ctmrfi^wn, called the 

Protasis ; 

(b) The main clause, containing th« condtuimi, called 

the Apotlosis. 

2. The Conditional Clause is introduced by 

si, if ; am, unless ; si non, si m-nu., if not ; or rin, but if. 
3- Conditional Clauses are of the following types :— 

(Pn^Ksr Si habet, d.t p„,, j^, ,„ ^^^ 

J It he has, he gives. 

[Past Si habuit, dedit Per/. /„di.. in l,M. 

It hu had, he gave 
2. Fcr.B« MOK. Si h.b*bit. d.b.t. ,,.. /,„,^. .„ ,^. 

"'"'» If he hM . --.shall h«vo), 

hi' will give. 
Si venerit, »idebit Fut. Pf. and FhI 



1. SlMPLI! 



lfhe<oiiii-»( = „l,allimve 
eome), h* will see 



r 



/ndic. 



250 



KXERCLSE 



3. FiiTWKK Lkss Si habeat, det /Vm. Sal.j. in Imth. 

Vivil, If hu should (were to) 

liave, he would givi-. 
, I'uKSKsr Si haberet, daret. /"•/>/• Suhj. in both. 

4. tViNTKAKvJ Ifhuhad.hewouldgive. 

TO Ka.t (^j.^j,^ Si habuisset. dedisset. Plu,,f. Knhj. „, h,th. 
If heliadhiid.he wouhl 
Imvi^ given. 
Si hoc fecisset, viveret. /'/»/./. ami Imp/- 
If he had done tliis, Siilij- 
he would now Ih; alive. 

Note : —Latin is very e> act in its use of the proper tense ; 
Thi! present tense in Engli«li is sometimes used to represent 
tlie future or future perfeefin Latin. 

Note: — If any = si quis; unless any = nisi quis. 
See i>iige 14!l, 4, Quis. 

EXERCISE 



Si hoc dicis, erras. Si hoc dices, errabis. Si hoc diceres 

errares. 
Si id rogabis, respondebo. Si hoc roges, respondeam. 
Si epistolam misisses, accepissem. Si epistolam misisti, accepi. 
Si domum redibis, me videbis. Si in urbem irera, eum viderem. 
Nisi te in nuraero amicorura haberem, tibi non scriberem. 
Si Caesar exercitui praefuisset, non victi eisemus. 
lUi si haec fecissent. viverent. 
Milites si fortius (.ugnavissent, liberi hodie essent. 
Veniam, si potero. Si voluisses, ad me venisses. 



B 



If you were to come, 



I. If yon come to-d.-iy, I shall see yi 

I slionM .see you. 
L'. The eaviilry would not have returned, if llie iirniy had oomiuered. 
;i If the enemy slioul.l enwH the river, Caesar would attack them. 
4. Come to me t..-inorro«. ,f you can.' Let us g,.,' if we may. 



READINn LRSSON — VOCXKIl.AliV 



251 



n. The «,|,ol,,ain,y „„,.1.1 l„.v. I,.,,.., ,ie,,.r..y..,l, if tl». ..„.,„y 1k„1 

pill'HIIVll. ■' 

6. Unless y„ii oiiie t„ .„y nn\, I .sl„.ll l,e oHpture.! 

7. If he were unwilling, we w.,ul,l nut j;„. If he shouKl l,e 

unwilling, we would n.,t go. 

8. If any.uie sl,„„l,l „„y «„, he woul.l „„t 1,„ listened t,,' I,v 

aiiyiiiie. ■' 

9. If y,>n were to ask me that, I sh 1 answer nuthin- 

10. If the enemy had heeu r.mted yestenlay. the state would now 

ne free. 

11. Unless you sen.l a guide within tive days, we .shall set n,„ 

(mrsflvea. 

12. If you wish, set out at o„ce. If you were willing, yo„ would 

set out. 



i::::i:z:"'^:';!:,::,V"'''-"'-^ )....». u.:«,:p,„e„,„.,„a. 



REAJ)IN(; LES.SON 
A well deserved Rebuke 

Cum Scipio Nasica ad poetam Ennium venisset, eique ab ostio 
quaerenti Enmum, ancilla dixisset. domi no„ esse, wLica senT 
r,r rj!?' ^""" ''''''"'*' "^ "'"™ '"*"* «*<=• P^^i* post diebus 
exclamat Nasica, se domi non esse; tum Ennius, -Quid? eeo non 
cognosce vocem ' inquit • tuam • ? Hie Nasica : • Homo es impudens • 

m*™"" ''T""''"' """'"" *"" "*"'<«• « "<""' non TsseTtfl 
mihi non credis ipsi.' «:»»=. lu 



Vocabulary 



osbum, i door 

quaero ask for 

ancilla, ae inaid-si ivuni 

jUSSil hy onl,.|- „f 

intus within, in the house 



janua, ae gan-.dtmr 

quid ?(ixilarnal ion) What ? 

cognosco .-...■oHnisr 

h'c h.i,-i,|„,n 

impudens, tis »l,ani, I,.s8 



' ostium, the Iniifrdoor : Janua, the „„t,,, .„ p-.r, i, ,io„r 



i 
i 1 



202 CAUSAL CLAUSES 

LESSON XCVII 

CAUSAL CLAUSKS 

Quod, quia, hfcausf .• qudniam, »»»»<;« 

1. Examine:— 

(n) Principes secum duxit quod motum Galliae verebatur. 

\\v t(M)k tlit^ chiefw with liiin iMMruusr i, fi^iii-m! a rising nf Oaul. 

(/<) Socrates accusatus est quod cor, u^peret juventutem. 

Soonites Wiis acnusoil iHMjause (us .', t accusers said) he curruf t<'<i 
t)ie young men. 

2. Rule:-- ' 

Quod, quia, liecamr ; quOniam, ihici- . — 

Take the Iiidic. when tliey state the reason as that of the 
writer or speaker ; 

They take the Suhj. when they state tlie reason as that of 
another. 

3. Review Lesson LXXVII, 3 
Cum cnttMif^ meaning since, takes the Sui>j, 

Note. — Quae cum ita sint= since this is tlic ca.w. 

4. Examine:— 

Te laudo, qui hoc facias. I praist; you because (in that) you ilo t)iis. 

The Rehvtive pronoun qui (calleil qui Cnusnl) often intro 
(luces a Causal clause = inanmiich an he, i/aii, /, etc. 

5. Oratio Recta and Oratio Obliqua 

OratiO Recta (Direct Narration) is the name {{iven to thi' 
form of th(' sentence when the sjwaker's own words ai( 
<|U<itt'il : - 

'Veniam' inquit Caius, ' I will conic,' s;iys Ciiius. 



EXRRriSE OfiS 

All iiidiroct rpportii.^', wli.alier of spcTJi „i- tli.mifl.t, U 
called Orini<»Ol.li.|Ufi (liMliioct NHiiiitiim). 

Caius dixit, m- putavit se venturum esse. 

Uilius Siiiil, ,,, ll.llUjJiilt thai hi- H.Mll.l ,-,Mllf. 

Omlio R»l,i is ^'eiK-rally inlnMliivcl l.y ,«,»,7, „sed ,„,r..||. 
tliPtio.iliy, after mw or more words: Orati,> OI,li,,„a l)v ,li.,\t 
or some equivalent. 

6. Examine: 

Caesar questus est quod sine Caesar cimplained that tli,)- l.a.l 
causa bellum intulissent. uia.l.' war willioui a ,.aii»,\ 

01)serve that in this setiteiite as in 1, (/,) the causal clause 

represents the thought or s] ch of another, thouf,'h a direet 

inlr,Hlucing verl., such as -he th,.u-ht ' or -he said' is not 
used. Such a clau.se is said to !«■ in Virliuil Oiulio OI,r„,,i„. 

Thus Virtual Oratio Ohliqua is another name for Causal 
Subjunctive. 

Summary 

quod, quia Iwiauscl Indiu. <ir 

quoniam ^simu j Siihj. = V.D.t i. 

cum - lR-ums|., H-Iieivas, sin-in;; tli.il, iiuusiimoll as .Sul.j. 

qui Causal, IwcauHL' Im'. inasniui-li as In, vi,-. Sulij. 

EXERCISE 
A 
I Cum ipse pro se dicere non posset, frater dixit. 
-. Quoniam ille ad Galliam profectus est. non videbo. 
■') Quod agros suds defendere non poterant, auxilium a nobis 

petierunt. 
4. Hominem odimus. qui patriam prodiderit. 
•"'• Quae cum ita sint, arma pro patria capite. 
•>. Tum Titiirius, qui nihil ante providisset, concursare.' 
7. At Cotta, qui cogitSsset haec posse in itinere accidere, nulla 

in re communi saluti deerat. 
X. Hum interfici Caesar jubet, nihil hunc, se absente, pro sano 
facturum arbitratus, qui- praesentis imperium neglexisset. - 



254 



CONCIW.SIVR CLAUSES 



1. Then Caesar iiinsiiiiich as hv )ia<l leariitxl all tliese things, 

deteniiiiu'il tn return. 

2. Duiiinnrix wislu'il to remain in Oaul >H>cnuse Iwiiig unuHed to 

Killing he was (as he said)* afraid of thv sua. 

3. The Aedui thanked Caesar Iwoaiise he had freed them from 

danger. 

4. I cunimended yon for s|ienkiiig' the trutli. 

5. The father blamed his son for not writing oftener. 



■HistoricAl Inflnitive, •.''..an infill. iihwJ for a )KL8t tense iiuiii-. concurs^, I, Imatif 
abtmt. ' Inasmuch as lu. 'neffleffo, :t, -gflexi, -fflectum. '''*'-'-:;(o-'/. ♦omit 
tb9M wordt in Latin. ' ^ in that you spoke. Causal Kel. ; or - bevause you apolte. 



LESSON XCVIII 
CONCKSSIVK ("LAUSKS 

1. A Concessive Clause is one in wliicli an admission is 
nitule to a statement in tlie primipal clau.se. Such a clause 
is usually intro<luci-ii in Knglisli liy although, or thouyh. 

2. Examine:- 

(<i) Quamquam est fortis, nonnun- Tliougli hr is brave, lie Hometimes 

quam timet. is afnuil. 

(/') Quamvis molestus sit, est However tronlilcxoiiiu lie may be, 

tamen benignus. yel he is kind. 

In («) the concessive clause makes n, statpincnl as a fact. 

In (h) the concessive clau.se luaki's a statement merely 
hyiii>thetical, as a conception of the niinil. 

3. Rule:- 

Coiicessive Clauses take the Iiitiic. when they state a /act ; 

They take the Snhj. when they state a mete nmceptioH of 
the iiiiiul. 



EXERCISB 



355 



4- Etsi hiems acris est. e.t Tl,.,„^.l, ,1,- «i,„.r i. \ it i, 

J"™""""- pl.-,us.„,l. 

Etiamsi tibi dixiMem, non Kv,-,, if r i,a,l i„l,l ,..,,, ,,.„ „.,nl.l 
mihi credidisses. ,„„ 1,,^,. uiirv,.,"] „„■'. 

Tlio last «.„».■,„•.. is i„ tl,r ,mt.,r..„f H co.HliU.mal s,.,.te„ce 
and fr)ll(iws the Hiiine rule. 



Summary of Rules 



(1) quamquam etsi ,u„l t«netsi „/,/,„„,,/,, i„„-,.lu,i,„ .„ ,.,1 

filcl, take the ludic. 

(■-') eUi eti.m ,i, tametsi = , ,•,„ if. f„ilo« tl„. n,l..„ f„r c.n.li.i,.,,.! 

"liUlSt'S. 

(3) qimmvij (howv,-, y„„ wish). Iicet(i. is„ll„w,..l,, ut(un,„t..,i ,i,ai) = 
a/lho,yl,, ,„,„Klu.-.. „„.n.ly l,yp.«l„n,.al ..Uu„,.„ an,l t,tko tlie 
Siihj. 

Note : - 

Cum. ,M.,u,,l,, ,u„l tl„. r!..k.,i,,. ,„„„„„„, qui. ,ho„.,l, hr ,fv„„.,.,siv.. 
Reltttiv,.), »n„,etin.,-si„f,Kl„,.,.,,,.„„,,.,,i,, ,,a„s,. a,„l lA.. ll... .S„|,j. 

Clauses of Wish or Proviso 
5. Examine :— 

Oderint dum metuant. ,..„ „„.,„ i,,,,.. |„.„vi 1 .if „„iv) 

lli.yf,;,,-. 
Manent ingenia. modo permanent .\l.,„„l ,.„w,.,s n.„,ai„ ,f o„h 
'"''"^'™- in.lu»t,y „.,„ains. 

Dum, modo, dummodo, i,r,„-i,i..i, ;/ ,„.i,,, .,„ r,„„ii,;„„ 

th„L are usod to ininHlu.v .i .l.iusc „r • WisI, ' ,,r 'Pn.vi.su. 
Tlie Subjunctive is inMiiialily iis,.,l. 
They arc iiegativrd l.y the .idditi,,,, .,f ne. 

EXERCISE 

A 

I. Quamquam id saepe audivi. tamen non credidi 
-'. Etiamsi eas res audirem. non crederem. 

' " dTbet''"'""'" '" ''"'"'° '"^^"° ^"' '"""' ''°'"''^'"'« P"^""' 



MICROCOfY RESOLUTION TSST CHART 

(ANSI aid ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




^ /■APPLIED IIVMGE In 

S^ '653 East Main Street 

S'.g Rochester, New York U609 USA 

'•^ ('16) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

^S f^'6) 288 - 5989 - Fox 



256 



CLAI'SK.S OF rOMFARTSON 



! i 



4. Etsi maturae sunt hiemes, tamen in Britanniam contendit. 

5. Etsi mons iter impediebat, Caesar tamen ad oppidum pervenit. 

6. Ego etsi abessem, tamen cum aliis me condemnavisses. 

7. Caesar, etsi nondum consilium hostium cognoverat, tamen id. 

quod accidit, suspicabatur. 

B 

1. Though thr yriieral li.-id fow scildicrs, yd he ilotoniiiiKil t.. 

assault till! tiiwn. 

2. (Jiviiitiiig tlwit tlu; jouiiiiiy is liin^,', wu sIkiH still he al)lo to 

ru;ioh the iiljici.' in ;i few <l;iys, 

3. Though the enemy fought lii-iivrly, .still the Umuiui .soldiers 

defeated them. 

4. Howevef elo(|Uent he m.-iy he, he wil' ii'»t persuade us. 

o. Though he might have been saved, he still juefeiTed to <lie in 

battle. 
C. Though he h.id not yet learned their plans, he did not wish to 

delay lest the enemy nngiit send for reinforcements. 



Caesar, etsi intellegebat, qua de causa' ea- dicerentur, quaeque' 
eum res ab institute' consilio deterreret,' tamen, ne aestatem in 
Treveris consumere cogeretur, omnibus ad Britannicum bellum 
rebus comparatis, Indutiomarum ad se cum ducentis" obsidibus 
venire jussit. 

' qua de causa, /'/)«*ii(.va»on. = Niiit. ri. .\,.i.i. luulaliat. • institutus, 
a, um, aii/jviiitiil, inearrnniicd. ■ deterreo, i, -ui, ■\t\xm, /righlen off, iireixiit. 
"ducenti, ae, a, jk). 



LESSON XCIX 
CLAU.SKS OK CO.MP.MUSON 

1. Examine : - 

('0 Omnia, sicut acta sunt, lie hiis nair.it.d everything just 

memoravit. as it was done. 

(Ii) Honores petunt quasi honeste They seek olliee as if tliey have 

vixerint. hved hon.irahly. 

2. Observe : — 

111 («) the eonipiiriscui is sl.ited as a fact .anil the Indie, is 



KXKI.nSE 



In {//) tliH (•..inpai-ison is scitcd 



till' Subj. is 

3. ('oiiipar.itivi^ Ciii 
(") Corrpluiivc Clii 



iis a iiiiMc su|i[i<isiii,)i, jiiiij 



■ fall 



into l\V( 



iscs of Coinpa 



'lasst's : — 

'11 aic> iiitroducnl |j 



Ut, SlCUt, quemadmodum -.. and take ll,o ln,li,-aiiv,.. 
(/') CoiiditiMiial Clanscs .,f ('„ii,j,a,is„n aiv ini roiluc-cj 

quasi, tanquam, tanquam si, velut, velut si, ut si 

i/Jiint as if, and take tlic Sulijunctiv,-. 

4- Phrases 



ut supra demonstravimus 
contra quam exspectavi 
perinde ac mereor 2 
poenas persolvo ;! -solvi -solutum 



pugnatum est 
trepidatum est 



iis «!■ liiivc shcmp. alwivr 

I .■■iritiiiry iIiuil I cxpcilicl 
(I'MUrmy to my fxprctiilinn 

jusl ;ls I (li'siTVc 
fT pay till! piMi.ilty 

I I am punislii'il 

I hi- liiittli' was fiiuylil 
a pa?iic ensue, 1 

EXERCISE 



I. Contra quam exspectavi, Romam invito Caesare rediit. 

■-'. Pennde ac meritus est, poenas persolvit. 

.). Perinde ac si meritus esset, poenas persolvit. 

i. Trepidatum est quasi hostes jam ad portas adessent 

.-. His rebus gestis, Caesar, ut quotannis facere consuerat ab 

hibernis in Italiam discessit. , ' 

t). Senatum metus cepit velut si ad portas hostes essent. 

B 

1. A panic ensued just as if tlie wli,.!e ainiy had lieeii d,.»ir..ved 

2. Uegulus pusliod aside' his lYiends. «],.. were delayini- his vJxnvu 

to Cartlia!,'e. just as if he were suttin;; out to the ecmntiy 
.■!. As he has live.l, so will he .lie. He is liein- punishe.l as he 
(le.serves. 

». From tlieday HaTniil,,d was deelaied leader, he determine,! t„ 
make war on us, just as if Italy had been decreed to him 
(as) Ins province, 

"dimoveo. " ' ~~ — ■ 



268 RKAUINd LESSON— TBMl-OHAI. CLALSE 

llEADINf} LF;SS0N 
Cyrsilus 
Athenienses cum Persarum impetum nuUo modo possent sustinere, 
sUtuerentque ut, urbe relicta. conjugibus et liberis Troezene de- 
positis, nav§s conscenderent.' libertatemque Graeciae classe de- 
fenderent, CyrsUum quendam suadentem ut m urbe manerent 
Xerxemque reciperent,' lapidibus obr uenint.^ 

. Local A.,1.. »t Troe».n = navem conscendo .o „„ >-"' "Wp. ™b.rk. 
-receive, ad,„it. ' obruo, 3, -rui, .rutum. overwheln, ; lapldlbUB Obruo, 

Stone to death. 



I.ESSON C 
TEMPORAL CLAUSES 

1. Examine :- 

(a) Dum ea geruntur, Caesar ad While ilmso actions ,«e y«in« on, 

castra reve-titur. l-'^'**"' ''«"'"»' '" ^'"' ™"''*- 

(6) Posteaquam equitatus noster After our cavalry came in sight, 

in conspectum venit, hostes the enemy Heil. 

terga verterunt. 

(c) Dum reliquae naves eo con- He waite.l under anchor, until the 

venirent, in ancoris exspec- rest of the ships could asseml.le. 

tavit. 

((/) Priusquamse hostes ex fuga Before the enemy <«ul.l recover 

reciperent. in fines Sues- from flight, he led h.s army n,to 

sionU exercitum daxit. the territory of the 8ues».one». 

2. Observe.— 

In (a) and (b) the Temporal clauses eoiivey the idea of time 
and time only. They deal with acttal occurrences. 

hi (c) and (-/). lif^Wi's *''" "'*''* "* *'"'^' *'""■'■ ''' '"''"'^''"' 
the idea of jmrjxme, aim or cause. 

3. General Rule : - 

Pure Time is always expressed hy the Indie.: Time with the 
ad<liti(mal notion of Cause, Purpose or Intention l.y t^e Snhj. 



TEMPORAL CLAUSE 



259 



Postquam, Ut, Ubi, Simul ac, Cum prlmum 
4- Postquam, posteaquam, «/>,■,•, ut, ubi, »•/„„■ 
simul. simul ac (simul atque), cum pnmum, „;,. ' 

regulady refer to a single p..t .x-cu,-.-enc,. an.l tak^ tl„. IWfM 

Postquam hostes fugavit, flumen exercitum transduxit. 

After he r„ute.l ,h« enen.y, l.c l..,l ,]„. „„„. „,„,„, ^|,^, ,.^.,,_. 

Mpreused. ' ' ""' ""•''■ "'■en a continued state is 

Note.— For a repeated act in the past see (Pa-e 203, 8). 
Dum, Donee, and Quoad 

(Historic Present) to denote present or past tin.e. 

dum haec geruntur= f "''''" "'""'^ "''"«« »■'•■ «"'"« on 
I Willie these things weie guiiig on 

6 Dum, donee, quoad = «. lony as, take the Indicative ■ 
Quoad potuit fortissime restitit. As 1„. . he eoi.l.l, he resi»t«l very 

hnu .y. 

7- Dum, donee, quoad = ««<»/. 

pn^lL!'r ^"*""'" ^''"^"'^ '" '^"'"' " '"'' '" ""'■-'« 

Take the ^„7;;„„c<u.« (Pres.,u «r /,„,;«,/•.,,) to indicate 
Expectancy, Intention or Anticipation. 
Donee rediit, silentium fuit. There «>■ m .„, 

Dum navu. a convenient... "^H z :;:rr;:; :::;it 

tiier-f, . . 

Antequam and Priusquam 

,.2trt;^::f*"''^""'*"''^''''-''''''™-^ 



260 



If' 



EX KRCIHK 

■lliv (Impfrfrc.t) to indicate ^Motive, 



(fc) Take tlie iUihjn 
Purpt>se, or AiitiiMpiilioii. (1. ('') ) 

((() Neque prius fugere destiterunt quam ad fliimen pervenerunt. 
Nor (lid llii-y c-i'iisi- to Hei' until tlii'y itihIhiI the riviM-. 

EXERCISE 
A 

1. As soim as the enemy rucovereil fri-iu tlij^ht, tlioy iiiiiii.diiiti'ly 

sent aiiilmssHilors ti> Caesiir to treat for' peace. 

2. As siHiu as (iiir men yot footing' on dry lan.l,' they made an 

attack on the enemy and put them to flight. 

3. After our cavalry came in sight, the enemy threw away tlicir 

arms,-* turned their hacks, and a great number of tlu^m were 
killed. 

4. They reiriained at Rome until the consul set out to his province. 

5. While these things are transpiring, word was brought t.) Caesar 

that forces of the enemy had heon seen across the river. 

6. The consuls waited a few days for' the allies to assendile. 

7. Before tlie rest of the Menapii could he informed of this 

matter, tha Germans crossed tha river. 

B 

1. As soon as he heard this, he went away. 

2. After he noticed this, he withdraws his forces to the nearest 

hill. 

3. When they thought they were ready, they set fire to the t(.wns. 

4. While the Romans were making these pre|(arations, the lown 

was already being besieged. 

5. I did this as long as it was allowed me. 

(i. He withstood the attack of tlie enemy, till the rest should 
destroy the bridge. 

7. As soon as they saw our standards, they retreated into the wood. 

8. The ambassador did not dei)art until he had seen our general. 

9. Before I (shall) reply to this (man), I shall say a few things' 

about myself. 

"uolreartor^comi-TiiiiiK, de. 'conslsto. 'dry liiiid .aridum. i. 'Matiu 
this clause an ahl. al». <laii»c. • Ri'solve into a dum .'luiwe. ' Omit ' thinx" 

and render liv ncnt. ]>1. of pauci. 



VOCABUL.UiV -TKMl-OHAI. Cr.At SKS 



261 



The Germans outwit the Menapii and get 
across the Rhine. 

citra Rhenum erat certio Ir, T*"" '^ ""' Menapiorum. quae 
eorumaedificilsrccuoYHs rel " '^"^'"""t ^'^-e omnibus 



'*t-n (U'Vicc. 



'havinit trio.| ;ill things -.Imvii,.. .,.i..,i 

i".^ niiorii . simulavdi-unt se reverti, 

Traiishitf freely. 



Spai'c. • Alil, of Instriimtnt 
" siipplicH. 



experior -iri 

-pertus 
inopia, ae 

clam 
custodia, ae 



irv 



Vocabulary 



^'f. of Kvteiit of 
■\io. of Imnilion of Time. 



want, lack, 
guard, watili 



triduum, i 
inscius, a, um 
inopinans, tis 
discessus, us 
metus, u!> 
citra (I'lvp. A.v. 



tliit'e iliiys 
not lijiimiiig 

ll"t fxpccljiij; 

ilfparturi' 
leu- 
thi.s,,-i,lt. of 



LESSOX C' 
TEMPOIiAL CLAI'SKS cc.M 

I. Cum is tlu. coinnin,,,..,, „f m «,nj„n,ti„ns. 
Toiuponil clause.s witli 



rule : — 



CUm-Wio,, foll„w t|„. J,,.,,,.,.,,, 
^ _To Honor.. pu,v tin.,, i^ ,,,,,, ,,..,,,,, ,,i,,,,,,^,,_,,.._^__^^^ 



263 



TKMPOKAL CI.ArsKS — rUJI 



1 1 

I 1 



2. The following uses ;ire distinguished : — 

3. Cum temporal 



Veniam cum pocero. 
Cum veneris, videbis. 

('<) Cum amicus venit, aberam. 



T sliall come when I eati. 

Wlu'ii you (Mhall have) icinie, you 

will Ne<\ 
When my friend came, I was 

absent, 
at the time, when I was trying to 

drive ('atiline out of the citv. 



tum, cum ex urbe Catilinam 
ejiciebam. 

(") Cum, ii-hrti, referring to present or tuttire time rcguhirly 
takes the Indie. 

(h) Cum, ii-hni, with a past tense ir.dic. denotes the dale 
or particular time wlicn something occurred. 

4< Cum iiarratiee 

The most fre<|uent u.se of cum is with the Impf. or Plupf. 
Sul)j. to denote the accompanying circumstances or situation 
of a past event. 

Review Page 204, 3. 

5. Cum e.vplicativi' 

Cum in portum dico, in urbem When I say into the harhoi-, 1 

died. mean into the city. 

_ (When thev are silent, they .shout. 

Cum tacent, clamant. . - 1 ' 1 >- 

' ( I iieir silene' means exclamation. 

Cum with tlie Indie, in any tense may l)e used to indicate 

tlie identity of one event with another. 

6. Cum infi'me 

Nondumprofectuseram, cum haec I had not yet set out when these 
gerebantur. things were goi ig on. 

In this sentence the logical relations of the two clauses are 
inverted. The principal <tlause in reality defines the time of 
the main thought wliicli is expressi'd liy a temporal I'lau.se. 

Cum iiivi'rsr t.ikcs ilii! Indie. 



EXEHCISE 



JCS 



7- Cum Causal / Concessive 

Cum eanml ,,„,,. ,,,|^,.^ „,,. 

and 2.)L', 3). ■ "^ ''.-■' -"•• t: 

Repeated Acts 

8. t'lMupare tlit^ followinsr :_ 

Quoscumque cunctantes rtderat, He ..,«) .,. 

castigabat ' '"'• ""■• *""''' 'imstis,. 

w,o,„.oevc.r he s„v l,.gy,„y 
_ Iwliind. 

bi quem cunctantem viderat. If ev, r i. 

castigabat. ' "'-;:'■ '"^ '<"»■ ^"'.vone laj.^,i„. 

Cum or quoties) ' " "'""'' ''"""«•-■ '"'"■ 

Utorubi |Su6s cunctantes viderat. adhortabatur 

"■'rT'''^^^'^''''''™''^^"'^ '''■''*"''- ''^ •■-'•' -••"■^- • 

A Ropealed Act in the Past is .xpresse,! l,v „,e Plu„f 

9- Quoscumque vidit (videti u< i 

cuncunk cast gat ' i'''^ ''"? '^^^ '^l' " '' - 

■-tsiigat. «.!■» layymg l,t.hj,„l. 

A Repeated Act i„ the Present is expressed by the Perf or 



indicatini,' piirp ( 



EXERCISE 



I shtill write 



When I 



yiMi when I n'aoh Ath( 



•t. Ml 



lien C 
tril)e. 



wuy.Mi, I will 



give ycm the leftu 



iiesjir came into (i;iul, I he .\ 



eilui were tli 



leniDst pipwerfiil 



4. C, 



u. I 



'"""-' t'l "le, when >■( 
may go. 
saiil this in tli 



When tl; 



'le messenger arriv 



■ yii 



le senate :it Uie t: 



ha.i ile<i f,„,„ tlie city f.,r tl 



ime wile 



iiaiiy Ic,i,l 



lin;,' men 



I'c pm-|,ose .,f .siiving theinselv 



r^ 



261 



p;xKnc:sF. 



B. enm ,iitrm):rr. Ui-ii.« Iv.L-- i"i. (1. ;in.l lr,iiiM;it.- in .iM i.«.il.li- »ui^. 

1. Wluii (•a.s.ir !ku1 c pi.n-il tlio <!iiiilH. lu' r.'luiii..l 1.. It-iin'. 

2. Wlieii 111! iHim^ I.. Ilio town, \u: .UiiiaiiiUil lii«(ii.,'i-.i. 

3. Wlicii liu liH.l VMitUli tlu! k'ttiT, li..' calliil tliu slave to liitii. 

4. After I liwinl your sp.f.li, I l.ft tl.r forum. 
r>. On lifarin;,' tliis, lu- rii.iici^l. 

C. i-tfui narralu'-' 

1. When Caesar was ilistaut fi-oui (he eiu'iny uot luore tlian twelve 

miles, the aml)assa(lors return to liiui. 
•1. When the ships were aiMUiKichiug liritain and were sen- from 

the camp, so great a si rm smWenly arose thai none o' theiu 

was able to hold its coiuse. 
3. When Xerxes wished to return into Asia, I informed him hy 

letter that the Greek, had sent larsie forces to lueak down 

the l>ridf,'e. 

D. cum iiMrte. TraiiKlate aUo l,.v mm tmnatir,- atl.T ...Imr.lin.'.th.B the !«nt«K e 
properly. 

1. An.l m)W they were not m.ire than two days' march distant 

from him when they learn that two legions liave arrived 
from Cae.sar. 

2. These legions were making their way through the wood when 

suddenly the eneu.y with a loud shout ...ttacked them from 
all sides. 

3. 'I lie Remi were ju.st iireparing to leave the camp, when they 

learn that two le^i. is have crossed the river. 

E. ctitn caitnal und coiitu'ttsi '■>• 

1. Though the Suevi had not lieen ahle to drive these out of their 

territory, they nevertlieless made them tributary to them- 
selves. 

2. Since he saw that this could not be done, he tried to escape in 

the night. 

F. Hl'p».';lte<l ai'ts in the past 

1. Aa often as any c<.hort ran forward, in that ipiarter a large 

numlier of the enemy vviudd fall, 

2. Whenever from the sliore they saw a .soldier disembarking. 

they would all liurl tlu-ir darts at him. 



IMIIHKCT NAIIRATION—OHATro OIII.K^IIA •Jtl.') 

.-;. \vi..t..v..,- i...,.i„„ i„. s,-,« („ i„. i„>,,i |,,,.„„.,| ,„ ■, ,„. „ , 

stml I'l'iiifMici'iiifiits. 

4. Tl,u dti/.ens ,,»,.,! t,. sniMt.. I,im «l„.„.v,r I ;„„,. ,„ ,,„y 

(own. 

iV \Vl.em.v..r .Mirint-ii .ittiieki.,! fl„. ..„..,i,y fifiii-ly. Ihej- „.sc.,l f. 
letivat iiilu tlifir la |,. 



LUSSOX CI I 
IxVUIRECT NAUKATION OHATIO ()|!I,IgT-A 

1, Review T.e.s,on XCVrT, f., f„V the <lefii.iu.,n .,f Qratio 

Recta and C-atio Obliqua. 

2. Examine: 

O.R. 0.0. 

(«) Vidi eum qui discessit. Dixit se eum vidisse qui disces- 

sisset 
I saw tlR. .„ wl.o wont away. Hf sai.l I.o lia.l s.en ,1„, „„,:, wn<, 

went away. 
(M Puer domum ibit, cum opus Dixit puerum domum itiirum 
confecent. ,esse, cum opus ctafecisset. 

The l)oy will g„ |,o,„., wl,.„ he He 8,,i,l the Ik.v wouhl go hon.e 
hni.shes (saall have fi„i.,h„l) when he ha,l linishe.l -he work 
the work. 

Piincipal I)e.lanitiNo Clauses j-„ i„t„ Ace. wit], Trilin. 
SuiMji-fiinate Clauses ijo into tl.e Suhj. 
(c) Quid tibi vis? Cur venis? Quid sibi vellet? Cur veniret? 

n-hat,loy„„ „a„t' U'hy ,lo What ,li,l he »,i„t •/ Whv ,li,l he 
youeorae? ,,o,„^. , 



Interrogative Clauses g(. imo tlit S^^IJ. 



; : ■ t- 



26C 



F.XEIiriSf" 



{'I) Pauliiper intermittite proe- Eos certiores fecit pmvUsper in- 

lium. termitterent proelium. 

Sli)]) tlif Imttlu for II littlu Ho t(iM tliein li> stop the luittle 

Whil.'. 



Ne castra moveris (I'>iKf 

I'.i.'i, -.'I. 
Do not move the canip. 
Noli putare (I'lige ■211, 4) 
Doji't think. 
Tmi)erati ve forms go into the 8ul)j. 



for 11 little while. 
Ne castra moveret. 
Let him not move the uamp. 

Ne putaret. 

Let liini not think. 



General Rule for O.O. 

Tn O.O. Prineii)al Declarative Clauses are put in the Ace. 
witli Iiitlii. All Interrogative, Imperative and Subordinate 
Clauses are put in the Suhj. 

Tenses 

Ten.ses of the Infin. follow the rules for the Iniin. (Page 
108, 3); 

Tenses of the Subj. follow the rule for Sequence (Page 
198, 4). 

EXERCISE 

Write the O.O. iiiO.R. 

1. Dixit se domum iturum ssse cum epistolam scripsisset. 

•2. Nuntiavit omnes, qui in artnis essent, esse interfecton. 

8. Promisit se peciiniam daturum, si haberet 

4. Imperator dixit milites quos duxisset esse fortes. 

.'i. Ne castra propius se moveret. petienmt. 

(>. Dixit se poster5 die rediturum esse. 

7. Si ita fecissent, fines eorum se violaturum negavit. 

8. Legatus Caesari dici*^ nisi auxilia ad se mittantur, sese diiitius 

sustinere non posse. 



RIADINO LBBON—VOCABITLARY— ORATIO OBLIQU A 



267 



UEADINC LKSSON 
Spartan Courtesy 

Athenis senex quidam, cum speclitum' liido3 in theitrum Ten»»( 
eumque nemo e civibus sessum> recinere ' .rf i.a '•"'**^ 
lentos fort. .«™i„4 A^ recipere ad Lacedaemomorum 
egatos forte pervenit Qui hominis aetate moti, lUtim Mdem ei 

Fenint^ tunc unum e Lacedaemom.. dixisse "Ere-6 AthZi^^ 
qu.d s.t rectum, .ciunt; «d id /acere ne^nt" "^ Athen.en«.. 

Vocabulary 



theatrum, i 
•edeo -2 sedi 

sessum 
honoratus, a, um 

aspicio 3 -spexi 

-spectum 
verecundia, ae 

' Supine In um. 
* They say. 



thcH 

sit, Hit tlowii 

luinored, 

hoiiiiniljle 
Iwhold 



tunc 
plausus, us 
alienus, a, um 

erg^ 

re- IS, a, um 
n< :g;o .< -glexi 
-glectum 



reveri'iiee, 
respect 

' admit to a seat, oSer a neat to, 



tlli-li 
appluuHu 
i>f iiiKitlier, 

foffigu 
tlicrt-fore 
liglit 
nt'glt'ct, 
fllHreganl 



"p. In, omitled. 



LESSON cm 

ORATIO OBUQUA (Contindkd) 
Changes in Pronouns and Adverbs 

O.K. 

o.o. 
(Dixit) se illi ea pridie dixisse 

He h,..,l t,.M l.im tliut on the previous , lay. 



Haec tibi heri dixi. 

I told you this ye.sii-rilay 
Hue eras convenite 
Assemble here to-morrow 



tio postero die convenirent. 

They were to aaseii.blo there on tlie 
followirjg day. 



Changes in Pronouns 

(a) ego^os, become se (in the Non.. ipse, ipsi), meus, noster, beeon.e 
(c) hic and iste become ille oi is. 



r 



268 




ORATIO OMI.IQUA 

Changes in Adverbs 




nunc 


liewmies 


turn 111- tunc eras ln'cuines 


postridie 


hodie 


" 


illo die hie 


ibi or illic 


heri 


" 


pridie 





Quid est turpius quam fugere ? 

WliHt is more disgraceful than I 
Hue? 



Rhetorical Questions 

Quid esse turpius quam fugere? 

Wliat was more iii»graeeful than 
to Hee ■! 



A Rhetorical Question does not imply an answer bnt is 
simply a strong stateineiit of fact ; — Xuthimj is more disgraceful 
than to flee. 

In O.O. therefore it is put in the Ace. and Infin. 

3. The Co-oirdinating Relative 

Quae fore suspicatus, equites ISiispcotiny that this would occur, 
praemittit. I'e sends forward the cavalry. 

When the llelative takes the place of a Demonstrative, it 

follows the construction of a principal clause. 

4. Subjunctive Clauses 
Quid faciam? (l)tlili. Subj. ) Quid faceret? 
What am I to do? What wa.s he ..t do? 
Quo eamus? Quo irent? 

Whither are we to go? Wlilther were they to go? 

Clau.ses already in the Suly. will remain .so. 

5. Note : — Sometimes an Independent Statement made by 
the writer Or reporter appears in Oratio Obliqua. "Sucli a 
statement will be in the Indie. 

Conditional Clauses in Oratio Obliqua 

6. lleview Lesson XCVI and observe from the following the 
form the sentences assume in Oratio Obliijua:- 

O.R. 0.0. PlllMARY .Skqiencf 

r Prks. Si habet, dat. Dicit — se, si habeat dare. 
7- ^'*"'"'\1'AST Si habebat, dabat. se, sihaberet dedisse. 

Si habuit, dedit. se, si habuerit dedisse. 



EXERCISE 



269 



".O. HrsTnlilc Ski.ii KMK 

Dixit se, si haberet dare. 

se, si haberet dedisse. 
se. si habuisset dedisse. 

8. t UTUKK MoKK Si habebit, dabit. Dicit-se, si habeat daturum 

Si venerit, videbit. se.sivenerit visiirum 

esse. 

Of). HlHTOKrr .SKgl-KM-K 

Dixit— se, si haberet daturum 
esse, 
se, si venisset visiirum 
esse. 
Note well that ia tlie siil)()r<linat,e clause tlie v»t Pf l„,lie 
m OH. becomes in CO. U,., Pf. Sul.J. in Pn.nu.y Sequence ^ 
an.I the Plupf. 8ubj. iu Historic Sequence. 

O.O. I'KIIMKV .SkQIKNCK 



9- FtiTPRK Lkss Si habeat, det 
Vivid 



Dicit -se, si habeat 



10. CoNTKAKV 

Tc. KAt'T 



Pkks. Si haberet, 
daret. 



datiirum 
esse. 

0.0. HfSTOItrc SKgl'KNfK 

Dixit— se, si haberet daturum 
esse. 

O.O. KlTIIKU SKylKXCK 

Dicit |se, si haberet datiirum 
D'xitj fuisse (esse). 

I'KKs. Si habuisset, Dicit ise,sihabuissetdatiirum 
dedisset. DixitJ (^^^e. 

Observe the form 'liii'uriini fidsae.' 

EXERCISE 
A 

Write the tollowinK In O.O. Historical Sicinenre . - 

1. What wouKl Cicero s,iy, if he were dive? 

2. If you liad obeyed the general, y„„ wuuhl to.,lay he f.ee 
.!• If he hiul asked me that, 1 .should not have replied 

4. If ti.ey attempt tu cruss the river, I shall prevent them. 
0. It I shouhl bo present, I would speak, 
<;. If you obey me, y.,u will t.ike the city. 



r i 



270 



READING LESSON 



B 



Write the O.O. in O.K. 

1. Clamitabat liberum se liberaeque esse civitatis. 

2. Caesar dixit se non long^ius millibus passuum quatuor proces- 

surum eo die ; hoc postero die convenirent ut de eorum 
postulatis cognosceret. 

3. Caesari respondit : se ab suis discedere atque ad eum venire 

noluisse, quo facilius civitatem in officio contineret, ne, se 
absente, plebs propter impriidenttam deficeret ; itaque civita- 
tem esse in sua potestate, seseque, si Caesar permitteret, 
ad eum in castra venturum, suasque fortunas ejus fidei 
permissurum. 

READING LESSON 

Roman Honor 

Cum rex Pyrrhus populo Romano bellum intulisset, perfuga ab 
eo venit in castra Fabricii, ' eique est pollicitus, si praemium sibi 
prdposuisset,' se ut'-' clam venisset, sic'-^ clam in Pyrrhi castra 
rediturum et eum veneno necaforum. Hunc Fabricius rediicendum^ 
ciiravit ad Pyrrhum ; idque factum ejus a senatii laudatum est. 



'propono, oiTc r 




BEADING LKSSON— VOCAm-LARY 



271 



KKADIN(! LESS(JiV 
Augustus 

annos natus patrem amisit. Cum primum Caesarem occlum 
heredemque ,e comperit. nomen CaeJkris sumpsit e Tompa a«" 

obsidebat, superavit. Postea autem, pace cum \(^tani6 facS 

r±T. T '' ""'"■ •" ^""""^ necemulciscerl^ ad u bem 
accessitet s.b> consulatum depoposcit. Interea Brutus et Ca^lT 

P?s An ^1? r-''"'r"""' sunt victiatque interfectl. Pa'uia 

Aetvi^r - ''''""''*'* °''"*^ ^'°'^ Octaviani. Cleopatram, 

Aeg^t. regru^am uxorem duxit. Ob banc rem bello iUato, Octal 
v.anus cum Antomo apud Actium, qui locus est in Epiro, navali 
pugnad,m,cav.t^ Antonius et Cleopatra sunt victi et rebus desperitt 

AuSs St d^atum """" " ""'*' ^""' '^''^" '^' -^o^"*-" 



Julia, ae 

nepos, Otis 

heres, edis 

comperio 4 -peri 
-pertum 

Mutina, ae 
obsideo t> -sedi 

-sessum 
nex, necis 
ulciscor -ci ultus 
deposed 3-poposci 
Philippi, orum 



Vocabulary 



Julia 
j^'r-aiMl.soii 
li.ir 
It'urri 

Muiiiiii 

'Iralli 
avt-M^'f 
lU'Tiiarid 
I'iiilippi 



repudio I 
Octavia, ae 
Cleopatra 
Aegyptus, i 
Actium, i 
Epirus, i 
dimico I 



TVJl'l't 

Oitavia 

• 'liciliatia 

'■■K>pt 

Aitiiini 

Kpiriia 

tiiiht 



plerique.pleraeque iiiost (people) 

pleraque 
conscisco :t -scivi iiilliut 

-scitum 



' coinnieiiced. -' Norc the 
a^jungo or conjung'6. 
se interfecerunt. 



Mlion, ■ r joi„ i,h„ me ad eum Jiingo, or me ei 

iafli.t«l death upon Un-nnelveB-,,.oiniiiitted sui,.l,|i.„ 



-M'l'KXDIX 



TABr.E (IF NIMKRAI,; 



CON,Jl-(;ATrON OK 



RKfit'LAH VR 



RliS 



NIMMAUY OF KCLKS F 



OR CA>SK.S 



T' 



274 TABLB OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS 



■St 
§ '° 



I. 

S a < 






« 9 w 



CO* 

>« i> a 
"a '* 5 



i *' 2 .- 
„- « b g 

•a < o| 

™ "s '3 (fi 

fl ,s .g § 



'3 ,_ 2 ,§ f .- 2 •« 
■s t. =. 3 'S S u o '« a 3 
jaSo'o'iiisoa'OS'o 



P S S ^ I 'S 



3 3 ,S §• 3 S ,a 



SbPsI I 111 

3 a P 

13 3 is 



2 

a 3 a 



_r 5 . 2 oD 3 ID 
PimMCPCfAaiofl 



sal 

■o s ■o 



as 

cs .5 
3 3 



isa 

I f 9 



a^ 



3 
I 
(D (0 

■0) 3 



•S 3 « 

'Sag 
.2 E a 
t» ft J J 

«§.&■' 

3 -3 « 

a.S'g 

■E,g 3 

ft P Q 



^1 



I- 
O 

I 



\ 

; 3 V 

a"!-! 
".Is 
III 



o s 

3 a 

1« 3 . 



Is? 

S c 



a 
as 



a 



s 

S SB.- 
o 8 1 « ■? S 



Sad 
■a 3 13 



II 



$ « •g ■§ § 






O C 'S S 13 3 'E 



a 
'Ecg 



1 3 



O B 
3 3 
13 3 



H 
I 



■ 5C I- 00 OJ O 1 



« ^lOOf-iXdO 



TABLK OK NUMF.KAL AWKCTIVES AND ADV 



EltUli 



c 60 ; 

•= H ■ 



•%% 



m » C S >! S 

J 5 to « .2 



a H 
'2 • 



5n 



3 3 



3S§ 

■§ = = 

w -, *- J £ « * 

— n -s "* * 01 

O J3 C" T3 o 



■n 




'5 „ '« C « =35 = 

to'D c to'O) "3 Q ^ 
B S u a to 3 - < 



^ a 

to S O S ' 



0'OqjmSi3®g'5KB.*jKJ*=-i3 



11 



'si 

3 
S 



fl 

2 « 
o 



3S 

S 



3 n 
■0 S 



Si 5 

•« R rt 



a CD 

Is 



a u 
5 3' 
o 'O . 



'^1 
!l5 



S » 2 

m 3 3 
II g S 

fill 

nto£»--Ec§ 
s S o = .g 3 § § 



'0) £ ! 




t-T" 



276 



ACTIVR VOICE 

Conjugation of Sum 



ISIIKAVIVK 

Srrui NiTiVK 

Tm1'KRATI\'K~1 

ixfimtivk ] 
I'akticiii.k ' 



Pug.. 
P:igf 



Regular Verbs 



f I. Ciuijiigatii 

I'UIMII'At.l J. " 

1'akts I ."t. " 



45 
<)1 



I'age 46 



amo 


amare 


amavi 


amatum 


moneo 


monere 


monui 


monituni 


rego 


regere 


rexi 


rectum 


audio 


audire 


audivi 


auditum 



ACTTVK VOICE 
Indicative Mood 



am5 


innneo 


l-'.gO 


an.lio 


amis 


mones 


ivgis 


auilis 


ainat 


inoiiet 


ri'git 


audit 


'liESKNT ainamus 


nionemus 


iigimus 


aiiilimus 


ainatis 


inonetis 


ri'gitis 


auilitis 


ainant 


monent 


rcgunt 


audiunt 


amabam 


iiionebam 


regebam 


auiliebam 


amabas 


nionebas 


legebas 


audiebas 


ainabat 


inonebat 


ii^gebat 


aiidiebat 


"I'™"- aniabamus 


iiKiTiebamus 


regebamus 


audiebamus 


ainabatis 


iiiotiebatis 


ri'gebatis 


andiebatis 


amabant 


nioiiebant 


ifgebant 


audiebant 


ainabo 


nioiiebo 


iigam 


audiam 


ainabis 


inniiebis 


reges 


aurlies 


-, aiiiabit 

'I'TI UK 

ainabimus 


inoDcbit 
iiionebimus 


ruget 
Ifgemus 


aiuiiet 
audiemus 


ainabitis 


iHoiiebitis 


iigetis 


audietis 


aiiiabunt 


11 ebunt 


■ •■gent 


aiidient 



ACTIVK \OICE 



Pekf 



itum 
lituni 
wn 
itum 



J'l.lTERP. 



.im.ui 

aiiiiivisti 

iiiii.ivit 

'ini;nimus 

aniavistis 

/aiiiri' erunt 

(jim;ivere 

aiiiaveram 

ii iiiaveras 

ani.iverat 

aiiiuveramus 

ainaveratis 

amSverant 



aniaverd 
anifiveris 
FrriKK aniaverit 
PiRFKcT aniS\erinius 
aiiiaveritis 
amaverint 



moMiij 

nmnuisti 
iiiiiiiiiit 
'""rmimus 
111. Miustis 

fiiMHiiierunt 

I Nionuere 

nicuiiieram 

iii'iiMieras 

iiii'iiiierat 

m.iniieramus 

iniiimeratis 

nioimerant 

inonuero 

iiKiinieris 

iiioniierit 

iniimierimus 

niiiMiieritis 

iiioiiuerint 



rr\i 

I'visti 

i.\it 

reximus 

nvistis 
fiixerunt 
( revere 

iixeram 

nxeras 

n\erat 

I'xeramus 

iiveratis 

it'xerant 

ivsero 
ri xeris 
■ o.xerit 
rt'xerimus 
rixeritis 
re.xerint 



'iiiilitj 

aii.lnisti 

aiiilivil 

aiiili\imus 

aii'lnistis 

fauiliverunt 

laiiilivere 

aii.Iiveram 

auiliveras 

aiuliverat 

aii.liveramus 

aiiiln-iiatis 

aucliverant 

ainlhero 

auiliveris 

auil'.erit 

ancljverimus 

aiiiliveritis 

aiidiverint 



im 
is 

It 

imus 
itis 
uit 



Present 



amem 

ames 

aniet 

aiiiemus 

anietis 

anient 



Subjunctive 



iimneam 

iiiojieas 

inoneat 

iniimamus 

iiicineatis 

nmiieant 



I'cgaiti 

icgas 

ri'sat 

I't'^'aniiis 

ii-gatis 

I'fgant 



aiiiliam 

andias 

auiliat 

aiiiliamus 

aiiiliatis 

aiifliant 



Imi'EH 



ainarem 

a mares 

aniaret 

airraremus 

aiiiaretis 

ainarent 



iiKiiierem 

(iHineres 

iM'Mieret 

iiiimeremus 

i.inireretis 

liii'iierent 



"j-'erem 
ri-geres 
rt-geret 
ii';,eremus 
n-geretis 
•gerent 



ri 



aiiilirem 
• iires 
auiliret 
aiiiliremus 
aiiiliretis 
auiiirent 



278 



ACTIVK VOICE 



I'ERKfXT 



.imAverim 

aiii.iveris 

aniHverit 

aiiNiverimus 

aniaveritis 

aiiiaverint 



nioniierim 

nioiitieris 

nioniierit 

niuiiiierinius 

nHiiiiieritis 

iiKinuermt 



rcxenm 

rrxeris 

n^xerit 

I't'xerimus 

rexeritis 

rexerint 



aiuliverim 

nucliveris 

Hiiiljverit 

aiicliverimus 

aiuliveritis 

aiidiverint 



I'LUPERf. 



aiiiavissem 

amnvisses 

anifuisset 

aniavissemus 

amavissetis 

amavissent 



iiKiriiiissein ri xissem 

niDiiiiisses rexisses 

niotiuisset rcxisset 

iiiDiuiissemus nxissemus 

inomiissetis rexiswtis 

inonuissent rexissent 



aiiiljvissem 

atiilivisses 

auilivisset 

auilivissemuE 

auilivissetis 

attdlviuent 



Imperative 



1 ! 





ama 


mnne 


rcge 


audi 


Present 


anmte 


iiKinetc 


lugite 


au.lite 




amato 


rtidneto 


rcgito 


audito 


FUTCBE 


aniato 


nioiieto 


regito 


audito 


amatote 


mnnetote 


regitote 


auditote 




amanto 


moiiento 

Infinitive 


rcgunto 


audiunto 


Prf-sent 


amare 


nionere 


regere 


audire 


I'EKKKIT 


ainavisse 


monuisse 


rcxisse 


audivisse 


FrTIRE 


amaturus 


nioiiiturus 


recturus 


auditurus 




esse 


esse 


ense 


esse 



Participles 



Present amans moiiens regen:. audiens 

FrrrKK amaturus, moniturus .t^clurus, auditurus, 

-a, -urn -a, -um -a, -urn -a, -uir 



I'ASNIVK VOICK 



Supine 



is 

It 

m 

s 

t 

muE 

tis 

nt 



aiimtum 


iiioriitum 


n. tnm 


aiiiatu 


IIKMlitU 


ifctii 



""Ilium 
Huiliiii 



Presknt 



Imperf. 



FUTtJHF 



arilur 
laiiifiris 
I iiMinre 
aiiiatur 
anifimur 
Jiinrimlnl 
uiimntur 

aniabar 
yaniabaris 
|ainabare 
ainabatur 
ainabamur 
ainfibamini 
anifibantur 

aiiiabor 
piiiiaberis 
(aiiiabere 
ainabitur 
aniabimur 
amabimini 
aiuabuntur 



Gerund 



fiKS iivK ainandi 

"> IK aiiiando 

■^' ■ ">. ainandum 

AuL.-.TivK aiiiando 



iiKMiendi 


iigendi 


aiiiliendi 


iii'iiLcndd 


11 jiendo 


ainljendo 


inoiiendum 


ivnendum 


luiliendum 


""•nendo 


ngendo 


aiiiliendo 



PAS.>;VK VoiCK 
Indicative 



inoiifor 
j nioricris 
j MKiiiire 
iiioiii-tiir 
iiioiiimur 
iiiiHiCmini 
Mionentur 

nioiiebar 
i inuncbaris 
I iniiMcbare 
iiKiiicbatur 
miiijibamur 
iiioiiLbamini 
iMojicbantur 

inoiifbor 
( iiKMiOberis 
■( inoncbere 
miinCbitur 
iiMMii-bimur 
m. niCbiminl 
ii'iii^buntiir 



rtgor 
/iv-iTis 
I ii-gi-re 
ifyitur 
ri;,'iinur 
rtgimini 
ii'Huntiir 

regcbar 
(•Kgubaris 
I iigcbare 
legibatur 
rigObamur 
regibamini 
iigcbantur 



(■r.'gcns 
( ri.gere 

jr 
mini 

«ointur 



ainlior 
faucliris 
(auilire 
amlitur 
aiiilimur 
auilimini 
aiiiliuntur 

audiebar 
( audiebaris 
(audiebare 
aiiiliebatur 
aiidiebamur 
audiebamini 
audiebantur 

aiiiliar 
^audiiris 
jaudiure 

audictur 

audicmur 

aiidicmini 

audiintur 



280 



I'ASHtVK VOICK 



Pkrkkit 



niii^ilus sum 
ani.iius cs 
aiiuitus est 
aiiiAli sumus 
aiii.iiiestis 
aiiiiiti sunt 



iiiniiiius sum M 

ti tuses u 

riKiniius est 'I 

III li sumus i< 

iiioiiiti estis i'< 

11 itisunt K 



< lus sum 

I I us es 

< lus est 

III sumus 
I'll estis 
III sunt 



aiiilltus sum 
aililltus es 
auilitui est 
aiiiliii sumus 
aiiilili estis 
auililisunt 



Pr.ll'KKK. 



nmatuseram i iluseram niiuseram amliiuseram 

ainalus eras iiion us eras nituseras aiulituseras 

aiiialuserat inmiiius erat niiuserat aiuliius erat 

aiiiatieramus iininiiieramus nitieramus amlitieramus 

aiiiaiieratis niiniitieratis i'<'< ti eratis amlitieratis 

ani.iti erant inniiiii erant niii erant amliti erant 



FrxrKK 
pKHtKC-r 



anialus ero 
aiiiatus eris 
aiiiatus erit 
aiiiati erimus 
niiiatieritis 
anifiiierunt 



niniiitus ero 
iiKiiiitus ens 
iiKiiiitus erit 
nniniti erimus 
iiKiiiiti eritis 
iiKJiiiiierunt 



(tus ero 

< luscris 
I'liiH erit 

< ti erimus 
It? eritis 

I ti erunt 



aiiilltus ero 
aiiilitus eris 
aiiilitus erit 
uiiilitierimus 
aiiilui eritis 
audit! erunt 



Subjunctive 



amer 


inonear 


n-gar 


amliar 


Jaiiieris 


fiiMiit-aris 


fri'garis 


piuiliaris 


1 ill! ere 


1 iiiomare 


\iegare 


\auiliare 


pRKSKNT ainetur 


inoiicatur 


regatur 


auiliatur 


aiuemur 


iiiiiiieamur 


ri-gamur 


aiiiliamur 


ainemini 


n.iiiieamini 


itgamini 


aiiiliamini 


aiiientur 


iiiniK'antur 


iigantur 


auiliantur 


aiiiarer 


iiHiiicrer 


■igi-rer 


aiiilirer 


1 aiiiareris 


/iiiiiiiireris 


(iigireris 


pinilireris 


iainarere 


InmiiCrere 


|,r<'-''rere 


l^auilirere 


Iiii.KiiK. ^""Sretur 


iiiiinuretur 


1 . .'iretur 


auiliretur 


ainaremur 


ninnCreraur 


ifgiremur 


amiitemur 


auiaremini 


nioiit-remini 


iigiremini 


auiliremini 


aiiiarentur 


iiiMiicrentur 


iLgirentur 


auilirentur 



I'KRrKC T 



aiiutus sim 

Hllt:ltus Sis 
'iliiatus sit 
"M I'i simus 
aiij.Lii sitis 
aniaii sint 



P.VN.siVK votr'K 

riM.jiiiussim 
iriiiiiiiussis 
iiionitus sit 
'"iiniii simus 
"I'Miiti sitis 
111' ■iiiii sint 



'I us sini 
•I us sis 
' tus sit 
' li simus 
'li sitis 
'ii sint 



281 

lu.liius sim 
'iihliiussis 
'ixliiussit 
iii'liii *imus 
•iii'iiii sitis 
iiolitisint 



1*1 ll'KltK, 



iiiiifitusessem 

'tniatus esses 
'iiiiritus esset 
aiii:iti esse 

mus 
amritiessetis 
"'iiati essent 



iii'Mirtus , 
essem 

iiMiiiiiusesses n 

Miciiiiius esset i. 

ni"riiii esse- r. 

mus 

"I'liiiiiessetis i. 

rii'.iijti essent n 



'I us essem 

'I us esses 

uis esset 

I 'i essemus 

■li essetis 
li essent 



llijjius 

essem 
Milrius esses 
'"liius esset 
iiiliti 

essemus 
Hi essetis 
ii'liti essent 



•111 



Imperative 



Presknt 


iniare 
aiiiamini 


iii'iriere 
MKjiieminI 


i<'i;ere 
i'',i<imini 


■nil lire 
iiiilimini 


FtTTCRK 


•miator 
'Xiiator 
ai'iantor 


iiioiietor 
iriuiietor 
Iiicinentor 


Ii.itor 

riifitor 
I'guntor 


■luilitor 
■iiiilitor 
luiliuntor 



PRKSENT aiiiari 

I'KKKKIT illllfiiusesse 

I'l-TRK ,n„r,ium iri 



Infinitive 

niiineri , 

iiiiiiiitus esse i 
ii'iiiiiium iri i 



■.I5'* audiri 

•■tus esse iiuilnus esse 
■1 turn iri luilitum iri 



I'KRFKI'i 

i^Kkrx- 

IIIVK 



anifitus 
iiiiiandus 



Participles 



iiiiiiilias 
iiionenduE 



rurtus 

ii^gendus 



Ulllltus 

iiuiliendus 



282 ACCUSATIVE CASE 

A(J('USATI VK (!ASK 
Summary of Rules 

1. Ace. "f tlie Direct Object 

Murum aedificat. He Imilds a wiill. 

2. Two Accusatives, one of the Person, iuiother of the 
Thing 

Witli v.tIis .if itsl:l,iii, ibmii mil ii'U !mrhing, iiii.l run //ii;/. 

Te sententiam rogo. I nsk vou voui- <ji.inioii. 

Te linguain Latinam doceo. I tiaih v"ii iliu Latin lanjiuayu. 

(<i) Sententiam rogaris. ^■"ll ar- aski.l yiiiir iipiiiioii. 

Ill tlii^ I'assivf tliu Ace. (if llif Thiiijj! iviiiaiii.s, tliu \ce. of tlie 
Ptjrsuii liiH-iiiiius till! Nominative. 

doceo— T infdiiii, takes, 'de' wiili Alil. 

peto riUvays, precor n: 1 postulo usually, take Alil. of Person 

nitii 'ab.' 
Pacem a Caesare petit, He seeks peace from Caesar. 

quaero lakes "ab' or 'ex- 

3. Two Accusatives with Compound Verbs 

Willi tradiico, transporto, trajicio. 

Equit§s raontem traduxit. He led tlie lavalrj- aerosa the 

llioliutaill. 
Equites montem traducti sunt. Tlie cavalry were leil acro.ss tlic 

llioliutaill. 
In the Passive the olijeet of tile verb liueoiues the suliject ; the 
ohjeet after the iire|iosition remains. 

4. Two Accusatives -Direct Object inul Predicate 
Accusative 

Willi verlisof \mlhiii[U ihiummj. nlllimj, ir'J'irdiwj, ^ImiriiKj. 
Ancum regem creaverunt. They elected Aliens kiiij;. 

5. Cognate Accusative— m ate. lolatca (cognatus) t" 

the Vfi'ii ill meaning 
Vltam vivcrc, lo li«- a lif.-. somnium somniare, to dream a dream. 
proelium pugnare. to light a liatlle. 



AOOl:SATIVE (?ASR 



283 



6. Ace. of ' Motion towards ' 

Romam venit. Ili- , 

7 Ace. of Respect 



(I'.ijio lit), ■).) 
ainu to Kiinic. 



Caput doleo. I am ,,ai„e,l as t„ tl.c l,ea.l-I l,,u-,. a |,oa,lach. 

Niger oculos. Bla.-k a« ,„ ,1,. .,v.s-w,tl, blauk .y.-s 

Fractus membra. Witli lii„l,s sliatuiwl, 

8. Ace. with verbs, passive i,, fo,„,, i.ut Middle in 

meaning 

Galeam induitur. H,- ,,,„s o„ l.is hd,,,,.,. 

9- Adverbial Ace. 

Multum valent. ti „ 

Nihil movemur. w ,. 

Illud glorior. ".--,„uatall,„„v..,l. 

_ , "• Hull' IS liiv ImiiKt, 

Eadem peccat. „, ,„,k.,\ho sa,„.. ,nis,ak..s 

Maximam partem lacte vivunt. Theyliveforthc,,,,,.,, panonnnlk. 

10. Ace. of Duration of Time a„,i Extent of Space 

Annos decem bellum gesserunt. K,„. ,.„ y.u,s ih.-y „ ,„„.,| „ w- 
Duo millia passuum ambulavit. He walke.l t«„ .nii.H. " 

11. Ace. with Prepositions 



ad 

adversus 

ante 

apud 

circa 

circum 

cis 



citra 

contra 

erga 

extra 

infra 

inter 

intra 



juxta 

ob 

penes 

per 

pone 

post 

praeter 



prope 

propter 

secundum 

supra 

trans 

ultra 

versus 



(") in, sub, subter, super, 

lakf tlie Acr. wliun they denotu Afoliw, .■ 
take tlie Ah/. « hen tliey ,|e„„t„ /[,„i, 
in Italiam, im» Italy ; in Italia, h. Italy 

12. Ace. ill Exclamations 

heu me miserum -Ah : me ui,h.ip,,y. 

13- Acc. with Infinitive. (Pajic 107). 






284 



THE DATIVE 



TIIK DATTVK 



Tile Diitive is in <;eneral represented by *fn' ;inil '/«>*•/ The 
chief exceptions tn tiiis .-ire '//',' denotin*^ * nmfinn ft>,' na ad Ufhettt 
Vfit/rr, and 'ftifj' denoting * /h tM'hitlf <>t\' as prn jHitrii't [tiujutlir. 

The Dative in general expresses the i)erac>n or tiling ' nfffded bij' 
tin action. 

Tlie Ace. expresses the peraoii or thing directly or primarily 
acted upon. 

Many verbs that govern the objective in English are repreaented 
hy verl>.-> that govern the D.-i- ive in Ijatin. Such verbs in Ijitin are 
Intransitive. Every really transitive verb in Latin governs the Ace. 

Summary of Rules 

1. Dative of Indirect Object 

To denote the person to whom something is fj-h-fn, mtid, or dotie ; 
((() With transitive verbs in connection with Ace. 

Librum puero dfedi. T gave the l)oy a book. 

Fabulam puero narravi. I tolil the boy a stoiy. 

Nihil mihi respondit. He made nie no reijly. 

(6) With intransitive verbs. (Page 175, 4.) 

2. Dative with Compounds 

Many verbs compounded with the following ])rej)ositions govern 
the Dative. 

ad. ante, con, de, in, inter. 

ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super, ami sometimes circum. 

Also the Adverbs bene, male, satis. 

Intransitive verbs compounded with the above prepositions govern 
the Dative ; 

Transitive verbs so compi>unded govern the Ace. and Dat. 

Labieiuis eominanded the army. 
Caesar placed Labiemis in com- 



Labienus exercitui praefuit. 
Caesar Labienum exercitui 



praefecit. 



maud of tile army. 



TIIR DATIVK 

3. Dative of Reference 



285 



nut usu.i „, v]„sv. e,.„iM.et,.,„ «itl, tho vuil, alone l,„t ,. 

connected ratla-r with the whole sentence. '^ 

Caesari ad pMes se projecerunt. They .lne«- the„.»ehes at Caesar's 

Hoc mihi spem minuit. This"L.se„e.I ,„v h,.,„. 
(The ....H,, „„...._,,.„„„„ ..^„_,,.,„^^__^^__^^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^^^_^^^_^ ^^^^ 

Est urbe egressis tumulus. As (, , ,„ ,„, „f , ..,^. „„„,,. .^ ;^ 

mouiKl. 
Jnder Dative of reference are enil,r.-.c..,I .• 

4- («) Ethical Dative 

Quid mihi Celsus agit ? What i« n,v c i . 

At tibi vemt ad me Caninius. li.it mark v„„ . • 

mil, nuik_\()u,( aninius cullies til tiic. 



5- (4) Dative of Separation 



Hunc mihi terrorem eripe. Take f,oi„ n.c this ten„r 
Gladmm tibi abstfill. , i,,.,, ,,, „, ; 

Omnu. nobts ademit. He ruhhd «« o. cvcrythi.ig. ' 

6. Dative of Possessor 

Is used with '.<»)»,' 

Mihi est liber. I have a ho„k, 
Puero nomen est Caid ) ,.,, 
Puero nomen est Caius / ' ■'" "'""'' '" '^^'■''"'■ 
With 'nO,n.n .., ' ihe name is usually ,„ t „,,., ,,^^ ^.,,,,__ 

7. Dative of ,he Agent (instead of r, ,„. „/, ,,iu, .\l.i., 

I-s used with the (ierumlive. 

V.>tus omnibus cfilenda est. .M, „„„i ,.„,„,,,„ ,„,„„ 
Nobis pugnandum est. w, „„„j .j^,,,, 

To .avoid a„,h„;uity the Al,l. with ,7 „i- „/, is used. 
Tibi a me parendum est. I ,„„si „i„.v v„„ 



286 



THE DATIVE 



8. Dative <if Purpose (usually eouiMneil witli a iJiitivc 
of the person or tiling iittt'cted) 

Duas legiones praesidid castris lie luft two le>;tonii as a ^uard fur 

reliquit. tlii; tanip. 

Est mihi curae. it is a care tn me. 

9. Dative with Impersonal Verbs 

accldit — it happens ; contingit~it is one's ^(k»\ fortune ; 
expSdit- it is expeilient ; Ilbet— it pleases ; 
licet— it is allowalile ; pl&C^t — it pleases. 

10. Dative with Adjectives 

Ik clo.sely rulated to its usu with verhs. 

The iniLSt coninioii adjectives are denoted hy 

ajjreeable, easy, friendly, like, near, neeessary, suitable, sul)jei i, 
useful. 

prSpior, proximus, sonietimes take the Ace. 
pr6pe, prdpius, proxime, adverbs, regularly take the Aee. 
Other cmiHtrurfloiis occur. 

(«) The t lenitive, with similis, dissimilis, especially to express 
likeness in character. 

Pompeii similis, like Ponipey. 
{b) Jtilis, idoneus, aptus ad ; 
communis, conjunctus cum ; 
benevolus erga, or in witii A<^c. 

11. The Dative occurs similarly with Adverbs ami even 
Nouns. 

Obtemperatio legibus. Obedience to the laws. 

Congruenter natiirae viv6re. "^o live in accordance with nature. 
Sibi ccnstanter dicSre. To.poakconsistentlywithone'sself. 

Special Idioms 



He threateneil me with death. 
He levies cavalry from tiie states. 
He sup])lies the enemy with corn. 
He won no one's approval for his 

acts. 
He pardoned me for theseoffences. 



Mortem mihi minatus est. 
Equites civitatibus imperat. 
Friimentum hostibus suppeditat. 
Facta sua niilli pr6bavit. 

Haec peccata mihi condonavit. 



dono ami circumdo admit of a iliinlili' construction. 

I Urbem miiro circumdat. 
Ho surrounds the ,ity with a wall. '(Murum urbi circumdat. 



THE .;fnitivk with nouns 287 

The fJi'iiiHvii is till' '(Iciiiiiii,,' .... •, 

11.e r.en,av. i.s used w„l, ,„„„,.,, ....Ijoctive.s a.nl vor.,.s. ' 

Summary of Rules 
TFfK (JKMTIVK WITH NOUNS 
I. Possessive Genitive 

liber pueri, tin. l„,^•s l,ook. 

serpentis morsiis, tl,.. l,ii,. „f ,|,^. ,,. ,.„^ . 
timor pueri, (l„. f,.„. „f n,,. |,^,,, 

amor gloriae. love of gl„,,. , „etus deoru-n, f,... of .ho g,„K 

4. Genitive of th„ Whole (us„,aliy o.Ul.d P.t.-titiv.. Pnn i 
.■enot.„g tl... whole of «l,i..,, ,, ,,,,.,, i/,,,,,,. ' •"""^' «'^")- 

I") "itn ailjcctives, osr)ci'i,all\ if, .1... 

(n With„„„,.,.als: duo ...ilia equitum: primus omnium. 
(") \\illi pronouns anil n™t,.r ■irliV.,.fi,. i 

q«idco„sim,.,,a,p,an:;;dr:i!'';rt':^-:^'^™'''"''''^^ 
(<■) Will, ii,lvi.,l,s i,„.,l „, s„h.<,ntive.s : 

sapientiae parum, too litile wisil„„,. 
quo gentium ? to w|,at pla,,. „„ cuth ' 
ubi terrarum ? \iheri! on o.ir tli ? 
eo temeritatis, to ..uHi a pit,), ,,f ,,,sl„„„s 

'^\:n77:"T'''' -■■^Hi....,n.„fH,eW,„„...... 

(") 111.' .Mil. with ex or de. 

unus e militibus: qu.dam ex serv.s, 

""""■'■«"'"'■ '"'"'■' 'Muidamani, .anlinal nn„i..,,.l. 



288 fIF.NITIVE WITH Al>.rK(TlVK8— f^KNITIVB WITH VKKIIS 

(')) nos omnes. all of u» : tota Asia, tl"' «li"'"- "f Asia, 
(equites) qui pauci a -Jit, fi« of wlinm w.iv i)ii>^fnl. 
If tliB t«.i wiiiils iiro co-extensivB yim CiiniiDt have the fluii. 
the \Vli..le. 

5. Genitive '>(' Quality (Desciiptiv,- Cc-.iitiv.') 

vir sumnii ingenii, u man cif the greatist aliilily: 
puer decern annorutn, a Imv of ten yciirs. 

6. Appositional Genitive 

virtus continenttae, llie virtue of self-ionticil. 
This Oen. is rare in Latin as compared with Englisli. 
Obs. : Reniemlier such types as, 

urbs Roma : pugna Cannensis ; summus mons. 

GENITIVE -WITII AD.TECTIVES 
Adjectives deiKiliiig desire, knowledge, skill, recollection 
participiition, mastery, fulness, and their contiiuies. 

cjpidus renim novarum ; peritus belli (skilUrl im. 
memor gtoriae ; amans patriae ; pugnandi avidus. 

(lENITIVE WITH VERBS 

I. The Gen. is used w ith 

I. misereor, miseresco, i>ity. feel pitx-. 

Obs.: miseror, 1: commUeror, 1, express pity (or, l)emoaii the lot of, lake 
111.- Ace. 

II. memini, retniniscor, obliviscor. 

But [a) When referring to persons — 

memini=Iamniinilfnlof, Imakenientionof, lakes (ien, 
= 1 still rememlier, 1 ree.all. lakes Ace. 
Ciceronem memini, 
(ft) When referring to tilings they take tin- Ci'ii. or Aee. 
But neuter pronouns and .adjeetives are regularly ii: 
the Ae,'. 

haec memini ; multa reminiscor. 
mihi in mentem vSnit - I reiiieinl..r. i.ikes ihe (on. 

Venit mihi in mentem ejus diei. 
recorder, 1.— I recall, almost iiivarialily lakes ihe Ace. 



OKXITIVK WITH VKHIW 



2,so 



2. TI.n Acc. u( ti„. Person ..,,,1 Gen ..f ti„. Thin„- 

used with "cu. <.r rri( Ihitig :ire 
I. admoneo. commoneo, commonefaco-,,.,,,,,,,! ,„l„ ,.,, . 

i'"t.-.^ytaU,(„)T,.. f ,.,„.„, , ^^^^^;^ 

hoc te admoneo. I ,-,.,„i,„| v„„ .,f Uih 
{'■) ■'■ with ,h„ AM. v..rv fr,.,|,a.n.ly, 
de proelio vos admoneo. 
It. Verl,s of A.-,.„sin^. C„„vi,.,i„. Anprn,],,,, . 

""^'^r ""'^'- ""'" '^''''' ^''=°''^- ' '^" - < 

prodUionis accas.re, .eum facere-, ,„„ ,„ ,„ ,„„_,„.^ ,„. 

(") V..,..«ofCo,„l,.,„„in., damno. !; condemno, ,. t.k,- 
(l) <;<■]!. of the C:.aTKf ; 

capitis damnatus, ,.„„l,.,„ , ,,.,,,,,,,.,,„ 

(n) .Vlil. of ['cmliv. 

capite, morte, exilio damnatus, .on.lo,,,, u, ,1,..,,, ,„i,„ 

Itl. mtseret, poenitet. pudet, taedet, piget • 

I'">-. r,.,«„t, sl,a„„, w.a,y. ync-ve! take 

Arr. <>/' /'ermii feplinjr ; 

''.■«». o/P,.rsoH or Thing (hat causes the foelin- 
Eorum nos miseret. W,. pi, v ,!,,„,. 

Me stult.t.ae meae pudet. \ a,„ ..sha,,,,.,! of „„■ folh- 

n,"!:. of t!:;!;r- '" ""■■ '"™'"""» •">- ■">■<'■ -^uod: ,... ,.„, 

0.«, Me poenitet vixisse, hoc fecisse, quod haec fecimus 

.t f J.f fT' "'" '■''■^^' ■' '^ ^'^ "''--^- i^ ~"s ; 
Mko tlio follo»„,g coiiKtriictioiis : 

(") The /',.,■.,„„ I„lr,;:<M in thu (In,. 

interest omnium ; illorum refert. 

('.) Hut mea, tua, sua. nostra, vestra mteresse 

tt.thi,os.se.ssivc. ,.r„„o,insthu.lW. .sv„„ /.•,,„ ,f,i /. 
used. ■'■ '"• "' ""■ ^<'«".«/-v ts 



290 



4- (") Genitive I'f Value (I iirfefiiiit"^ Value) 

Kxpri'SM'il 1>y tanti, quanti. parvi, magni, pluris, minoris 

(«!■. pretii -prill'). 
Tanti amicitiam tuam habed, facio, aestimo. 

So liighly ill) I Viiluc your fr'i('iiil»lii(i. 

(A) Genitive of Price (rmlofinitc Price) 

Kxprcssi'il liy tanti, quanti. pliiris, minOris, uiili virlis nf 
liuyiii),' (emo) aiiil stlling (vendo). 

Tluwu UHus nf the Ouii. with verhs corruHpoiul tn the (ieii. of 
Qu»!ity with iiuuiis, 

IDTOMS 

(n) Kvi'rylhiiigis in thi' huiiilsiif Omnia sunt hostium. 
tlui enemy. 
Tills house >H'lnngs tii my Haec domus est mei patris. 
father, 
hostium anil patris are Prnhcntp PoxiWKsire (ifnitiir.s. 

(h) An extension of this pi'inciple is seen in the foUowing common 
idiom. 

It is the iluty of a juilge to Judicis est verum sequi. 

follow the truth. 

This is the husiness of an Hoc est praeceptoris. 

instruetor. 

It is characteristic of a wise Sapientis est. 

man. 

It is the height of mailness. Summae dementiae est. 

(r) It is my lUity. Meum est. 

In the case of Personal Pronouns tlie iVcjiYi-c of the PoMcixire 
is useil. 

(./) .\ny man may err Cujusvis hominis est errare. 

(i) .\ man of courage. Vir fortis. 

A man of wisilom. Vir sapiens. 

A man of gooil sense. Vir priidens. 

You cannot use the Genitive of Qu.ility unless a i|ualifyini{ wonl 
is attaclied to the noun. 



ABLATIVE PROPKR ofll 

THE AliLATIVK 

The Ablative is es.sen.iHlIy a„ A.Ive.l.i.-.I Ca«.. Tl,e -.lati.ns it 
expresnes are a,lverbi,..l i„ „,..,„.,,.,, w,.! a,., v.,,- ,„„.utr,u,s 

It combines th. nse.s of throe c,-.,.s oH,, Ilv ,li.sti„,.^ ; tl.o AM-.. 

tne 0«e ; the I.,str,„„e„.Hl Ca.o ; ,u„l ,l.e Lu.Htive C\~u 

Its uses aceorainglj. „re treated uu.h.,- ,1,,,,., t|,r,.,. divisions. 

Summary of Rules 
^— ABLATrVK PHOFKH 

1. Ablative of Motion away from ; 

Usually with a preposition ' „/, ' or ' ..,- 'except with 
(") Xani.-s of towns ,in.l sin.iU isIan.N ; 
(A) rure, domo, humo. (.s.i, IK), 4).' 

2. Ablative of Source or Origin 

.nXr" "'*"• "''"^ ' '"■•'•■■^ "^"' ""-» "' »i'"i.ar 

Jove natus ; nobili genere ortus. 

(a) ex me natus. Pronouns rcgularl.v tak.. ex. 

(A) ortus ab, oriundus ab, denote „„„"e „.„,„t,. descent 

Oriundl ab Sabinis, descended from the S.,l,i„e« 
(c) ex auro factus, n.wle of gol,l. 
The AM. of M„ten„l is closely related to Abl. of .Source. 



3- Ablative of Separation 



wiii ::;e;:t:'" ^"-'-- ^ - -'"■' -..-*...« 

Culpa vacat. He is free from fauli. 

fee ttmore liberat. He frees „,e from fe,„-. 
metu vacuus, timire liber 
(a)Iiber6 ns„ally ; solvo, egea, careo.vaco; and „s„allv 
liber, vacuus, nudus, solutus, inanis and oil.ers ar 7 , 
without a preposition. 
(A) indigeo r. .-ularly takes the fJen, 



4- Ablative of Comparison 



Is used in.stea.l of a non.in.ative or accusative w,tl, •,,„ 
puer puf"a altior est. 



292 



INSTHrMENTAI. ABI.ATIVK 



((() III iithor ciiscs th.in iiinii. i)r iicc. ' irimn ' iiiiist 1h! lined. 

mater puero quam puellae carior est. 
(/<) Spe omnium celerius venit. Hi- cium- a<H)iicr tlian anyone had 

I'xperlL'd. 
plus jr»>'d, niori- llian in right, (justo, the iiuiittT of tlie Ailj. 
ilsi'il as a sulKlantivi-. ) 
(. ) Non longius mille et quingentis passibus aberat. 
Ariovistus vix plQs duo millia passuum aberat. 
Araplius horis quatuor fortissime pugnaverunt. 
amplius, plus, minus, longius, may or may not alVu.^t tlic syntax 
ot till) aucoinpanyin;; wolils. 

5. Ablative <>f *!"■ Ag-ent witli 'a' <>r ai. ' 

Is used with passive vurlia to expiuss the Person l.y whom 
soniethinij; is d me. 

A Caesare interfectus est. He was killed hy Caesar. 
(„) Collective iionns and ahstract nouns persoiiilie.l, may take 
this eonstriietioii. 

a multitiidine. a Fortuna. 
(/,) ,\ Secondary A:.;eiit is expressed liy ' fi-' 

Caesar per exploratores certior factus est. 

B - \ NSTU U MKNTAL A BL AT I V K 
I. Ablative "f Cause, Manner, Means, o, Instru- 
ment 

Cause-Laudis amore ducimur. We are iiiflnenccd hy the love of 

praise. 

Niilf the phrnxfn — 

iussu meo. "'.^ '".v order. 

iniussii,.ogatii,el.-..Caesaris. Wiihout the order, hy rcpiesi 

of Caesar. 
Manner— wither wiiliout 'cum.' 

Haec cum diligentia fecit. 

Haec magna cum diligentia fecit, or 

Haec magna diligentia fecit. 
Use '™»r unless an .-niphalic adjeelivc is added to the noun. 

Means or Instrument ; 
Gladio interfectus est. 



IVSTIIIMIKNIAI, Al;l,\TrVK 



293 



2. Ablative of Attendant Circumstance 
boms auspiciis. in.l, r ' i 
Lon^o intervalia sequitur. „,. .,lir.i':;X:ri,„..n.,, 

>iS;';,'::'7:'^- ■'"'••" "■•^'■'^^'-"" > v..i„.,v 

.1111(1 ro .\i)i. ot .\cuiiiii|i:iimui'iit. 

3. Ablative "f Accompaniment is „.,.,! wi.i, cum 

Cum Caesare venit. Cum telo venit. 
'"' '""■ ' ■■• "'■ /" '". mecum. tecum, secum, nabiscum, vobiscum. 

■"""■I't •■• • ''•■■I. i-H ml.k.,1 t„ the ■„.„„. ■' '"- 

omnibus copiis; i„g;e„ti exercitu ; magna manu. 

cum exerctu ; cum tribus legion.bus ,- dum decima legione 

4. Ablative »f Price 

Auro patnam vendidit. Hi. s„M l.i. . 

V.Ie est v.g,nf mmis. I, i. ,.,,„ ,., ,„,.„„. ^^'^ 

MuItosangumePoenisvic- Th.. vi, :„,v ,„., ,|„ ,• ■ 

'-"""'tit. u>z:r "'"""'' 

JireUOl, ,IIV llscil IcmIcji,,,,. /,„/,„„,y, y>^.;_,^ 

5. Ablative of Measure of Difference 

':?,!::':'"'' ^''"- •""■'■ ^- ''i^'-'-nodielongior, 

'"^■^"'u.::^:l " '--- p-^a post „..„,.,., , 

6. Ablative of Quality o, Description, « i,i, ,., A.lj..c,ivo 

vir summo mgenio ; summa virtute adolescens ; 

(") ('■i,ii|i,iri. d'a^r,. os,S, r,) 

■/.Ablative of Specification o, Respect 

Rex nomine, non potestate erat. F(, wa- lii,i..,„ „ 

. '"'"- '" "■mil.. 11.., ,11 |,.,w,.,-. 

Altero oculo captus. I,liii,| in ,„„. ,v,' 

Pede rlaudus. laim. .,f f,,,,,. 

moribus similes, Ijk,. in ,1, u,, .,,.,. . ~.„_ 

'^ """"■"'"■ ■"'"<>■• natu; natumaximus. 

Ihl.s l,.s,. IS ..[..s.-ly ivlati'il ,,, -Th,- I'l.,..,- \VI„.,, ■ 

8. Ai/lative Absolute (Pa-.. !.-,!() 



294 lOTATIVF. ABLATIVK — SPECIAL III'LES 

r— l,<HJATI\ K Altl.ATIVK 

1. Abl. "f ilio Place Where (»'"K'' '•!>. •'') 

2. Abl. »f tl.c Place fioi,i Which (I'hkc 119, n.) 

3. Abl. "f till- Route l>.v Which 

Duabus limul portis eruptionem fecit. 

Hi' niiiilc a willy finiii twci galia at tlir K.inif liimv 

4. Abl. «( Time When (Paj,'.' 116, 1 ) 

5. Abl. ..f Time Within Which (Page 116, 3.) 

SPECIAL UrLES 

The fiillowiii;,' lilioiiuitic iisus of tin; A1>1. iiiiiy be ox|plHin«(l iiniler 
one <>r other of the pieceiliiiy rules. 

1. utor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor govern the AM. (I'iliJe 

2. The folh)wiii« AdjectiveS take the .Mil. 

dignus, indignus, contentus, praeditus, fretus: (and liber). 

(I'agc !U, .->.) 
The .\1)1. i« one of Sii>:cijifiili"ii or Iimtnimitii. 

dignus morte : sua sorte contentus ; ^ 

ingenio magno praeditus ; virtiite fretus. 

3. opus est and usus est. There i» need. 

Take the /'"'■ of the Prrxuu who needs ; the .-IW. of the 
Thlmi needed. The Aid. is one of SiKciJifation or 
Instrumfiit. 
Opus est nobis auxilid tuo. We need vouraiil. 



Ablative with Prepositions 



a or ab 
absque 
clam 
coram 



cum 

de 

e or ex 

palam 



prae 
pro 
sine 
tenus 



11 inter 
liber). 



VOCABULAIIY 



(if the 
ivn iir 



AISI'.HKVIATKIN 



Nivn;. 'I'lu' rrfrr-cruM's alc to tht; |»iii;fs antl <t'rijn 



i>f tliis I k. 



! ! 



!! 



ill)]. . 








al>lativr 


ne-. 








ne^';^tive 


iu-i;. . 








ai'cu«;iti\<' 


\. 








neuter 


a.lj. . 








adjective 


Iinin. 








nominal i\'e 


.-anl. 








cardinal 


num. 








numeral 


conip. 








cninparativi' 


nrd. 








ordinal 


CtUlj. 








rniijiiiK-t Ion 


p. p. 








perf. part. dep. 


(lef. . 








(l.'f.MtiVf 


p. p. p. 






pert", pait. pass. 


(If'p. . 








deponent 


Ml'fS. p. 






[iresent purlieipl 


(listrib. 








disttilmtiv(^ 


pl. . 






plural 


F, . 








feminine 


prep. 








preposition 


gfii. . 








genitive 


pro. 








pronoun 


iinptT. 








imperative 


nd. 








ndative 


itnpcrs. 








iinper>^4)nal 


we. 








supply 


iii(k'cl. 








tnderlinal)le 


sin-;. 








j^ingular 


iritr. 








intransitive 


sul.j. 








siihjunetive 


iiileiT. 








intenoLiative 


sup. 








superlative 


irr. . 








irregular 


tr. . 








transitive 


1<K'. . 








loeativt- 


V, , 








verV> 


M. . 








maH<-uline 


V<H'. 








vocative 



2«6 



LATI.\-K\(JL|S|[ VOCAIICLAliv 

.nea:;r;;':r;i:::':"r:i^^^- ;^-v;-h-.'' ..™. »n„ ,„ .,,. 

or .•o^„a,e «„nl. -., ,,,, ,,'"".'""""'" "'I""'' '"•■"I'rt" ; othor .l.-rivali.,. 
Italic ( ,. ■ - '■ ■ i->- , I Ml »,|„;ir,. I,ra,-kc.t, „( thf .-n,! I.nt „ni i„ 

a- s,.,. ab '^ ' acies, ei, K., W (,,,w,„//;. ,. 

abdo.-dere didi..ditu™,v.„.„: i' ';'■;■ I'^Jn,!:;!;;,,:;::;:^:/ 

eunvaljiiile. I |||| ;,.,;„. ,, I"""!'" ' H*' • 

"ep;,-;™, .li(-Ivi), -itum, V. i,T. (iSi'. 4). [.f. Ki,/.\i | 

! adduce, -ere, -duxi, -ductum. 



(■JIS, S), yo ilinilj, iliimii. 

abhinc, ailv,, ,,,,„ (Iki, 4) 
abies, etis, i\,jlr, .yini.-r. 
abjicio, -ere, -jeci, -jectum, \ 1,., 
tlii-tur ini'aij. 

ab ripio, -ere, -ripui, -reptum, v. 1 , . , 

unafr/i airat/. 

absens({;eii. absentis), adj., „/,«,, ,1. 

absum,-esse,-fui,v. iiitr.(2(JS,7,.S) 

f»' t/Ulatif, h< ti'fsfnt. ' ' ' 

tantum abest ut. . .lit. 

It: far /mm . . .tlint{-2U, 1 (/,) ). 
baud multura abesse quin, 

In he u'Ulun a very llule uf 

(•-'47, 4 („), (J). 

ac ; see atque. 

accedit, -ere, -accessit. v. impir^ 

'I i-i ailiM (2U, I (/,)). 
ac cede, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum. 

V. rrilr, ;;« /„, rome 11,, „,,. 
)>ro,„-h. lAircilo] 
accidit, -ere, -accidit, v. impfis 
'[ '"W'".M-'-':i. 3, 4). (A,.,.i- 

ac cipio, -ere,-cepi, -ceptum. v. 1 , 

rer.'in; ni-rfpl, 
acer, acris, acre, mlj. (si) 

I'mr/,, k„,,i, „erer, (,.,'„„p 

acrior: suii 



II',, /,,„/ ,„, /„,,;„, ^ 

ad eo -ire, -ivi (ii), -itum. v. in 

C.'is, :ii,i/: /„.„,,/,■.„„■/,. 
adeo.iiilv.,,,,,^, ,,,,,/, „„,,,.,„„, 

ad hortor, -ari. -hortatus, v .In, 

''r,,..,'.r/,„rl. '■■ 

adhuc, a.lv., ,M ,/»■', "" fur. 

ad moneo, -ere. -raonui.-monitum. 

V. tr.. ,„/,■;,■,,, „.,„.,. 

lAiliiiiinisliJ 
adolescens, -entis. M . , ,,,.„i„/ „,„„. 
adorior, -irl, -ortus, v. ,U;, 

nl/,iH; ,/.,„„7. ' ' 

ad sum, -esse, -fui, v, i„ir-. (with 
■iHt., -.'MS. S), /„. i„;..n,,, /„, 
near. /„■//,. 

adversus. a, um, adj,, |,),/,v,-.., 1 

res adversae, 'I'lrerxii,,, ,i,-f,,i/ 

adventus, fis, .\l„ „,,,„,„„./, 

(.A.lventi 
aedificium. -i, .\,. /,„;/,/;„,, 

|Kilili<-,.| •' 

aedifico, -are, -avl, -atum. v 1 r 

l>Hi''l. 

aeger, -gra, -grum, .mIj , 

""■k |c',Mii|i, aegrior; .Mir. 

!■. aegerrimus), 

acerrimusi, Aegina, -ae. K. A,,,;,,.,. 

(■Ill Ul,n„l i„nr Alli,„„). 



L'!)7 



298 



VOCABrLARY 



aegre. inlv,, »/•//// ili^rulht, smmhi 

(cornp. aegrius ; sup. aeger- 

rime : 
aegre ferre, tit hi' niniui/ni ni 

r.il4,.-,). 
Aeneas, -ae, M., 

AfHi^it-t, a Trojini priiire. 

aequitas. -atis, F., 

/ilinn,s.i, r'nj/il. [Kquity] 

aequus. -a, -um. a<lj., mn, jutl : 
aequus animus, rrmjiindun. 
■ IK.iuuTiiinitj] 
aestas, -atis, F. , mimiiin: 
aestus, -Qs, -M., tide. 
aetas, -atis, F., (vjf. 
affero, -ferre, attuli, allatum, 

V. tr. , hrinij to, 
Africa, -ae, F., A/rim. 
Africanus. i, M., Africiinux. 

a .^'-raiiit t'lH/notneii u/ Scipio : 

(SCI! nomen). 
Africus, -a, -um, adj. of A/rira : 

(sc. ventus) //(P ■•'uutft-wi-st irhid. 
ager, agri, M., fir Id: 

pi, agri InmU, tfitiljrif. 

[A^iiuiiui] 

agger, -eris, M., 

iiioiiiiif {of ti ritiup). 

ag gredior, -gredi, -gressus, 

V. <U']i. , lUtttvk, nsfinil. 

lAggrussivu] 
agmen, -inis, N., 

ttnnij {on the. iii(irch). 
ago, -ere, egl, actum, v. ti., 

drln; ,/„ : 

id ago ut, I niaki- it ini/ aim to 
. C-'lii, S). l.Vi-t] 
agricola, -ae, M.,fi<niiir. 
agricultiira, -ae, F., lajneidture. 
alacer. -cris, -ere, mij., 

t'viak, ii'tiik, Unit/: {comp. 

alacrior ; sup. alacerrimusi. 
aJacritas. -atis, F., 

'jitiekne-'iA, eitfjernesti, [alurriti/]. 
Alba Longa im:u. Albae Longae). 

Allut /^omjii, <t t'itij of Lotitdit. 



Albani, -drum, M., 

Alliitnn, II jKofilr dwellini/ in 

Liilimii, iifiii littiiiif, 
Albanus, a, -um, adj., Alhan. 
alias, adv., at amithtr time. 
alienus, -a, -um, adj., 

(>/', helotiijiiiij to another. 

[Alitiil 
aliquamdiu, adv., for some time. 
aliquantus, -a, -um, adj., 

some, ronfiideriilile. 
aliquis. -qua, -<4uid, m quod, 

iiidef. pro. adj., someone, fioiiie 

(149, 4). 
alius, -a, -ud, adj. pro., another: 
alius . alius, one . . . another 

(4S, •-'). 
»16, -ere, alui, altum, v. tr., 

notiritih, rettr^ maintain. 
Alpes, -ium, F., pi., the Alps. 
alte, adv., deepli). 
alter, -era, erum, adj. pro., 

the other: alter. . .alter, the one 

. . the other (i% 3). 
altus, -a, -um, adj., high, toll, deep: 

inalto, intheilreji. [Altitudu] 
amans (gen. amantis), pan. adj., 

lorlnij (85) : 
patriae amans, jiatriolic 
ambulo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. inlr. , 

iralk. 
amicus, -i, M.,/r/fHi/. [Amicable] 
amitt5, -ere, -misi, -missum, v. tr., 

lose. 

amo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., lore. 

amor, -oris, M.,/()('('. [.\morous| 

an, eoiij. (l)iiitro<lufingadelibfr- 
alive (pieatioii, but not trans- 
lated (194, a. Note): 
\'l) in a double (luestiou. 
utrum. .an., whether . . . or 
(44, -,). 

ancilla, -ae, F. , maid-servant. 

ancora, -ae, F., anchor. 

Ancus Martius(cen. And Martii). 
A nrtiH Martins, a kimj of Home. 



vocAnuL.vitv 



299 



tr.. 



animadverto. ere, verti. -versum. 

I Ir.. „h.^,,n . „„/ ;,-,'. 

animal, -alis, \,, auimn/. 

animus, -i, M., mlml.- 
aequus animus, n-ilfimilion. 

annon, conj. (inticxUuing tin- 
sworid piirt iif ii cliiri-i 
cim-sticm), or not (44. 5). 

annus, -i, M., //,-„,•. [Annuiil] 

ante, picp. Hith aa-., hrfotv („/' 

ante urbem. in/nnit ufihrrii,/ ■. 
ante multos annos, 

liejoir moiii/ i/./ici ( I Hi, .'>). 
ante, adv., lu/orc- 
multis annis ante, 

many i/Hir.-: Ufore (IKi, :,]. 
antequam, conj., /.c/yce (•_'.-,!), s). 

antiquus, -a, -um, adj. , o/./, im-if „/. 

[Aiitiiiuitv] 
Antonius, -i, M., Miirnr^.-ln/oiiiiis. 
apertus, -a, -um, ailj., 

oiieii. [Api-ltuii'J 
appelia, -are, -avi. -atum, v. i r. , 

oi//. lAppi.'llalioriJ 
appropinquo, -are, -avi, arpmnh. 
apud, pivp. with ace, <(/, »,,„•. 
Apijiia, -ae, K., 

Ajmlia, a lUxtri,-! in Iliihi. ! 

aqua, -ae, K., ! 

umtrr. (A<|m.,,iis, Aipiatii] ' 
aquiia, -ae, F., m./fr. |..\,|„ili,„,| 
ara. -ae, F., altnr. 
arbiter, -tri, M., aihiintlor. 
arbitror, -ari, -atus, v. dcp., ihi,d: i 
arbor, -oris, K., tree. [AiIidiJ j 
arcus, -us, .\r., how, mrh. [Aic] ' 
argentum, -i, N., ! 

silrer. [Ar},-iitinf] | 

anes, -etis, M. , mm, Imtterhuj-rum. \ 
arma, -orum, N. pi., umis (3l>, «). 
armatus, -a, -um (p. p. p. of armo 
i.!.eii as HI!), adj., uTmiil, i„ 
arin/i. 



armo. 



aro. 



•are. -avi. -atum. v. ii., 

r,„\. 

■are, -avi. -atum, \. ir, 

ploio/l,. [.Vral.lrJ 
ars, artis, F., [,ni\. 
arx, arcis, K., riuolel. 
I Ascanius, -i, .M., 

I Ayrtiiiiiix, xon of Ariieirt. 

j Asia, ae, V., A^i,i. 
I asper, -era, -erum, arlj., 
I /■"".//,. [Asp,.,it_v| 

aspicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum, 

V. tr-., h,l,ol,l. [AsptulJ 
ater, atra, atrum, ailj, /,/,(,/!■, ,A/,-i-. 
Atlienae, -arum, F. jd., Ailin,:<. 
Athenienses, -ium, M pi 

Al/„,n„„.s. ■' 

atque. conj., aiifl (atque is used 

I liofoi-e voHi-lsaridi-iirisonanls) 

j ac l)ff(ire cnii.sanants Drdv : 

tim Sfr,,nd H,„d c(iiiiieit'i-il 

is the inoiv iin|»)]taiit : filius 

atque pater, lite «,.„, „„,; 

r-'^jjeei,,//!, the f„(l,er. 

atrox (gen. atrocis), adj., 

./iV/w, rriiel. (.\tlc,(,i„u.s] 

j Attica, ae, I"., 

I A/lini, II illilriel of driiri. 

\ auctoritas. -atis, P., 

iii.ll III lire. [Aulliinilyl 

auctumnus, -i, .\I.. \niii.nvi.-\. 
audacia.-ae, F., Iioiilm.is. 

I Aiidacitv] 
audacter. adv., ho/,//,/ ■ 

(<iiiM|,. audicius'; sup. auda- 

cissime). 
audax (ui-n. audacis), a.ij , 

hilil, iliirin,,: (, ,,„ip. audacior ■ 

.Slip, audacissimus). ' 

audeo. -ere,ausussum,K(iMi di p., 

dure, i-eiiliire (l:j.'., r,}. 
audio, -ire, ivi, -itum. v. t, 

'leiir. lAudildo] 
au fero, ferre, abs tuli, ab latum, 

V. tr., tii/.'e airiii/ (214, ;{). 



300 



VOCAimi.ARY 



au fugio, -ere. -fugfi, -fugitum. 

V. jr>l r-., //" iiii\tii. 

augeo, ere, auxi, auctujn, \ . i > . . 

'nl'ttiis' , I .\ll;.'nicill ) 

aureus, -a, -um, ailj., tji.lilen. 
auriga, -ae, M., rkariitttfr. 
aurum, -i, N. , ijuhl. 

[<Jre, AuiifiMiius] 
Auster, -tri, -M., s„itih Wind. 

[Auslr;ll, All>triili;ll 
aut,i'iinj.,>;/vaut.. axA-'ithrr. ..»/. 
autem, i^ow]. (TR-x-i-r first wixil in a 

sciitence), Init, viovtorff, fioir. 

er- r. 
auxilium. -i, X., Iirl/i, iiiil : 
pi. , auxilia, [niij-iliarii':<\{^'2, ."•). 
avaritia, -ae, F. , [avnrke}. 
Aventinus, i, M., 

Avvntiue, a h'dl of litntH-. 
avidus, -a, -um, mlj., fmnl ../' 

(with g™. M). [Aviiliiyl 
avis, -is, F. , liinl. [Aviar-y] 
aVUS, -i, M.. {iriinilfather. 

B 

barbarus,-i, M. [hn rbnriait], mt'nijf, 
beatus, -a, -um, adj., Iiii/ijiii, lili«t, 
Belgae, arum, M. pi., 

lii-lijaf, a Otillif tr'the. 
beMicosus, -a, -um. adj.. 

irarUkf. [Ht'llifo.-.(^ ] 
bello. -are, -avi, -atum. v. iiitr. . 

(/•(f;/c ii'ttr. 

bellum, -i. N., mir : 

belli, in ./■.,,■ (IIS); 

bellum gero, ini'ir, mrnl nil 

tfiif. [Hfliigcrrnt I 
bene, adv., mil (eonip. melius; 

sup. optime). [Hi'iii'dictiiin, 

Hciu'tit't'iitJ 
benignus, -a, -um, ailj , kind. 

[Ii,-Mign] 

bibo, -ere, bibi, \. ti., drink. 

[Iinl.i!..-] I 



biduum, -i. M . m-n dni/.^' .«y«ii-c. 
bini, -ae. -a. distrid. niiiti.. 

tiro ttpiifi . 
bis. adv. nilin., hrirr. 
blandior. -iri, -itus. v. ihi).,j{allfr. 

[Hlaiidl 
bonus, -a, um, ad j . 

iiiiod (comp. melior ; sup. 

optimus) ('.II, :i). 
bos, bovis. M. or K.. ox^ cow; 

pi. nil/l,- (duel. tlT). [l;.iviiic, 

l!..vtilj 
brevi, (sc. tempore), as adv., 

('/( a uliort tiiiii', .iliorlli/. 
brevis, -e, adj., k/ioi-i, hriff. 

[lirin-ityl 
Britanni, -orum, M., pi., liniona. 
Britannia, -ae, F., llrikiiu. 
Britannicus, -a, -um, adj. , Britinh • 
bellum Britannicum, 

war in Hriiain. 
Briitus, -i, M., Bridu.t. 



cado, -ere, cecidi, casum, v. iutr., 

foil. [Cadciici.J 

caecus. a, -um, adj., Ii.'ind. 
caedes, -is, F. , Klmnjlihr. 
Caelius, -a, -um. adj. (mons), 

Cficlian {hill of Rome). 
caelum, -I, N., henren, nki/. 

[Celestial] 
Caesar, aris, M., Cae.iin: 
Caius. -i, M., 

Citinn, n lioinan praenoriii'n 

(si'f nomen). 
calcar, -aris, N. , spnr. 
campester, -tris, -tre, adj., lerel. 
campus, -i, M., jilain, ilild. 
Campus Martius, (gen. Campi 

Martii), M., 

Viimpiit Mortinn, plain of 

Morn. 

Canada, -ae. 1'., Caunda. 



VOCAIiULAIiY 



canis, -is, M.,„.F..,/„,,, fc.,„j„„| 
Cannae, arum, K pi., c,,,,,,.,. 
Cannensis, -e, iulj.. ::f„i-/„/„ii,ii,„i 
''; (-'"""''■■ pugna Cannensis, 

canto, -are, avi, -atum, v. i„i,- 

"•".'/■ [Chiuit, CantiilcsJ ' 
cantus, -us, -M., ,«o«y, .,;,y,„,,, 
capio, -ere, cepi, captum v. t. 

Iilkf, I,,',,, r,,/,!,;-, : 

consilium capio, ./„,■„, „ ;,/,„, 

Capjt61inus,-a,um.,„lj.(s,.nions), 

tif tainluliiic [hilt „r ll,j,„y) 
Capitolium, -i, N., the 'cipitul. i 
captivus, -I, M,, rit/iii,v. I 

caput, -itis, N., hf,i,/, capitul \ 

care, ailv., ,/,,„•/,/. I 

carmen, -inis, N., mmj, ,,o-ni. 
caro, carnis, F..jlc^h, ,i,r„i. j 

carpo, -ere, carpsi, carptum ' 

carus. -a -um, ,/.,„-, vfo,.^,/. 

[CluintyJ 
Cassius, -i, .\i., <;■„.«,■„.,. I 

castigo, -are, avi, -atum, v. i, 

chii.-,hse. rCasiigateJ 
castra, -drum, iV. i,l.,<-am,i (;«). 
causa, -ae, F., «.„«(,„ r™,,.,,.) ■ 
qua de causa, 
fur ii-hal reasdii, irlii/ ■ 
causS (hI)1. „f causa, with ^a.„ ) 
/"'■'li<!i'ibo/,/.)itl,e/,i,rpu..„u/'. 
cijte [i iiitiouuli/]. 
cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum, v. int, 

!/u, wllhilraii; i/ii/,1. 
celebro, ire, -avi, -itum, v. tr 
[crirhrnte]. 

(SL, .)), Wnuy,. celerior: sui,. 
celemmus). 

celeritas,-atis, 1.'., .,,,^.1, sxnihi,., 
[Lelerit}] 

celeriteradv,. ,„;,./■/,,, ,,,„„ | 

celerius ; sup. celerrime). 
CelUe, arum, .M., Oii,i,,(yi. 



301 



cena, -ae, F , ,//„„, ,., ,,„^,,,„. 

ceno, -are, avi, atum, v. Inii 
'/'III . 



centesimus, a. um. a,lj,, „nl 

"lirii. , hiiiiilnilth. 
centum, ,a,,l. ,„„„., i,„„,i„d. 

|( ''lit, ( intuiv) 
centurio, onis. M. 

['■i»ti,ri„i, I, „n oj/inr r„m niiind. 
tiK.I '« 'VH^„v/. iirhjinalhi a 
I hniii/mt men. 

I Ceres, -eris. F., 

CV/vs, ,/,„/,/,,,., ^,- ,, 

[i-,i.T(>a,] 
certamen. -inis, N., ..tm.iijte. 
certior factus. 

hdriiii/hren iiift}ri'ud{\'-'' 4) 
certus,-a,_um,.a,l.j:,f,.,.rt„;„],7„,.,; 

n ?' /"" • '' "'•''"'■"' ■""" 

Cicero, -onis, M., Cken,. 

circiter, adv., ar»ipn.p. will, ace, 
iiiiuiit, roiiiiil iihout. 

I circum, pr..p. with ace, „„„„,/ 

! circum do, -dare, -dedl, datum 

^■- tr. , mrroniKl. 
j Circum sto, -stare, -steti, „« .sun 
I V. tr., snrr:, 1(11,1. '' 

I circum venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 
I V. tr.,K„,.,.^„„,/ [Circ,iiiivL-iil| 
: circus, -i, ,M. [eireu.], ,;, ,,,„,„, 

citenor -US conip. „e„,.,.,._ /„■,;,„.. 
Ijallia Citenor, </i,i,i ^i the 
nearer ( Hmian ) mle „f the 
ji>v «.i oi,,,„sed lu Gallia 
Ulterior, Z-,,,-,/,,,.©,,,,/,,,,:"* 
"Iher .-,„,,. uf the Alj,.. 

citius. a(h-., omp. of cito, 
mure i/iilriilj/. 

cito, adv., ijuiei/i/. 

citra. prep. vUh :uc., Ihh ,ide of. 

civihs, -e, adj., [,.,',.,7j, 

civis, -is, M.. eithni. 

civitas, -atis. F , .>.-,,/,. 
clades, -is, v., defeat, disn.,lfr. 



•1 i 



302 



VOCABULARY 



clam, luK'., serrethi. 

clamito, -are, -avi, -atum. v. int'.. 

slmitt ofli'H. 
clanid, -are, -avi, -atum. v. imr. . 

clamor, -oris, M., .•'Imiil, \rliiinm\. 

clarus, -a, -um, mlj., 

hrh/ht, dUthtijlli^hfil. [( 'Icju', 

Clarify] 
classis, -is, F.,jleft. 
claudo, -ere, clausi, clausum, 

V. tr. [<■/„.<. I, xliiiL 

clausus, a, um, 

p.p.p. \\<in\ a-* iiTi ailj., .-//J//, 

[du.,,1]. 
Clemens, (gin. clementisi. ailj.. 

iiiitdf itifirifid. 
coepi, -isse, coeptus, v. dif , 

hiire h,jili,, hnjilli Cil'J, -2). 

cogo, -ere, cjegi, coactBm, v. tr-., 

flriee tuijftlur, fidln-t, j'mxi', 
cogito, -are, -avi, -atum, v.. 

f'flifl, tliiiik. 
cognomen, -inis, ^.,fniiiilii immr, 

(see nomeni. 
c5gn5scd, -ere, cognovi, cog- 

nitum, V. ti"., trant, a.vrtniti. 

[Hecoguizt'] 
cohibed, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n. 

r/itck, restrain. 
cohors, -hortis, F. , mliori {tin: tniili 

/'(U-t of a tfijlaii ami rontahtinij 

helmiii .':()() and UUO nun). 
collis, -is, M., hill. 
colloco, -are, -avi, -atum, v. ti-., 

utttlion, p/nrf. 
colloquium, -i, N., ronrfi-.-^aflon. 

|(_:nll()(iuy] 
col loquor, -i, -locutus, v. il< p., 

cnnffrsf. 
colo, -ere. colui, cultum, \. ti. . 

nHn.<hii). t Cull I 
comes, -itis, M. or F., conipunion. 
commeatus, -us, M., («//i/</iV.i. 
commiinis, -e, mlj., 

common, piiolir, ijcnt'ritL 



commutatio, onis, F.. flmmir 

|CoMI>lllll.llio|l| 

comparb, are. -avi, -atum, \. 

,'„//,,■/, ji,;„nr: . 

comperio, -ire, -peri, -pertum, 

V. tr., find unf, nsftrtnin. 
com pleo, -ere, -plevi. -pletum, 

V. \v.,fll. [Coi.ipl.'tiiiril 
comporto, -are, -avi, atum, v . t 

lirin:j in, cnlUvl. 
com prehendo, -ere. -di, -sum, 

V. tr., 8ii\i\ |C(Mnpr<-li<'ri(l| 
comprobo. -are, avi. atum, \. ii. 

"/'/''■'"■'■• 
concilium, -i, N'. , \i'unnril\. 
I con damo, are, -avi. -atum, 

V. iiitr'., >^huta tu'i^th' f. 
con curro. -ere, -curri. cursum, 

V. intr., ritt^h to'j'tli'i: f»'fiii/e. 
j concursus. -iis, M., i'hiir>i< .itMAnntt. 
' con demno. -are, -avi. -atum, v. tr., 

[,:,n,hn,„\. 

j conditor, -oris, ^../immli-r. 

' con do, -ere, didi. ditum. v. tr., 

Jitnnil. 
1 con diico, ere, diixi, -ductum, 
! V. tr. , firliiij titiffifiir : lakf it 

riintriirt (18^, !lj. 
con fero, -ferre, -tuli. coUatum, 
\. tr.. hrinij tinffltfr. |Ct>ii- 
ffn'iicc] 
confestim, ailv., imniiilitili-lii. 
couficio, -ere feci, fectum.v. ti., 
iirronll>ti.di, finiiih : 
bellum conficio. md <• nun-. 
con fido, -ere, -fisus, srnii-ilip., 
trnM (with ilat. <ii' alil. I7<i, 1)1- 
[C(inliili') 
con firmo. -are, -avi, -atum, v. ir. . 
t'ftfahli.i/i, tnf'ullriKfr, aHAilf 
ICiilirni] 
con gredior, -gredi, gressus. 
V. <lf'|). , ;/(' loiffthtr, ntfft. 
pn<j(iijf. [Collglt'ssiJ 

conjicio. ere, -jeci, -jectum. 

V. tr. , hurl. 



VOCABULARY 



303 



corijungo, ere. junxi, junctum. 

v. tr.. ;.>;„ I,„i,-lli,r : 
me tibi conjungo, I juin y„ii. 
[•■•Hijiiii,ti(in| 
conjunx, conjugis. M. ,m- K 

'"'-'"'"'' '"■ "■!/;. ICcinj.ij^iiii 
conjurati, orum, M. p]., 

conjurati", -onis. I'.. ,„ii.ii.ii;„;j. 
conjuratus, -I, M., .■.,«.,/„■,■„/,„■. 
Conor, ari, conatus, \. ilip . 
''','/, (iltem/it. 

conscendo. -ere, di, -sum, v, tr., 

rliinh, r/ii/ili vpoit ; 
navem conscendo, 

go oil bnard xhiji. 
con sido, -ere, sedl, -sessum, 

V. intf. , ''nriinip. 

conscrlbo, ere.scrlpsi, scriptum 

V ll-., -///•„/. lC,,ii>,.,i|,, I 

consilium, -i. X , ///.,;,, /,/,,i,„,„ 
consilium capio, m ineo. 

Ihrm ,1 /,/„„, |(',,||||^,,||. 

con sisto, -ere. constiti. no sin, 
V. iriti'., i-ow l.,a-.lni,il, ,,,! ., 
,/oufinif. 

conspectus, us. .\I., .s,;//,/, ,„„.. 
conspicio, -ere. spexi. -spectum. 

v.^ ti-., oli.^en-,', hihnlil. 
[C'liispiciioiis] 
conspicor. -ari. -atus, y. ,l,.p., 

nf>.<firrf, iKili,-,'^ sfi-. 

constantia. -ae, F. , 

.riiiiii-^x ,,/ jiiirimie. 
ICuM.sliLMoy] 
Constantmus, -i, M.. Ci,ii.-<iiiiiiii„. 
constat, are. constitit. v. impiiN \ 
ii i.i iif/„ilii,,/ cjit, ;!. .(): 
inter omnes constat. 

/■< inailiiiilhil hi/ ll//, ml ,1,1 mil, 

con stituo, ere. stitui. -stitiitum. 

V. ti-,, ri.iiili;. ,1,1, , mil,, . I„ill,l- 

naves constituo, iii,„,r .~l,,i..^. 

consuesco. ere, -suevi, -suetum. 

V. ihli.. I>,;'mil,„i- ,]i',,ir ,i,'f,is. 
loin,, I : 

consuevi. / ,im ,ir,-ii.s/„„„,/ 
(-"-ti, S). 



consul, ulis, .M., oomhA 
consiimo. ere. sumpsi. sumptum, 

V. ll.. .-/.f,,,/, |('i)lilsuilic] 

consuetude, inis. F. , n,.<i,j„i. 
consulatus, -us, .M , r„ii«,jUii,. 
consurgo, ere, surrexi, sur- 
rectum, v. intr-., 
ri.s, n„j.il„-i-, ,-,.„ . 
contendo, ere, -dl. -turn. v. intr., 
i„,ii;-li. x,t ,,iit, Hliii'f 
(<'"iit,.ii(!] 
c.->ntentus. a. um, ailj., 

roi,l,iit,,twill, (with illil, 94, 5). 

continens. -entis (p.c.^. p. ,,^,1 as 

■in ail j. Hiili terra iiiiclcrstDoil, 

I il't n,iiii„,„„i„ ;„„,/j [,.„„(,'„f „(j 

ii,,iiiil,tnd. 

continenter, adv., [eoiianmiiHlii]. 

con tineo. -ere, i, -tentum, v. 'tr. , 

//.//'/ lo,i,(/m; holil. 
contra. _p,vp. „i,i, ,„.,.. ,„,„;„,,(. 
contra quam exspectavi, 

,;„,lrii,il /,, mil ,j-,,,;l,lli„ii. 

con voco, -are, avi, atum, v. tr 

,;ill t,„jelli,r_ „„,,,. mhlr. 

(•'"iivocatioiij 
I oopia. ae. F. 



- , . . - . /'''"'.'/. frrlilitii : 
pi copiae, furc.i. /roo/in (32, ."i). 
[( "npiou..*] 
Corinthus, i, v., Crliii/i. 
cornu. -lis, N , 

/,,,, II, ii-iiiij {„/ „n inmi). 
corona, ae, V.,vi;mii. [Cun'.iiatiou] 
corpus, -oris, N.. I,ml,i. 

(I'lnp.s,.. ('iir|Kiriilj' 
corrumpo. ere. riipi, -ruptum 

V. tr., \,;.i;h,,i\. 
eras, a.iv., t,imuri;,w, 
Crassus, i, .\I., r>(/,<.,«.,, 
creber. -bra, -brum, inlj., 

ffqili'iil, iiiiiiieniii.-, (fonip. 

crebrior: sup. creberrimus). 

credo, ere. -credidi. creditum, 

V. iiitr. /W;,.,v,/,H,«Mi7(>,:!.4l. 

creo. -are. -avi, -atum, > tr., 

"'«'-'■■ ''"■■' rr'itMtc] 

criideliter. ,iiU., ,riii-l/i, {,-,„„,, 
crudelius: sup. crudelissime)! 



I u 



304 



VOCABULARY 



culpa, -ae, K„ j^iull, i/nill. 

|(;iiI|mI)1i] 
culpo, are, -avi, -aturn, v. u.. 

hftlnir, Jind fiDlIt wit/t. 



de cedo, -ere. -cessi. cessum 

V. iritr.. ijitfitrtiy, t/f'/iiti-f. 
decern, mlj. rani. iiiiin., leu. 
IDiiiiiial) 



cum. |iii|>. with, ilil. .»■;//< |7li,.'i.r,)- i decerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretum, 

wr-ittfti as a sutlix uilli [mm-- y (,. ^ n^nln \<ltrrrt\ rJ4n ") 

son.il ami relative pl-cuiinins 1 , . « „ i 

,,..« ,.,,,. ^, ' I decimus, -a. -um. '>r<l. num. auj., 

cum, i-oilj., whrll (2(11, II; micv, ._, .. ,. 

hr.uL, i„„.m,„-l, „.. (iVJ, :!) : dedecus,.oru.N... /,..;,-■ 

fllliitiiijh, irhfrmx (•_'.")'). Noti-) i de diico, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, 

Wi.//.- /'■,'/■ (263, 8) : ' \. IV., •«rurl. 

cum primum. ««.«'<"« (M (259, 4); i deditio, -onis, V., Kiirninln: 

cum jam. ,i-h,n now. I ^^^5 ,^^^ ^^^^^ deditum, v. tr., 

cunctor, -ari, -atus, v. di'p., | ijii;- up. surmnlrr : 

ininr.hi'Mliili'.kiij. \ me Aedo. / fui-ri'iitlpi. 

cupidus. -a, -um, ailj., ./cdiroiM 0/ I defendo. ere, -di, -sum, v. ir.. 



(with gi'ii. !l.S, 4). 
cur, intcMT. adv., vhij? 
Cures, -ium, F. pi., 

Curc^, a. Iittrn tirar Rwne. 
curia, -ae, F., senat* -house. 
O'riatii. -orum, -M. jil. , 

Ihf Ci'rinfii 
euro, -are. -avi, -atum, v. It., 

mrr (IS7, !l). 
currus, -iis. M., clmriol. 
cursus, -us, M. , riirt% rnrhni. 

[("(misi'l 

custodia. -ae, F., qnani, irafeft. 

[(.•uslcidyl 
custos, -odis, M., ijiKird. 
custodio, -ire, -ivi. -itum, v. tr. , 

tJIUll'il. 



de fero, ferre, -tuli, latum, v. tr., 
atrri/ it'itr}), <>Jfi>)\ rmifir. 

de ficio, ere. -feci, -fectum, \ . iiilr .. 

/nil, full niriui, rrr.,ll. [\Ma- 

tioii] 
de fungor. -fungi, -functus, 

V. <lfp.. iwrl'ni'i'f, /iiii-'h (witli 

ahl. \:iti, .S|.' 
deinde, ach-., ttflirmtnlt, ii'-j-t. 
de jicio, -ere, -jeci, -jectum. v. tr , 

''flsl i/oini, throir thnnt. [l)c- 

j*.'cti<ni] 
delecto, -are, -avi, -atum. v. 1 1 . 

itrHij/tl, jt/iO.^f. 

deleo, -ere, delevi. deletum, v. tr., 

de.-'troi/. 
Delphi, -drum, M., ]il , Jhlphi. 
de migro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr. , 

ih'futrt, titon: 

de monstro, -ate, -avi, -atum, 

\". tr. , .-ihow, [th',itt'niMralt\ 



de, pn'p. with ahl., 

nhoiil, ruiirirniiiri (.i2, .')) ; 

front, tliiwii front ; i- ,1 ■ / r y 1 

de tertia vigilia, tthotil th. ilttrtl densus, -a. -um, a.lj. , ihtfk [,/,;,»■], 

tfalflt,jti.iiii/ifrlltt/ltiitltf„trlt de pello, -ere, -puli. -pulsum, 

ifti.t .tt'i. V. tr. , tirife uitutii, wttrtl itjt'. 

dea, -ae. F. (dal. and ahl., pi. depend, -ere. -posui. -positum, 

deabus, 12, 4), i/wW".--. v. tr.. Ittji tlotDn[tlrjtoti'tl]. 

debeo, ere, -ui. itum, v., de populor. -ari. -atus, v dip., 

.„,-._ „ti,,ht CJ-.M. 7). tUfti.-^lttlf. [Di.pupulali] 



VOCAIilLARv 



de posco, ere, -poposci. w, si.i, 

V. tr., iliHwii,/. 
deiero. -ere. -serui, sertum. v. ii 

|'/<-.-.yV|, Iriiiv. 
de scribo, -ere. -scrips!, -scriptum. 

V. tr., ,„•,/> i„it. ,/iri,lf. 

de silio.-ire.-silul. sultum. v i.n, 
/iii/i il.iini. 

desisto, -ere, desUti, destitum, 

V. lull-,. r,.„.,<. /•,■„,„ ,.,,„,, 
['/••Slnl]. 

desperat'i. ■on:',. K. [./.'.y/,,;,] 
de spero.-are, avi.-atum[./f.«y,,f;,]. 
desum. -esse, fui, v. int.-., 

•11,1 in,i,l,iiii. lark («jtl'i ,lai 

2((S. 7, S). 

de terreo. -ere. -ui. -itum, v. ti. 

Jrnihtfn/rom, ['liter]. 
deus. -I, M., ,ju,l. [Di.jst] 
dexter, -tra, -trum, .nlj , 

[liuxtcnty) 
dico. ere, dixi, dictum, y. t,- 

•VmiX-. ii'tl. [Didiiiiil 
dictator, -oris, .\1. [ilirint,,,-]. 
dies diel, .\I. (or K. ii. si,,,,.). 

-M. m pi.. »;</// (101). 

differo, -ferre, dis.tuli, di latum 

V. tr., inii i,ff. j 

difficilis, e, adj. [,liffir«/i]. 
difficultas, -a- s, P. [,inn,-,ili,i]. \ 
dif fido) -ere, -flsus, v. .semi .l..i> I 
<li^tni«t (with ,lat. I7(i 41 : 
fDiffi.h'iitl ' 

dig:nilas, -atis, K., u-orth. rank; i 
I'/i'jiiifi/]. I 

dignus, -a, -um, adj., „■,„■«,/ of \ 
(Willi alil. !I4, .-)). 

dUigens (gen. diligentis). adj. 

[liilninil], ' 

diligentia. ae, F., ra,y[,/,7,>,„,.,.]. 
dimico, -are, -avi, -atum. v. i„t, I 

dimitto. ere. misi. missum 



Mr> 



diriiio, ere. -ripui. reptum, 

^ . I r-. . j.hmil.r. 
discedo. ere. -cessi. cessum, 

>• llllr., ;/„ iiii;iii^ ill imrl. 

discessus. us. .\1 , ilrpnrin,;., 
dis pliceo. -ere. -plicui. plicitum. 

111). 4). 
dissimilis. e. adj., „„«■, („.ith 

'1^"- !«.••!). |l)i,s«i,„ilar| 
distraho. ere, -traxi, tractum, 

V. lr„ .ii/iarnti; ilji-iih 

IDiatraclj 
diu. adv., /„„;,(,,,•„■„,„). ,,,,„, 

diutius; sup. diutissime) 
dives (-,n. divitis), .idj., rirh ■ 

(e.pirip. divitior; sup.' divi- 
tissimusi 

divide, -ere, divisi, divisum. v tr 

^niiinit..[,i;n,I.Y 

divisus. -a -um (p. p, „f divide, 

iise.l ,.s an), ,adj., [,/,-,./,/,,/| 

I '""''(.^i'.i)""'"' •■■ ■''• '■'■'•'"''' 

i do. dare, dedi. datum, v. tr ,,i,;. ■ 

in fugam do./,»r tnjUijIii. ' ' 

doceo, -ere. docui, doctum v tr 

'""■/'. [llocMe] ■ " 

doctus, a. -um. a.Ij., /,„„„.,/ 
dolor, -oris, M., ,,,,-,,■. „„.„ 
[Iloloriius] 

dolus, -i. .M. , n;,f/, iinil,., ihri;,non. 
domi, 1,1 1,,,,,,,. (iiv)_ r, . iij. .,j 
dominus. -i, .\I„ li„;l' ,„„,i,',; ' 
iomo,fru„i liimie {\i\a, r^ ; j |(i, 4) 
domos. Iii,i„i-, lii„i,i„;,r,ls\{\tm,r,). 
domum. Iii„„p, Ao,,,, „■,,,,,/, r ». -. ! 
11(1.4). ' ■•'• 

domus -Ds. K, /,„„,,,,. ||,„ ., 

Illnllle.sticJ ''■ 

donee. f„nj., „., /„„,, „.,, (.j-,, ,. 

""/'/(■.Mf), 7). ' '• 

donum, -i, .\1 , ,„7>. f„„„aiio„] 
dormio. -ire. ivi. -itum, - i.,ir 
•<"'/'• |li"iiiiii.,i_\ I ' 



3oe 



VOCARULAR> 



dubititio, -onis, K., hfntnl'mii. 
dubito, are, avi. -atum. v. jutr., 

I :h,i,hi\. lifMitiilr (247, li ; '.MS, 7). 
dubium, i, N. [tloiM]. 
ducentesimus, -a. -um. onl. num. 

jiiij., fwi} hmiilfftlth. 
ducenti. ae, -a, canl. luiiii. mlj., 

duco. -ere. duxi, ductum, v. tr . 

h,i,l. [Duct] 
dulcis, e, adj., nofft. 
dum, fonj. , whih {'259, .■>) ; tmttl 

{•im, 1) ; (M lowj iiK (2.'i!l. 6) ; 

pronthil, if onli/ (iVi, 7). 
Dumnorix, -igis, M., 

nnmiturijr, a (ralfic vhirf. 
duo, duae, duo, canl iiuiu. adj., 

/icr. (KM), .-)). [Dual, Dui-t) 
duodecim, can], num. adj., 

duodecimus. -a, um, mil. uuiii. 

adj., twflt'th. 
dux, dut ;3. M., feadfr, ijititU. 

[Duk . 



e, Kt-e ex. 

edico, -ere, -dixi, -dictum, v. tr.. 

anlfr, ijifc itiMruftionx. [Kdift] 
e duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, v. tr. , 

had out, hadfttrth. 
ef fero, -ferre, -ex tuli, e latum, 

V. tf., rari-y out, run-t/ of. 

[Elated] 
ef ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, v. tr., 

hrii'tf to inistt, t-ani*e, cjt'ect 
,-244, I). 
ef fugio, -ere, -fiigi, fugitum, v., 

fxfapi'. 

ego, 1(137, 1). 

e gredior, -gredi, -gressus, 

V. dep. , tjo out of, i.i,-<Hf, Ifaife, 

[Egruss] 
egregie, ailv., 

r.diiiirahfif, ejrclleuth/, 
egregiiis, a, -iim, ailj., i:rreiynl- 



egressus, us, M., 

iaiitiini/-pfttrf, fnndintj. 
cjicio. -ere, -jeci, -jectum, v. ir., 

t/iroinout. [ Eject 1 
eloquentia, ae. P., [floiiiieiin']. 
e migro, -are, -avi, -"^'jm, v. imr., 

d'-/nirt front. [Kniiu'rant ) 
enim, eonj., j'lr (not placed first, 

liut generally ;>fter the tirst 

emphatic wonl in a sentence). 
EnniuE. i, M., 

Eniiitiit, a Roman poet. 
eo, ire, ii (ivi), itum, v. inti-., 70 

(•il7, I,'-'). 
eo, adv., 'hithiT. 

epistola, -ae, E., Ii-tler. [Epistle] 
eques. itis, M., eamlrj/ mtiliir. 
equester, tris, -tre, adj., 

of or Ite/oni/iwj to ffn'olrt/ : 
proelium equestre, u niralry 

lialflf. [Eiiuestrian] 
equitatus, -iis, M., mm/rii (col- 
lective noun), 
equites. um, M. 'pi. <if eques), 

nirtt/rtf. 
equus, -i, M., fiot-Mt^. [Equine] 
Eretria. -ae, E , Erptnn. 
ergo, eonj., tUrrefore, vherefore. 
erro, are, -avi, -atum. v. intr., 

vutkf- (I miKtiikf, [f/'r]. 
erudio, -ire, -ivi, itum. v. tr., 

Iirimj up, hl.-*truH. [ICruditidu] 
Esquilinus, -a, -um, adj.. (mons), 

the K--^(pii/ine (liill of Home). 
esseda, -ae, V.yvar rhanot. 
et, cnnj., aud: et. . .et, ffotlt . . .and, 
etiam, adv., iren. 
etiam si, eonj., even '/(2.M, .'5). 
etsi, eonj. , nlthowjh : even j/(25/>, ,'>). 
Etriiria, -ae, F., 

Etruria, a ilintriet of Italy 

{now TuHcanij). 
Etnisci, -orum, M. , i)l., 

the Etru.^ean.". 
Europa, -ae, E., Kneope. 



ex, prep. withaM. (I;», I), 

frtuii, out >,/'. 

excedo ere, -cessi, .ce,sum, 

'""'■''■'■"■'"■•/.'/■/.ir,/, , 



Vo<Ai ri.Auy 

I 



.107 



ex clamo. -ire. ivi, itum 

>•■ mtr,, „/,„iil „„/. [.j:rl;;,i,\ 
"~v 're, -ii. (-ivi,, itum, 

1. iiiir... 70 ,.//N,^, /,„,.,. c'l.s :(, 
exercitus, -us, M., „,„,,/. 
exiguus, -a,. um.a.lj.,, „,„//. 
extliutn, -i, \., [,.,■;/, 1 

.xistinro.-are,-a.i,-itu™.v.i„„... 

ex orior, -in, -ortus. v . ,lei, 

ex peUo, -ere, -pulr, .pukum, 

'■"■■■''"'•'• "'".'■"".V^[...r,„/J 
experior, -in, -pertus, v. ,k.„ 

Iry, „Hem,,t. ( ^:^,,t.,■i,,K.e'l 
explorator, -oris, .\I »,■„,„ 
exploro -are, -avi, -atum.v „ 

[pj-p/iii;]. 

expono -ere, -posui, -positum, 

ex puKio, -are, -avi, -atum, V. „ 

iiitc hji s/onn. 

ex traho ere, -traxi, -tractum. 

'■ "■• '''■«"• "III. [Ivvtla.tl 

extremus, -a, -um, a.lj. („,,,, „f 



faber fabri, .\l., „.„,x.,„„„. 

IrabiU'J 
fabula, -ae, K, slor,,. [Kal.k] 

facile, a,Iv.,.„.s,7v ■,„„„,,, facilius- 
«'l). facillime, ft;, J) ™""'^' 

''"""fa:.-.-^' ■■"'•'■■ "'""■■ ("-'"P 

facilior:»„,,.facillimus,!)n-'V 

(fairlitvl '-'• 

'acinus, -oris, N.,,™*,ij„,<,. 



, facia -ere, feci, factum, v ,,■ 

"", mill; '* 

'* ''"'rn"" '"'"■ ' ''■'■'■'■'" ■'""' 
ex quo factum est 

'/..•-■..,„/,,,„/„,„,,„|.,^ I 

factum, -i, N..,/„,/, p.,, 
facultas, -atis. K, 

'•t'l"»liiiiihl. ii'hilihi. 
fagUS, -i. ?.,l„.,rl,-lr,', 
fallo, ere, fefelli. falsum. v „■ 

''"■•"■■'. (Kail, |--,,|.„.( 
fas, hi.lcvl, X., ,,y„ ,11. ,, „|, 
faveo, -ere. favi. fautum. v. „„, ' 
feliciter, iulv.. ,««,-,., ,,.i„/ , 

feliciusjiu,,. felicissim'e'i'.'"'' 

fera, -ae, K, ,rii,n,,„.~i 

_'"<«• l'-"'|, ■,.„ CJi;),. 

I '"0* (?-'<•"• ferocisi a.ii 

''"■'■""'."•■■'■*.>;■,.,. 
[Ktikioiis] 
j ferrum, -i, X., 

I '^=7° et 'Sni, in>/, /,v. „„;/ „,/ 

(ri-ri<iusj 

I fessus, -a, -um, a.lj,, ,r.,„;,.,l 

\ '*'""°;,;f^' ■«»'. -atum, V, i„i,-., 

[ndflitvj 
''''°^„r ;"'"'• ^-^ -■■"-'1-P- 

filia -ae. F, (,lat. ,u„| ;,i,l „1 

ni'us, -i, .\i.,,,„„(j4 4, 

finis, -is, M. ,„■ p_ ,„,, . 
I«l- M, fmes, -ium. 

'""■dei-.i, lenilurii (Oi'|. 



T" 



308 



VDCAIIII.AIIY 



finitimus. a. um. ailj..//' nil,l„,iiiiti. 

finitiinus. i. M . «.iy./.../. 

fio. fieri, factiis sum. v. m 

(p.t". t.t facio, "Jl.li. <(»* iiiinl' , 

firmus, a, -um, <//"«v. (,//>"/ 1 
flens l;:i'ii. flentisi I{hvv p. i.f fleo 
lHi-*I as ,111) ailj., iri'i/iimi. in 

'""■■'■ 
fled. ere. flevi. fletum. v. iuir . 

flos. floris. M I, /'""■■ ,|. 

fluctus. lis. M ./'"I.. |l''luiiii.iu| i 

flOmen. -inis, X.. rlr, r. 

foedus. -eris. N.. ir<',iiii. 

|Ki-i].i,iii,„i| 
fons. fontis. M., /'nini.ilji, .^j„iii'i. 
fore, sii.iii fniTii fill futurum esse. 

int. intiii. of sum. 
formido. inis. K. , /'. n,'. 

|K..niii.liil.iil 
forte, ail v.. 1:1/ ill, I no. I Kiiriiiiii.il -I 
fortiter. mlv. , hfini,/ (icnnip. 

fortius; snp. fortissimei. 
fortis, -e. iiilj.. /./'f', niliinit, iinhl,' 

(SL'). IKiMiifyl 
fortitijdo. -inis, !•' . f'nn-in/ 

t/„ri;i,„l,]. 

fortuna. -ae, F., /'ir/itin-. 

(Fortuna. ijodths.^ „/ rlut,,,-,- ■ 
fortiinae. arum. i>l., 

.'■"'■' ■-■■ /"-■-■■'■-i'i."-<. 

forum, i. S..fnriiiii. niarhi-iilan. 
fossa, ae. !•'. . in w-h : 

fossa valloque. "'i//' Irmili iiw/ 

r.,,„,.„rl. 
frango. -ere. fregi. fractum. v ti . 

I.r.al:. .-/,.(//.,■. | KiMitilrL-| 
frater. -tris. M., hrntlicr. 

[Kniti'iiial] 
fraus.fraudis. V . ^ih ripihnl fm iifl\ 
fretus. -a. -um, ailj., nliiiiK/ mi 

(witli alil. iM. •'.). 
frigus. -oris, N., i-i,/,l. frnxi. 

|Kiii;i<l] 



fructus. -iis, M. \fn,ii\ (!t1l). 

frijmentarius. a, um, ailj., 

..(■ ..,■ i„ ;,„„,:„,, i„ ,■„,■„: 
res frumentaria, m;" sn/iiili) 
ilii-j. ti). 

frumentor, -ari, frumentatus, 

\. ii.|i . ;..,,,;,,, ,1,1 ,/,•„,„. 
friimentum, i, .V , nini. iinihi : 

fruiiienta, |)1., </.v<i (:\-l). 
fruor, frui fructus, v. lUp,, 

iiijiiji (witli aiii. Kill. S) 
Fufetius. -i. /'"/'. (,„«, ,.|«„„ /■,„,,. 
fuga, ae. V..jl'i:ihi . 

m fugam do, /"/ I'l iinihi. 
fugax, (■.'III. fugacisi .\A\.,jl:,iini. 
fugio. ere, fugi. fugitum. v. mtr., 

!!■'. |Kii^ilivi-| 
fugo, are. avi, -atum. v. tr., 

I,.,l lujlhlhl. 

fulgur, -uris, X., li'jhinhui. 
funda. -ae, !■'. , ^Hihj. 

fundo. ere. fudi. fiisum. v. ti . 

l"'Hi\ nntf. 

fungor. fungi, functus, v. .lip., 
/■'/■/'■"■III. .//.-r/m/./f luilh all!., 
l:l<i, ,S). 

fiinis, -is, M., ci/"-, nthl. . 



Gabii, -orum, M., jil., 

tlitliii, II, tuli'lt II' at- ffnilif, 

Gallia, -ae, F., (.■mil. inrlmihiii ih 
liiiiil.^ Imrileriil hii llf /'.,. ihe 
.!'/«, till- AViiiif, //»- Oi-c.ii, .1)1./ 
//.'' .)ffitili' niiii'iiii ; 

Gallia Citerior. Ilillm- Gmi! 
I Siirlli.ni lliilji): 

Gallia Ulterior, t'lnllnr (laid 

(Finn.:). 

Gallus. -i. M.. II (7atil. 
gaudeo. -ere, gavlsus sum, 

V. si'iiii-ili'p.. njii'i.: (],'!.">, '•>), 
gaudium, -i. N , j.iii. 
gener, -eri, .M., lun-in-liin: 



VOCAIlUt.AKY 



Kens, gentis. r. 

I-""|. ^.'.•., „,„;„„. 
genus, -eris. \.. ,■,.-,, /■;„,/,.,,/ 
gero. ere. gessi, gestum, >. ,, 

•"'■'■'"" '':/■ i«M,i ,/„. 

Germani. drum, M. pi, |(/, ,,„„„,,, 
Germaniis, -a, -um. ;i,li, (<,•,, ,„„„|' 
gladiator, oris. .\1, (,//,„/„„,„,, 
gladius. -i, .\I., .„.„,:,/. [,,|,.^ 
gracilis, e, ,.,1] '.„,/,,..,,„„„, 

Graeci, drum. ,\l. ,,| (»,■,■.,/■.,' 
Graecia. ae. K (r/,-,.,,-, | 
Graecus, a, -um, ;i.ii. f/-..n 
gratulor. ari. atus. v ,i, ,, 

gratus. a. um. .nlj . 

}'l-;ix',i„l. i,,;-ri,l,ll,l. . 

gravis, e. .iilj,, /„„,.„ 
graviter, ,„ij.. , .,/,, 

*^'"'J,"-/*™ '■'"""•'"■' "' 

grex. gregis. .\| . ,,/,„ :. ., ,, , 
|i:rT.M,i,,iN| ■ " 

guberno are, -avi. atum. > ,, 

'■nl' \;lunn,\. 

H 

'^L;'J^^,X„;^- - '■■■ 

l..-.iit6 -are. -avi. -atum. v. ,, 
Hannibal, alis, M,, 

iht,nui,.,i, „ /■,;„,„„, ,.,„■,/,„ 

hasu, -ae, I'., ,,„,„,. | 

''^"Ir''' '"'"'^"'■'" •""'"'>•-■ >■ 
Hector, oris, .\l.. 



309 



heri, .i.iv., ,;,,,/„,/„,, 
h.bernus, a. -um, .„l| „.„„,.,, 
hiberna, drum, .\ ,,| if,,. 
hibernacastrai, »■;„,,, ,„„ 

"■'"'"■'/""-•'.,.(.■(•.', .-,,s,. '' 
hic, ,i.h.. /„,,, 

hie, haec, hoc, .l,„i „,,, ,, ' 

hie ille, //„■, ,/.„, ,/ , 

""/■■'■ ■(l-l:,,,,,, ' 

hiemo, are, avi, atum, v, „„,, 



'/-;. ;v., 



Ii:r,ivily] 



Helvetii, drum, .\l, pi 

//■ //■. /,/. „ (,;,;/;,. i,':i,^ 



I" 
hiems. hiemis. I' , 
hinc. ^mIv., /,,„,,. ,, 
hodie, .i.\\ , /,.,/,,,, 
homo, -inis, \l,, ,„,,„ | ii,,,,,!,^ 

honor, oris, M.. ]i, i , ^ ,, . 

m honore habeo, /,,,/,/ ;„/,'„'„„, 
hora, ae, I' . \l,u„,\. 
Horatii, orum, \l ,,i 

Horatius, i \l 

, \ I '■■'■"■ A .h: ,,„„, 

hortor. ari, atus, > ,l,p., 

I' ■■■'■■"■ "ly „V,';,,. 

nOrtUS, j, .\|.. ijii,;!,,, 

j hospes. itis, .\1,, ,,„, ,, 

|ll"-|'iluiity| ' 
j Hostilius, i. ,M., //,„,,7,„, 

:!;''"'*^-;'^'-^'-" iii.Kiii,.) 

■"""'■,,'"•■" i™ "f humus, -i r 
Ills. :ii. ■,„il„ ,i,.,.„,„, 

humilis. -e. M,lj.. /.,„. ,,,|, ., 

|HuMiiiit\| 

i . ' ■ 

ibi. ii.lv,. thfi; ■ 

ubi . ibi, /-■/„ ,-. , ,/„ ,,, 
ico. -ere, icj. ictum, v , i , ,,,,,/,,, . 
loedus ico, ./,//■, „ /,,,„,„ 

idem eadem, idem. ,1, ,„ „ii 

pr.,,.//,, ,„„„ ,u... .,-,■, ■ 'J- 
Idem qui. ,/„. „„„^ ' 

t'-ll>. '. ll.li.niityj 



i 



310 



VOCABULART 



idoneus. a, -um, ailj., fiiilahle, lit : 

(coriiji. magis idoneus ; sup. 

maxime idoneus, HI. 4 ; witli 

(lilt. 93, 3) : 
idoneus ad navigandum, 

Miiitfiftie fur sttiitini (18?. 
' Kx. A). 
Idus. uum, V. pi., 

1:1, ■: {/III- l.-.lh ,,/ Marrli, Mail, 

Jiih/, (Mdher: the l.ltli af nlliii- 

imnil}i,<). 
ignavia. ae, 1*"., mirimtke , xluili. 
ignis. -is(alil. -eor-i, (ii), .^I.,yl'/■<'.• 
ferr6et igni, irit/i Jlre unit KWitnl. 

[IgnitrJ 
ign6sc5, -ere, igndvi, ignotum, 

V. intr. . iKirdun, furtjire (witli 

(liil., ITt), 4). 
ille, ilia, illud, (le:ii, pro. (140, 3). 

Ilnll : 
ille. . .hie. tliilt. . .lliisjlirfuriiirr 

. . .till- latin-: 
ille Caesar, tlu- u-i-ll-l-mm-n ur 

ffiDtoHit Vin-n(ir. 
imbellis, -e, ailj., imirarrd-e. 
impar (gen. imparls), ailj., 

ittif-qual. 
impedimentum, -i, X.. hindriiin-i- 

[iinf>t(liiin-iit\ -. 
impedimenta, orum, pi., 

Oa,j-j-jj>- (32, -)). 
imperator,. oris, M., iji-m-rnl, 

[rmperor]. 
imperitus, -a, um, ailj , 

titial-illcil in (witii gen.). 
imperium, -I, N., inin-ri-, i-iniiintiml 

[-«,,nr,-\. 
impero. are -avi. -atum, v. intr., 

i-iimmauii (with Wat. Kit, 

•-',4.) 
impetro, are, -avi, -atum, v. tr. , 

til'titin hi/ ri-'/uint (with ut, 

•-'44, 1). ' 
impetus, -us, M., iiitin-k-. 

[Iinpt'ttKHIs] 
imprudentia, -ae. P.. 

IlKini/li/li-sxin'Hs. [liiiprn<iriu'('j 



Imus, -a, -um, ailj. (sup. of 

inferus, "J'J, 1). 
imus mons, 

titi- flint of till- mouiititin. 
in, pi'ep. with ace. with verlis of 

inotion, iiitOf it/ton, fii/iiiiiit ; 
with ahl. with vt-fhs of rcHt, 

/*«, oHf ttmoitij, v-illiiii. 
in cendo, -ere. -di, -sum, v. tr., 

mtonfn-, Inii-ii. |lnri-niliar\ J 
in cipio, ere, -cepi, ceptum, v. ti-., 

Iii-ijiil. rlneipieiu ] 
incito, -are, avi, -atum, v. tr., 

ilistiijatl-f .-ijltit- Ollf [ilirite]. 

incognitus, -a, -um, a<lj., miknoinn. 

incola, -ae, .M., inlinhilinit. 

in colo, -ere, -colui, -cultum, v. tr , 

itillilhit. 

incolumis, -e, adj., m/p, in mfetii. 
incredibilis, -e, ailj. [iin-rnHhii-], 
inde, adv., tht-nn-, fi-imi tln-t-r : 
unde . . inde, ivliena- . . . tlimn- 

(14G, 7). 
in dico, -ere, -dixi, -dictum, v. tr. , 

di-elare : 
bellum indico with <lat., 

di-chire VJin- iii/ahist (*J^(, 4). 
indignus, -a, -um, 

umt-orthy (with ahl. 1)4, .'>). 
indiitiae, -arum, 1'. pi, truce 

(3-', 6). 
Indutiomarus, -i, M., 

Jiidii/iiniuirun, a Oallir chii-f. 
in eo, -ire. -ii( ivi), -itum, v. tr. , 

//(> iiitu, i-ntt-r ii/tiiit (218, .'i) : 
consilium ineo, form n plan. 
infelix (gen. infelicis), adj., 

vnlia/'/iif, nn~incri:-<.i/ul (eoltili. 

infelicior;sup.infelicissimus). 
in fero, -ferre, -tuli. illatum, v. tr. 

("214, 3), hrini/ aijaiunt : 
bellum infero witli dat.. 

/H'»i('f war n/iiin (229, 4, ,'»). 
inferior, -ius. mnip. of inferus 

(<I2, I ), h,i;r. 

infestus, -a, -um, adj., Iwniik. 



VOCABILAKY 



311 



•.«/•. 






infirmus, -a, -um, ndj.. 

[infirm], 
ingenium. i, N., 

ahl/itii, iinturi; iliM)i,j.iilii,ii. 

[IiigemiityJ 
ing^ens, (gen. ingentis), adj., 

hnif, iiiiiiti'iit^f, sfiious. 
in gredior, -gredi, -gr -.sus, v. i r . . 

W iiit", eiiler. [Ingii-ss] 
inimicus, a, um, lulj., unfrinnliii. 

[IniinifiilJ 
in jicio, ere, jeci, -jectum, v. ir., 

t/trvw into, throw uputi. 

[InJLct] 
injuria, ae, F. , uTomj, [injari/]. 
inopia, -ae, F., imiil, lad, warcili/. 
inquit, v. ilcf, i„tr., „,i,,s /„. 

(pliici'd aftei- (irii; or ' iiKiif 

words of a diirit (|iimation, 

wiUi sulijoct aftiT mtI)). 
insciens, (gen. inscientis), adj.. 

Hid kninrimf, itjtturanf : 
insciente Caesare, n-ithuitl ilir 

kmmlnlijf i,f Ciltmr. 

insidiae, -arum, F. pi., 

(Uiilimli, nmbHueatlf (32, (i). 

[Ii].si(liou.s] 
institutum, -i, N., 

/mint, ftixtom. (Iiiatitution] 
instruo, -ere, -struxi, -structum. 

V. Ir., ■h-aw N/i {t,f tri,oj:i). 
insula, -ae, F., «/,„„/. [l„sulai) 
integer, -gra, grum, adj., 

"•''"''-. fi'linjr,:,!,. ihitcgialj 
intellego, ere, lexi, Itfctum, ! 

\. tr. , inn ttirarf, pnTiirt . I 

inter, prep, with aee., 

amoiHj, liphrnii ; iciV/,;',, 

'"'""•, 1 l(i, ;i). 
interdum, aiiv., Minelinifx. 
interea, adv , 

mriiiiirhilf, ill ilie mnjiiiii, 
inter eo, -ire, ii, itum, 

V. iiiti-., i,n-isli c.'kS, .'(). 



{■'f 



interest, interesse. interfuit, 

V. hllpeix, ,/ ,'., lllr ilil, rrKt <lj\ 

it '•luirrriis : 
interest omnium, ii i.-<ihr iiitrir.il 

uf nil (•.>•_>«, 41 : 
mea interest, (' w vf iui,rt.^t u, 

inter ficio, -ere, feci, fectum. 

V. tf., k-ill. 
interim, ailv., mnuiirhil, , 
interior, -ius, adj. (uoiiii). 'J'-^. 'i), 

iiiili r, [iiitrriut]. 
mter mitto, -ere, -misi, missum, 

y. Ilv, .■.tiip, ,■,.„.,,., ,li.^.;,i,liiii„., 

|Interllli.s.si(,ii| 
inter rogo, -are, -avi, -atum, \ . t r , 

""k, [intirruijatr]. 
inter rumpo, ere, -rupi, -ruptum, 

V. li:,l,reakiluwii. [Iiileiruptj 
inter sum, -esse, -fui, v. i„ti-. 

irieg., mil uiiiuiii/, takrimrl in 

(witli dat. 208, 7, S). 
intra, prep, with aec-., nilhin (,./ 

phir,'): loftiiiir, Hi;, ;)). 
intro, are, -avi, atum. v. tr. 

intus, adv.. cvV/iih, iiisii/r. 
in venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 

V- tr., ruiiie uj,„ii, jintl. 
[IlivciitJ 

invictus, -a. -um, adj. , i(,ic,m,/ii,r,;l. 

in video, -ere. -vidi, -visum, v. imr 

[riirii] (Hjlli ,|m, 175^ 4) 

invito, are, -avi, -atum, v. i, 

[iiii'iiii 

invitus, -a, -um, adj., uiiirillim, .■ 

me mvito, fi,/,i iii^/ mi/ irill. ' 
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, iinjih. adi imi 

•"/'■(I4:t, .■!; 144,(;). ' ' 
IS, ea, id. 4leiii. .idj. jim. (i:t,s) 

/", ■••7", i/. ' 

iste. isU, istud, d. lu. adi mo 

(14(1, 4), M«<t,>- „,„„..,, ' • 
ita, adv , tlim, »,. 
itaque. cmj., ,rj„? .,„, ilureforf. 
Italia, -ae. K, /t,tlj/. 



312 



VOCAnur.ARY 



Iter, itineris, \., jmirneii, n.nn-l,. 

I Mirici'Ml'v I 
iterum, ii<lv. .■„,,„;„, „, .„,■„;,.//;„„. 

J 

jaceo, -ere, jacui, v. ijitr., /;,. 

jacio, -ere, jeci, jactum, v. ir., 
iltrotr. 

jam, adv., imv, ulrrmhi. 
Janicutum, -i, N., 

,1'iiHniliim, u hill oil llir rlijlil 
hank- tif till- 'J'iliHi: 
Janus, -i, M., ./,(««», u yo./ „/ //n: 

Jtoninnn. 
jubeo, -ere, jussi, jussum, v. tr., 
<mi.ir, cuiiiiiiiiinl (tuki's mk. 
iinil infill.). 
jucundus, -a, -um, adj , i/e/hilii/,,/. 
judex, -icis, M.,jiii/,je. 
Julia, -ae, F., Julia. 
jmius, -i, M. ,,/«/;,«. 
jumentum, -i, N., Amxr ,/ himlen. 
jungo, -ere, junxi.junctum, v. ti., 

join, [.luiiftioril 
junior, -ius. adj. ((miii|). of juvenis) 

(!ll, .")), yiiiiiiiier. 
Juno, -onis, F., Jimu. 
Jiipiter, Jovis, M., JiqnUr. 
juro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. iiiti-., 

»"Wj-(17;i, 3). f.lury] 
jiis, juris, N., »■;.///(, hiii'. [.Turisi/ 
jussu. iU)l., lnj,irdn;atthrhiUirmii. 
juvenis, -is, M., 

" ;i''Hfh, i/uttiiij matt. 
(.(uvenile] 
juventa, -ae. V..i/ovlli (the lime, if). 
juventus. -utis, F., 

ijoulli ((.'ollectivo noun). 

K 

Karthago, -inis, K., Carlhaiir. 
Karthaginiensis, -e, adj., 
Ciniliiff/iiiiitii. 

Karthaginienses, -ium, .\1., pi.. 
Vart/iatriinuii.s. 



Labienus, -i, XL, Lnhi, nii.i. 
laboro. -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr., 

lalilir. hp ill tfoii/,/r. 

lac, lactis, N., mill:. [Lact«d] 
Lacedaemon, -onis, F., 

/jai'ii/iiffiioii, .Spuria, 
Lacedaemonii. -orum, M. j)l., 

Lilmliii'moiiinii.i, S/iin-liiii^,' 

lacesso, -ere, -ivi, -itum, v. ti., 

I'i'oroh', hitriifi/i. 
lacus, -us, M. [/((/•(]. 
lapis, -idis, M., stune. [Lapidaiy] 
late, adv., n-iilrhi : 

longe lateque,'/<i/- and indc. 
Latini, -orum. M. pi. [Laiiiu], 

peufih' nf Laliiiiii, a di^lrirl of 

/lali/, in which Jti,mf iiuIh 

nititali'd. 
Latinus. -i, M., 

[I.ulimis] a klrni of Latiiiin. 
latus, -a, um, adj., hvV/p, Imiad. 

[Latitude] 
latus, -eris, N., side, jtaid: 
laudabilis, -e, ailj., jimi.<.;n,rlhi/, 

[Inmlali/e]. 

laudo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., 
jiriiiKp, [laud]. 

laus, laudis, F., praise. 

Lavinia, -ae, F., 

Lartiiia, daui/liti-r of kinij 

Lavinium, -i, N., 

Lariiiiiim, a town if Lalinm. 
Ii-^atus, -i, M., 

lienl, limit ; amiiamidor, 

[lei/itle], 

legio. -onis, F. 

[('!/'""]> ffoiii .',1)0 1,1 I'M) men, 
iUei,le,l into ten ,;ih,irtn. 

lego, -ere, legi, lectum. v. tr., 

rlioii„e, w/e,-l: rr„d. [hninw] 
lenis, -e, adj., i/entle. [Lenity] 
leo, onis, .\L [lion]. 
lex, legis, F., law. [L^givlJ 



VOCAIIUI.AIiY 



levitas, -atis, K, /;,,/,/„,,„ 

1 1.1'vil vj 
Liber, Liberi, M., 

/im:rfin.t. ijtttl „f n'iih'. 
liber, libri, yi.,l,„„L [Ml„,,ry| 
liber, -era, -erum, iulj., 

/(■ri',//,.,./,u„, („-,||.,|,| ,1^^ .| 

libere, «,lv fre,i,, (,,„„,, uberius 

Slip Iibernme). 
liberi, .orum, M. ,,!., ,■/„/,/,,,„. 
libera are, -avi, -atum, v. tr 

.tm-, [liliirfile]. 
libertas,-atis, V.[r,l,„-i,,]. fr„;lom. 
""it ere, licuit, v. i„,,K.,s., 

It I.- alluirul {,i,„,i, nii.ilK, fx. 

prrHxnvj inrmlwnii. •_'■_';{. ;), 4). 
licet, oHij., „lti„Mii, (iw, -I (:!) ) 
lignum, -i, X., „.„,„/. 
lingua, -ae,F.,^„„i,„,,[,„„y„„,,,, 

lltt_era,-ae, F l'>fn-(„f,l„ali,h„i„t): 
utterae. arum, pi , 
'''""■("■'■'■"'■"), '/f.v«-W,(.T2 .■)) 
Htus, -oris, X., .,/,c,.,, fLitoral] 
loco, -are, -avi, -arum, v. t, 

/"'"■<■■ •(n<iu», ,,usl. [LucalfJ 
locus, -i, M.,pt„„: 

N. pi. loca, -drum, {^-l, 7). 
longe, sul\.,f,ir 

longijs, -a, -urn, ,.,lj, [lo,,,j\. 

[Lcirigituile] 
loquor, loqui, locfltus, v. ,li.„ 

Klimk. [ISi>li|,„ji,vJ 
liidus,-i,M.,. ,/,„,,, ^;/,„^,,„„„ 
lumen,-inis, X.,/,y,(. |Lunii„„usl 
luna. -ae, R, »,„„«. fr,„nai] 
lusus. -us, M.,.y,orl,i,lu,/. 
lux, liicis, F. , /i,,l,i ; 
prima liice, ai i/ai/hrnU- 
[IauUU 



.•ii;j 



M 

magis, adi-., „„„., 

magnopere. iw, 7) 
magister, -tri, .\!,, „„«/, 



(i"ni|i. 



'ru.Ar 



(«i . mensis, 
i.p. „f 



magnitudo, inis. K. , 

magnopere, a,h.. -/,■,„//„,,,.„,„,, 
magis : Mip maxim'e, lis, 7). 

magnus. -a. -um. .lIj., /,„•,,,. ,„-,„^ 
(<J"rnp. major; m,i.. maximus! 

Mago, -onis. .\I., 

Mwi.,. "C.n-lh,,,/,,,;,,,, ,,,„,,„, 
Mams, -a, -um. .ulj. 

'"""//-), .Vr,,/. 

major, us, a.lj.. ,„•,„/.,(,■,, 

magnus). [Slajoriu | 
niale._ .'ulv., /,„,//„, jfi ^^ 

pejus J sup. pessime, !W. 7) 
malo. malle. malui, \. i,,- 

/);■';/<•-•, lii„l ralh, , [-M), ■]), 
malum, i, X.. .,;/. 
malus, -a, -um, a.lj., /„„/ (,.,„„,, 

i jor; Mip pessimus, ill. :{). 
raando. -are. -avi. atum, x im, 

(Wllh .lall. I...l,„r; u,juh,, 

'■uiiimi.s-u„n (Hill, ut, -24(1. 4). 
mane^adv., ,.,„///, ;„ //,.- m,„;,i„./. 
maneo, -ere, mansi, 

V. iiitr , rrmitiii. 
manifestus, -a, -um, 

liliiiii, [mii,ii/,:it]. 
Manlius, i, U., Mannm. 
Mantinea, -ae, K., 

Mniilimil, „ rill) of Pi 
Uf-sils. 



mansum. 

'I'lj., 



'f/ojii 



ll/,„ 



manus, -us. F. , 

liniifl, h„,i,l [of ,,„/,/,•„,,,, 

I Manual] 
Marathon, -ouis, M., 1/„, 
Marathonius. a. um, ailj 

<;/' Mrii-iilhiiii. 
Marcus, -i, .\1.. .l/«,r((,. 
mare, maris, N., wa (i;4) 

I Mai-iiti.'l-J 

Marius. -i. .\1,, 

Moi'tHM, II filllluil^ 

;l''}'i ml. 

maritimus. -a. iim. ailj., 
['ninitiiiii'Y 



Human 



314 



VOCABULARY 



Mars, Martis, M., 

Mara, .juil „/ mar. [Murtiiil| 
Martius, -a, -urn, adj., 

(;/ ur hflohtjhnj to Mars : 
Campus Martius, Plain nfMam. 
Martius, a, -um, ailj., of March. 
mater, tris, F., mother. 

[Matunial] 

matrimonium, -i, N., marriaije : 
m matrimonium do, 

!/('/■<■ in marriiiiji' . [Matriniouj ] 

matiirus, -a, -um, adj., early. 

[.Mature] 
maxime, adv. , sup. of ma^^nopere. 
maximus, -a, um, adj., sup. of 

magnus. 
mecum, vilh me (l.^S, (i). 
medius, -a, -um, a,i.\y. , middle : 
media hieme, 

i« the. middle of winter {\\~ , 7). 
melior, -us, adj., conip. of bonus, 
memini, meminisse, v. def., 

reinemher Cilll, •! ; 'J-JO, 5). 
Menapis, -drum. M., pi., 

Meit'ij'ii, a Gallie tribe. 
mens, mentis, F., mind. [Mental] 
mensa, ae, K., table. 
mensis, -is. M., month. 
mentior, -iri, mentitus, v. dep.. 

He, speak/aUelj/. 
mercator, -oris, M., merchant. 
Mercurius, -i, M., Mercurii. 

[.Mt-rtrurial] 
meridies, -ei., M., middin/. 

[Meridian] 
metuo. ere. metui, metiitum, 

V. tr., fear. 
metus, -fls, M.,/ear. 
meus. a, -um I'voc. i*hi}r. ni.-ise. 

mil, ])oss. adj. /////. 
migro. -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr. , 

iiinre, [ini'jcdte]. 
miles, itis, M., .I'lhlier. 
militaris. -e, adj., \niililiirii\. 



militiae (locative, IIS, ,S), 
in tliejield, on service. 

mille, eaid. num. (jnduul. in sing. ; 
pi. millia, lOe, e), thousand. 
[Mill] 

millesimus, -a, -um, ord. num. 

adj., thonjtandth. 
minime, adv. (sup. of parum, 

98, 7), least. 
minimus, -a, -um, adj. (sup. of 

pamis, yi, S), least. 
minister, -tri, M., aermnt. 

[Minister] 
minor, -us, adj., (comp. of parvus, 

91, 3), less. [Minority] 
minor -ari, -atus, v. dep., 

threaten. 
minus, adv., (comp. of parum 

98, 7), leaf. 
mirabilis, -e, adj., wonderful. 
miror, -ari, -atus, v. dep. , admire. 
miser, -era, -erum, adj., wretched. 

[Miserable] 
misereor, -eri, miseritus, v. dep., 

piti/, (with gen., 176, 7). 
miseret, -ere, miseruit, v. inipers. , 

it pities (226, 3). 
mitis, -e, adj., mild. 

mitto, -ere, misi, missum, v. tr., 

send. [Mission] 
modus, -i, M., 

[moete], jnanner, way: 
niillo modo, in no way. 
moenia, -ium, N. pi., walls. 
moleste, adv.. with trouble: 

moleste fero, am annoyed at. 
moneo, -ere, monui, monitum, 

V. tr , advise. 
mons, montis, M., mountain. 
mora, -ae, F., delay. 
morbus, -i, M. , disease. [Morbid] 
Morini. -drum, M. pi. , 

the Morini, a Gallic trilte. 
morior, mori, mortuus, v. dep. , die. 
moror,ari,moratus,v. dep.,(fr(a^. 



.OOAni'LARY 



315 



mors, mortis, V.,il,',iili. [.\loriaI| 
mortifer, -era, erum, adj., ,l,it,ihi, 
falat, 

mortui, -drum (M. pi. ^,, .,. ,,f 

morior), thr ilnul. 
mos^moris, M., niAium, Ifihit .■ 
mores, pi., fuMnm', immih, 

chnriuUfr. 
moveo, -ere, movi, motum, v. it- . 

[mmy]. 

mox, adv., ;iooit, 
muiier, -eris, K., irummi. 
multitudo, -inis, F., [muliUiuIr]. 
multum, adv , gmiil//, mm-h {mm\t. 

plus ; Kup. plurimun mid 

plurime). 

multus, -a, -um, adj , much: p|. 
multi, -ae, -a, wani/; (eoiiip. 
plus; sup. pturimus, 91, 3) : 
multum temporis, mmh timr. 
munio, ire, -ivi.itum.v. tt-.Jurii/ii. 
miinitio, onis, V.,/iiriijimlioii. 
miinus, -eris, N., dut;/, njjie,.. 
mums, -i, M., mall. 

N 

aactus, -a, -um, p. p. of nanciscor, 

havinij obtaiitril. 
nam, conj., fur. 
namque, eouj., 

/o/' (im)iuemphaii(' than nam). 



nanciscor, -i, nactus, v. <k'| 

ohUtiii. 
narro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr , 

l-ll. [Xar.al.>l 

nascor, nasci, natus, v. il,.p., 
am hum : 
decern annos natus, ,i/ th,- luie 
III ten ( 130, '.)). 
Nasica, ae, M., 

XiLwa (see Scipio). 
natio, -onis, K., iiih,, [luuit.u] 
natii ; al)l. iif natus, ii.s ; /,,/ /„■,(/, 
minimus natii, 'itmit<.i(.^i .' 
maximus natii, O/i/f).; (Hi, T)). 



nauta, -ae. M., .„„/,„■. |.\auii,ul] 

navalis, -e, adj., l,i,ir,(/|. 

navigo, -are, avi, atum. v. inn., 
«.':/. [Navigalo] 

navis, -is, I'"., M),: 
navislonga, wnr-ihiii: 
navis oneraria, inerrhuiiiinitn : 
(ex) n...vi m- navibus egredi, 

Idiiil, iriseidhark: 
navem or naves conscendere, 

fnihat'h. 

■nS, iiitfir. paiticlu (4.f. J) : 
I -nS . . . .1/1, nhfthir ... j,, 

j diniblu dirnt .|ne.sUi,, 44, 

I •">; in indiruLt (MieKii„ris, •JiKl' 

«;-..'OI). 
ne, m-g. inifKT. partiule, 

"u«(iy:!, 2, 3). 
ne, iiinj , that. . .not, le^t (in tinal 
1 lausf s, VM, 6 ! -iWi, I ) : 
that . . not (in substantive 
clauses, L>40, ■>) : timl. le^t 
(with verlis of feaiing, 243. 2). 
nee : see neque. 

necesse, indecl. adj., jiws»«ri/.- 
necesse est, our must (22.^, u). 
Necessitas, -atis, K, NrnJ^ty. 
necne, ennj., or not (in indirect 
doulile i|Hestiuns, 200, G ; 201 ). 
neco, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., 

A'V/, ntnrfter. 
nego, -are, -avi, -atum, v. inti 
Unii/, mi/., .not. IXejrativi-i 



\ negleg6,-ere,neglexi,neglectum, 
I V. tr., diirajaril, [m^jlrrl]. 

\ nemo, ace. neminem, M., uo one. 
I nepos, -Otis, M., ijramlmn. 
! Neptunus, -i, M., 

Xeiitune, ijud of the sea. 
nequaquam, adv., I„j no umtiiK. 
neque, eonj., nor; 

neque. neque, wither. . .nor. 
nescio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, v. ir., 

not k-iii,n\ ilo not hnuw. 
neu, 'ir neve, i-onj., nor (in a 
seiiind final .huis:.-, 2;i3, Ti). 



316 



VOCABULARY 



•■ I 



neuter, -tra, -trum, mlj. |ir".. 
neil/ifr (4!>, S) 

nex, necis, F., ilmili. 

nihil, iridecl. N., uotlntnj : 
nihil temporis, »» <iw>>. 
[Nihilist] 

nisi, t'oiij,, unlesn^ except (249, 2). 

nix, nivis, F., »«om>. 

nobiscum, with. u.i ( I3.S, (i). 

nobilitas, -atis, F , [mM/ifj/]. 

noceo, ere. -ui, ni>sup., 

(/()!()■(■ (witlulat. IT"), 2; 176,4), 

noctu, adv., 

/'// niff/U^ in the niijht time. 

nolo, ndlle, nolui, v. intr., 

nut univi/limj, imll not (210,2)- 

nomen, -inis, N., natiie. 

A Koliiau hail rigiilarlv three 
names, as, Caius.lulius Caesar ; 
Caiua was the praCnomen, 
marking the individual asoilr 
Christian name : ,lulius was 
the nomen, marking the gens 
or olan : Caesar was the cog- 
nomen, marking the family 
of the gens. 

non, adv., }tot : 
non solum . . . sed etiam, 
not onlij . . . fmt also. 

nondum, adv. , not yet. 

nonne, interr. particle, 

expecting the answer, yes, ho(? 
(4», 2). 

nonnunquam, adv., mtnetivten 

nonus, a, -urn, ord. num. adj., 
ninth. 

noster, -tra, -trum, poss. adj. ])»>., 
onr. 

nostri, -drum, M. pi., 

our .soldiers, our men. 

novem, indeel. card. num. adj., 
nine. 

novi, novisse. v. def. , hiow (219, 2). 
novitas, -atis, F., 

newneKKy :itranijenes.H. 
novus, -a, -um, adj., new, tttrtimje. 



nox,noctis, F., niijhl. 

niibes, -is, F., eloml. 

niillus, -a, -um, adj., no, none 

(48, 2). 
num, lonj.. whether, i/"(201). 
num, interr. particle, 

expecting tlu; answer, no 

(43, 2). 
Numa Pompilius (gen. Numae 

Pompili), Nnnta Poni^iilins, 

the xeeond kiitif of Rome. 
numerus, -i, M., nnmlier. 
Numidae, -arum, M. i)l., 

ynniii/iantt. 
nunquam, adv., nerer. 
nuutio, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., 

ttf/, re/Ktrt, annonnee. 
nuntiatum est, word "as hronijht. 
nuntius, -i, M., nteimaije ; niesseittjer. 



O, interj., 0. 

ob, prep, with ace., on acconnt of. 

obliviscor, -j, oblitus, v. dep., 

Joriiet (17(i, 7 ; 220, ,')). 
obses, -idis, M., hoxtmje. 

obsideo, -ere,-sedi,-sessum, v. tr , 

/.. <i,(je. 

obsidio, -onis, F., sieije, blockade. 
obsto, -are, obstiti, v. intr., 

opfioMe (with <lat. 175, 2 ; 

176, 4; 229. 4): prei-ent {wilh 

quominus, 248, !l). 
ob tineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentum, 

V. tr., hohl. [Ohtain] 
occasio, -onis, F., opportnniti/. 

[Occasion J 
occasus, -us, M., aettimj: 
solis occasu, at mniiet : 
ad solis occasum, to the west. 
oc cido, -ere, -cidi, -cisum, v. tr., 

kill, Hhiji. 

occupo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., 

.sr/::c. lake posst diiion of, 
lOcmpy] 



\ 



vor.Mur.AKV 



Oceanus. i, M , o.,„„ 
Octavianus, i, M.. (,t,-i,iri„„,i< 
octavus. -a, -urn. .,,,1. i„„„. ,,.li 

't'jiith. '" 

OCto, iiiilcl. ivinl. rmiri. a.lj., ,.,V,/ 
octodecim.in.U.,!.,,,,..!. ,„„„.„',|j ' 

oculus. i, M , ,11^. t(i,.„ii„| 
odi. odisse. v. ,l,.f , /„,/^c>|c, .,^ 

|(Mi.,„sJ ' ' -'■ 

officium. -i. X., ,/„/,,, „//,,,;„,„,, 

limi,-,.| 

omitto, ere, misi, -missum, v t, 

III -III, . (Oiniij 

omnino, mlv., «•/,„//,,. mih-ihi • 

non omnino, nui in all, 
omnis, -e, ;nlj., 

"//, "■/,„/,■. fOiiini'iiotiTiil 

onus -eris, \., / /, ,,„y,^ 

[Oiiirou.s] 
opera, -ae, V . ,r„rk\ ,,„iii.i ■ 
operant do ut, mir ,,„;„, ,„ 
(•-'40, ,s), ■' 

oportet, ere, oportuit, ^ . inipois 

il '»//<»■,.,, ,■ „„,,/,( (.j._>4^ -J ' I 

oppidum. -i, X., („„,.„, i 

opportunus, -a, um, mlj,, 

.'"'•"'■"''''•, /Dr/umif^'. 

fOppiirt unity] 
op primo, ere, pressi, pressum 

V. tr., rni.ili, „irrtlir„ir 

[Oppress] 

op pugno, are, -avi, atum. ;. i,., 

tWfu-k\ assail, lif'Mlfit/t', 
optimus, -a, -um, ii.lj., /,,,,/(.„., 

"f bonus, id. .-!,.■ [()|,ii,„is,| 
opto, are, avi, -atum, v. tr 

Jirai/, i»;ti/ /or. 
opus, -eris, X., ,r,„± [()p,.,ai,-] 
opus, \., inilwl. : opus est, 

t/nr,' i,t itfut (*_'2fi, i; ; •2'2~ ) 
(ops), opis, K., ai,l, help. 
ora, -ae, !•'. , tihiire, ninxt. 
oratio. onis, K., [■.raliu,,], aj,, ,-,/,. 
orator, oris, M., lunuuij. 



317 



orbis, is, M.. ,-!r,-/f ■ 
orbis terrarum. 

m',;';;, "'■ -^i- ■''"•'■•■>'>,. a„. 

ordior, -iri, orsus, v. ,1. p., /„,,,„ 
ordo, -inis, M.,|.„,A,-], /;„,., ,.,;„x, 

onens (v,n. orientis), (pi,.». „ „f 
onor ..s..,l„s,„„,;,i, ,-,';„ 
sol oriens. »»,„;,<^. |()ii,.„,j 
orior. iri, ortus, v ,l,i,., 

ri\f, ttri.sc, 

orno, are, -avi, -atum. y. tr 

■"'"'■"■ -I' •■„ml,. |(),„al.-| 
oro, -are, -avi. -atum, v. tr 

'":l, "«<■, lunii fi,r. ' 



pabulor, ari, -atus. v. ,1,.,,. .f,,,;,,,.. 

pacatus, -a, -um, u.lj., „, ^,„„.,,; 

paene, .ulv., almost. 

palus, -iidis, K , ^ira,,,/,, n,a,:-h. 

par(g.n. paris),ailj.,,. ,,„„/. 
I paratus, -a, -um (,,.,, p. „f paro 
I /''V/,,,,-,, usr,l „s ,i„) ,„|j 

I riailji. ' ' 

Palatinus, -a, -um, ,„I.i. (mons), 

""' I illahiii [)ii,i'i,it]. 

pared, -ere, peperci, parcitum, 

;■.'""•• "/«" ("ill, ,hii., 

lid, 4). 
parens, -tis, -M. or K, (/,„r^„,]. 
pared -ere, ui, -itum, v. i„i, 

"'"// (Hiiii ,l,it,, I7(i. ;), 4). ■' 
paro, -are, -avi, -atum, v t,- 

/'r,/«i,v. 

pars, partis. F., l/„,ri]. 
parum. ;ulv.,/,w,, ,„„/,v,/„,,.„„ 

mmus ; mip. minime, Hs, 7). 
parvus, -a, -um, ailj., /;///,. ^.„',„// 

i;j"".Jl'- minor ; sup. minimus! 

paSSUS, -us, M.. par, MO" 1(11 

patefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum. 



318 



VOCABULARY 



II 






pater, paths, M.,/a///./-. 
patior, pati, passus, \. .Up., 

tnijffr, altotr, 

patria, ae, F., luuire Utwl. 

[I'litiiut] 
pauci, ae, -a, ailj. (i,\.),/rw. 
paulisper, ii<lv.,/.j;- « IHil^. 
paulo. adv., a Huh: 

paulo post, ihurtlji nfln: 
paulum, adv., 

a litt/f, a nhort ilittUmri'. 
pauper, (gen. pauperis), m\\., jiuur. 

[Paupei'l 
pavor, -oris, .\I.,/«ir, paiiir. 
pax, pacis, F., [/,,rw]. [I'ac-iHc] 
peciinia, ae, F., munnj. 

[Pecuniary] 
pedes, -itis. M., 

/(Kil-soldkr, in/anln/- man : 
pi. pedites, -um, infuntnj. 
pedester, -tris, tre, adj., 

of infantry: 
proelium pedestre, baltU on taml. 
peditatus, us, M., 

in/aiitri/ (collectively). 
pejor, -us, adj. (conip. of malus, 

91, 3), tfJorte. 

pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum, -. tr., 

tirlpe. 
per, prep with iuk., 

throvijh, hy ntt-am of. 
per eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, 

V. iiitr., ;j(-n..7i (-.'IS, .•)). 
perficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, v. tr-., 

(/«, iu-t-inni>lhfi, Jini/i/i. 

[I'erfcct] 
perfuga, -ae, M., (/cdfrtcc. 
periculosus. -a, -um, adj., 

daiiijeruKi, [jii'rilnml. 
periculum, -i, N., dumjn; [iier\l\: 
periculum est, iherr i« a iliin,/,,- 

(■243, -J, 4). 

perinde, adv. , ju^t no : 
perinde acjimt ii.i: 
perinde ac si, jnxt as if. 



peritus, -a, -um, ailj., 

Aillftt, skilird ill, (with gen.). 
per mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

V. ir.,eiUriut, aj/uir. [I'erinil] 
permultus, -a, -um, adj., eri-i/ nmi-h : 

pi., rn-ij iiiany. 

pemicies, -ei, F., min, harm. 
[I'ernii'iousJ 

persequor, -i. -seciitus, v. dep., 

jiiii-Hii,: [Persecute] 
Persae, -arum, M. pi., Perniann. 
per spicio, -ere. spexi, -spectum, 

v. t;., ofinfiri', iieiTfii'f. 

per suadeo, -ere, -suasi, suasum, 
V. intr., [iKinuaUe] (with dat., 
170, 3, 4). 

per terreo, -ere, -terrul, -territum, 

V. \.v., fi-iiilitni, atnnii. 
per tilled, -en , -tinui, -tentum, 

V. intr., extend. 
per venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 

V. intr. (uaually witli ad), 

arrive at, readi. 
pes, pedis, M., /«,<;. [Peilal] 
pessimus, -a, -um, adj. (sup. of 

malus, yi, 3), worst. 

[Pessimist] 

peto, -ere, petivi, petitum, v. tr., 

■teek, a-lk .for, mate fur: 

with ut, 240, 4). [I'etition] 
piget, -ere, piguit, v. inipers., 

it vej-e.i (•22U, 1, -2, 3). 
placed, -ere, ui, -itum, v. intr., 

/ileane (witii dat., 17,j, 2 - 

17H, 4). 
planities, -ei, F. , p/ain. 
plebs, plebis, F., the common peo/ile 

(iK)lIectively), the jileli.t. 
plenus, -a, -um, adj , fn/l: fiiil of 

(with gen., 03, 4). 
plerique, pleraeque, pleraque, 

adj. pi., must, most fifople. 
plerumque, adv., ijeuerallij. 
plurimus, -a, -um, adj. , wrii much : 
pi , i-eri/ manu (sup. iif'multus, 

ai, 3). 



I 



TOCABULART 



319 



pIus(S-,. 6). a<lj., 

»«»»(■ (iiiiiiji (if multus, ni. .1). 
poena, ae, K, 

}iiiu'uhiMnt, [priialti/]. 
poenitet, -ere, poenituit, v. imix'i ». , 

it re^vtUn {22ti, 1, 2, H). 
poeta, -ae, M. limf]. 
polliceor, -eri, pollicitus, v. lUp., 

imniiiiu- (I7;i, X ■)). 
Pompilius : nee Numa. 
pondus, eris, N., n-ii<jht. 

[Ponderous] 

pono, -ere, posui, positum, v. tr , 
pUice : 

castra pono, jtiuh a aini,,. 
[Position] 
pons, pontis, M., brulgr. 
populus, -i, M., [jifoplel 
porta, -ae, F., yule. [Porter] 
porto, are, -avi, -atum, v. tr,, 

carri/, bring. [Porliilile] 
portus, -us, M., harbor, [jiurt]. 
possum, posse, potui, v. irreg., 

um able, can (l'07 ; 208, 10). 
post, prep, witli aec, after: 
post multos annos, after mam/ 

yearn: 
ailv. , multis annis post, 
many years after ( 1 1 B, 5). 
postea, adv., afleni-anh. 
posteaquam, eoiij , after {ia\), 4). 
posterus, -a, -um. arlj., 

next, folliiwiiiij, ((-oiiip. poste- 
rior; sup. postremus. ili 1). 
postquam, c«nj., after (2oy, 4). 
postremo, adv., lastly. 
postremus, -a, -um, adj., 

latest, last (see posterus, Vrl,\ ). 
postridie, arlv., 

next tiny, un the fuHmeiny ilay. 
postutatum, -i, N., tlemaml. 
postulo, -are, -avI, -atum, v. tr,, 
demiiKil : (with ut. 'J40, 2, 4). 
potens (gen. potentis), ailj,, 

ymcerful. [Potent] | 



potestas, -atis, F. ,pomr, imriUgt. 
potior, -iri, potitus, v, .lep, (with 
alii,, l;lt>, 8), yatii jioss' ssion of. 
potius, adv , rallir. . 
praeclarus. -a, -um, adj,, 

ilistintjuislteil. 
praeda, -ae, F,, boniy. 
praeditus, -a. -um, adj.. 

(•^(./^((■(•(/(/c;//,), (witiialil, , 94, ■)). 
praedor, -ari, atus, v. d.p., 

iduiiilrr. [I'rwlutorvJ 
prae ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, 

V. tr., place in cummamt (£i8, 

.t : ■>-29, 4). 
praemium, -i, N., rewant. 

[Premium] 
prae mitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, 

V. tr,, senilfiirmnl. 

praesens, (gen, praesentis), ailj,, 
[present]: 
me praesente, in my presence 
(159, 4 (/,)). 

praesidium, -I, N. , yunnl, yarrison. 
praestc, -are, praestiti, praesti- 

tum, V. tr., shoie, Uisplay. 

prae sum, esse, -fui, v. intr., 

am It the head ttf, eommaml 

(witll dat., 2-28, 3 ; 229, 4). 

p.'emo, -ere, pressi, pressum, 

V. tr., press, press hard. 
Priamus, -i, M., 

i'tiam, king of Troy. 
primo, M\\:,Jirstly, atjirsl. 
primum, adv. , first. 
primus, -a, -um, adj., first. 

[I'riniary] 
princeps, -cipis, M., chief, [prime]. 
prior, -us, adj. eomp,, 

former, precious. 
Priscus, -a, -um, adj.. First: 
see Tarquinius. 

priusquam, Conj,, before (2;)!), s). 

pro, pnp, with aid., 

/,„•, in d^f-n-'r of on behalf „f 
(I'l. 2, (2)); In-forr: in pro- 
portion to (52, 5). 



320 



t 



V(HAHIII,AnY 



pro cedo, -ere. -cessi. -cessum. 

\. iritl-., i/<t a/intft, tufrinir', 

procul, ail\ . , /hi: III II ilinliiii,; . 
pro do, ere, didi, ditum. \. ir., 

Ii'lruif. 
proeltum, -i, N., Ii.iid,. 
proficiscor, i, profectus, v. ,l(|)., 

xft out. 

profu^s, i, M., ijcilr. 

pro gredior, -gredi, -gressus, 

V. ili'i)., ijo /urwitril, iii/fiiiirr. 

I Progress] 
prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, \. tr., 

irep /mm, prieeid from. 

[rrohihit] 
pro mitto. -ere, -misi, -missum, 

V. tr., />ri,mi.v {I7:t. :)|. 
pro moveo, ere, -movi, -motum, 

V, tl'., more forivnrit. 

(I*riniu»tion] 
prope, ailv anil prep, witli aci!., 

iiriu (loinp. propius ; sup. 

proxime). 
propero, are, -avi, atum. \ . inti., 

hanh II. 

propior, -us, (gi'ii. propioris), mlj.. 

iifarrr (tW, 'J). 
pro pono, ere. -posui. -positum, 

V. tr., offer. [I'loposfJ 
propter, prep, with ace, 

on (U-cutiiit of. ! 

pro sum, prod esse, pro fui. v. I 

iiitr. (aP7. (i), help, /„.„,./,V, ! 
am .^rrriri.ihli li> (witli diit., 
•-'08, S). 

proveiio. -ere. -vexi, vectum, 

V. 11-., earrii /onrnril. 
pro video, -ere, -vidi, -visum, 

\. 11-., /orr.tre, [proriilr]. 
provincia, -£ F., [in-oriwr]. 
proximus, -a. um, adj., 

/".!', loorrsl. (!i:!. -Ji : 

annus proximus. lo.^i i/mr. 
prudens, (i;cn. prDdentisi. iulj., 
foreHeriiiji {K4). [I'riKlcril] 



' prudentia, -ae. !•., fomi!,,/it. 
I I'ruilfni'f) 

pudet, -ere, puduit. \. ini|H3rs., 
/( '/mill, 1 {±>li, I, •_', .•(,. 

puella, -ae, 1'. , ./;/■/ 
puer, pueri, .\1 . l.mi. (l'i„.|i|,,j 
pugna. -ae, F.. jiij/ii, imiil,. 
|l'uxnaci(,iis| 

pugno, -are. -avi, -atum. v. intr , 
Ji'llil : 
pugnatum est, 

tfir fifllUe mm flillijiit . 

pulcher, -chra, chrum. adj.. 

t,iiini;/ii/ (,.|iiiip. pulchrior : 

wip. pulcherrimus) 
punio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, \. tr., 

I'll II Uh. 

puto. -are. -avi, atum, v. intr., 

(hi id: 

Pjrrhus, i. M., /•i/rrliiin. 



qua, rcl. a'lv. , /,/, n-lilr/i ,/■„,,, „■/„ ,.,.. 

quadraginta, indic 1. ,anl. jiuin. 
adj., /or/,/. 

quaero. ere. quaesivi. quaesitura. 



".</, 



""/'"' 



("iili ex 



or de). 

qualis, e, inter idj. .ofn-hol Uml > 
qualis, -e. rcl ij., of ivlml kiwi: 

lorrel, of \i. ,3(I4(), T). 
quam, intt-rr. ,idv., Uoir f 
quam, lel. ai]v.. Hum : Hill, .supui-. 
l.itivts, quam maximus, 

OS ijreof on pii'.s't!ile (SS, 7j. 

quamdiu, inturr. adv., hoir lomj ? 
quamdiu. rrl adv., o.i lomj ox. 
quamqu.im, conj. . iiltlioiojli (2.m, .1). 
quamvis, conj., hoirrnr, tlioiuili 
(■->.-..-,. -,). 

quando. inliir. adv.. ii-lim f 
quantus. -a. -um, ini.ir. adj., 

lour /„,-./. .» Iiior iiiiirli .' 
ri'l. adj., OS i/riiil ,(,,.■ 
i-orrr'l. to tantus 1 1 IC, "). 



voiAinr.Artv 



Ml 



qui.e, iiitcrr. adv., 
trhii f ii'hfnfitrr .' 
I't'l. lldv.. irhii, irlui; I'nrf. 

qiurtus, -a, um, onl. i ,. ailj., 

j'ottylh. 
quasi, conj., ,m ,/• (j,-,!;, | . 

'2.->7, ;(, (/,) ). 
quattuor, iiiduil. ciinl. jj , adj., 

/«"'■. 
•que, conj. (always apixMiilcd Ic. 

till; word or to sonic part of 

tlie phra.se wliii.li it eoiiiicct»), 

I'lul (24, f(Krtriotf). 
quem (ace. of quis, or qui), 

trhitm ? or ii'honi i\v\.). 
quemadmodum, adv. phra«e, 

ill mhnt Will/, liair. 

queror, queri, questus, v. dcp., 
I'liliili/ifiit. 

qui, quae, quod, rcl. pro , 
ir/io, vliieli, Ihiit (14,"), ]) ; 
qui Final (2:i'J, •>); 
qui Consecutive CiSB, 2) : 
in clause of cliaraoteristirri.'i7 I)- 
qui Causal (25'_', 4). 

qui, quae, quod, interr. adj., 

K'/iiWi ? tr/mt ? what tiail uf ? 

(IM, 2). 
quia, conj., hi^raiise {2o'2, 2). 
quicumque, quaecumque. quod- 

cumque, rcl. pro., mhwrn; 

whaifver. 

quidam, quaedam, quoddam, 

indcf. pro., .i rerluhi mi, 
(1411, 4). 

quidem. adv. (giving eniplia.«is), 
iii'li t ij. Its ifuu ,si'f : 
ne. . quideni, not. . .m-n. 
quies, -etis, V., rent, ['luirl]. 
quin, (diij., h'lt, that, hut that 
(247, 2). 

quinquainnta, indeel. card. num. 
eulj.. li/tii. 

quinquc, indccl. card. num. adj.. 



quintus. a, -urn. ord. niiiji. adj. 

nit/i. ' 

Quirinalis. e (s.-. mons). 

til' IjHiriiiitl {hilt „l' l!„ii„ ). 
quis. quae. quid, inien adj. pm., 

Il'lli, .' ir/iirh / irliiil .' ( | 4.>i, | , 

quis, (qua), quid, indcf. ailj. pro . 
"/','/ r„„. (I4!l, 1): 
ne quis, tlmt m, mie C.'.'i.'i, ,"ii. 
quisquam. no fem.. quidquam. 
indef. adj. pro , ,/,/,/ „„, 
I (I4i», 4). 

j quisque. quaeque. quidque. or 
quodque. indef. adj. pro.. 
/•'"■h (I4!», 4). 
quo, interr. adv., irhithn- .' 

rcl. adv., whithir (146, 7). 
quo, conj., ill until- iiiiii, (|,„,.,| 
when a comparative follows) 
(2;):!, 4). 

quoad, .onj., a^ I,,,,,, „,< ,,,,,,7 

(■-'•■i!», li, 7). 
quocum, irilh whnm (I45, .-,). 
quod, lirraiise i2."i2. 2) : 

that, the fact that (244, 2). 
: quominus, conj., 

Iiij ii-hii-li thr tua, m that not, 
friiiii (24S, S, il). 
I quomodo. interr. adv., 
; ill ii'hiil imii / hum? 

\ quoniam, conj., siuri' (2a2, 2). 
quot, inilecl. interr. adj. ,hi)ii- uianii? 
iiidci'l. rcl. adj.. ai main/ «,.■ 
correl. of tot (14(i, 7). 
quotannis, adv., i/mrli/. 
quoties, interr. adv., hum „ft,i,f 
conj., (M oftfii ai (20;), S). 



radix, radicis. F.. mut. [Radicle] 
rapidus. -a, um. adj., 

^ll-i/l.\,ai.„ll 

rapio. ere. rapui. raptum, v. ti., 
..>0, tuntf vji. 



322 



TOCARITLARr 



rarus. -a, -urn. hiIj., 

Iliiii,/nr ,ii„i,i. IHiin] 

receni (t;i'<<' recentis). ailj., 
/null, hill . \frri'Hl\. 

re cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

\ . t r , Inh' Itttfi- ; 
me recipio, 

/ Itftitk'' iiiifuflf, rftrtnl, with- 
ih'air. [Hcceive] 
recito. -are, -avi. atum, v. ti.. 

n'fut iitaKfl, [ririlf ]. 

recte, adv., riijhlhi. 

rectus, a, -uin,ii(lj..(i'f;/i'), prn/Mr. 

red do, -ere, didi, -ditum, v, tr., 

I'mlort-, rrutlff. 

reded, -ire, -ii, -itum v. intr. , 
f/(* htirl:, TftnrH i-'^, '{\, 

re duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum. 

V. tr., Ifiid liiirl: [Rciluce] 

re fero, -ferre, ret tuli, re latum, 

V. tr., In'imj hari; rfftort. 

r 5ci6. -ere, -feci, fectum, v. ti- , 

ri-fmir. 

re fugio, -ere. -fiigi. fugitum. 

V. intr., jier Imek. (Rffu'ieJ 
regina, -ae, F., qui-ni. 
regiua, -a. -urn, ailj.. 

itf (I. kitHj, ru{/al. 
regio, -duis, K., ilixirkt, [miia,,]. 
regno, -are, -avi, -atum, v. intr , 

reii/it : 

Romuld regnante, 

lit lln vthjn of fiinintlnM. 

rego, -ere, rexi, rectum, v. ti., 

nilf, [Rfj^ent] 
re gredior, -gredi, -gressus, 

V. (lup. , j/o Imh'{\ Vflrfnl. 
Regulus, i, M., Ilfiiiiliin. 
re linqud, -ere, -liqui, -lictum, v. t r. , 

li-iti'e Ml hid, Ifnir. 

[Rulinquish] 
reliquus, -a, -um, adj.. remain'wf] : 
naves reliquae, 

Ihe i-fAl of the sftipn. 
remex, -igis, M., iomjo-. 



Remi. -orum, M. pi., 

/{fiiii, II (iiitlir trihf, 

re migro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. intr., f/« liark, iiioif ImrL; 
reminiscor, -i, v. dep. , mmmli^r 

(176, 7). [Ut-niini.'fct.-ni-t.-] 
remus, -i, M., mir. 
Remus, -i, M., Hrmnn. 
re novo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr. , 

nili'ir. [KfuovateJ 
re nuntio, -are. -avi, -atum, v. ir., 

Iirhlif Imrk wiinl. 
re pello, ere. puli. -pulsum, v.tr., 

ilrh-f lntf'k, [rejuilne]. 
repente, adv., middenly. 
repentinus. -a, -um, adj., mnlilen. 
reperio, ire, repperi, repertum, 

V. tr.. find, fliinn-ir, 

repudio, -are, -avi. -atum. v. tr., 

dii'in'ir. [Hepudiiite] 
res. rei. F.. nfitir, Min;/ (101); 
res friimentaria, mrii i»;</>/.>/ ; 
res adversae, mlrrriii;/, ilij'm'. ; 
res secundae, fu-iiHju'ritff. nuecfii; 
res novae. Hiaiii/e, rei'oliuion. 
resisto, ere, restiti, no sup., 

V. intr., [i-MKl] (176, 2, 4). 
responded, -ere, -di. -sum, v. tr., 

atviiivr, yi'plii. [Kcsiiond] 
res publica, rei publicae, F. , 

(lO'i. ')), coitnmtnwenUh, Htate. 

[Riiml.lit] 
re tineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentum, 

V. tr., Iiotil lini'k, hold. 

[Retain] 
re vertor, -i, reverti, reversus, 

v. si'mi-dep. (1,16, ti), turn 

fiiirk, return. 
revoco, -are, avi. -atum, v. tr., 

rnll !,urk, rrcnil. [Revoke] 
rex, regis, M., kinii. [Regal] 
Rhenus, -i, M., Illiine. 
ripa. ae, F. , hnnk. 
rogo, are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., a.iit 

(witli ut, -240, 4). 



VWABlLAIiV 



R6m«, mt, F., Komr. 
Romanui, -a. -um. a.lj., /.•„,„„„. 
Romulus, i, M., Itomiiliu. 
roia, ae, F., n«w. 
rupe«, -a, F., .•«•*•. 

rure (>M „f rus), /r„m thf rounini 
(UN. -i; ll!(). 

run (l().:Htiv„,)f rus), in (h>- minilni 

(IIH, 3). 
rursus, lulv., <l;/,„w, l,„rk <„,,iiu. 

rus. runs, N., 

ruHHlrii (H' -.iiKisi.,] tiitliccitv)- 

ace. rus. III i,'. -niiiitrii (ll,s ■■>•" 

119). [RurulJ -^ — ' 



Sabini, 6rum, M., pi,, 

/fO/«(-. 

«acer, -era, -crum, adj., [snrmr]. 
saepe, adv., n/t,„ (conip,, saepius- 
sup., saepissime). ' 

s«e»us, -a, -um, ailj. , i,„i;i,,, , nWr, 
saptta, -ae, F., ,/,•,„„.. 
salus, -utis, F.,. „,/,,.„. [Sal„taiv] 
saJuto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr. 

salve, iliterj,, Iml/.' ./o,,,/ morui,,;,.' 
salvus, -a, -um, ailj , *>/>. 
sanus, -a, -um. adj., .„„/„,/. [s,i,iij 
sapienter, adv., uw/i/. 

sapiens (gen. sapientisi, ,idj., ,«>. 

sapientes, pi.. //„. „•;.».. 
sapientia, -ae, F., wmlum. 
satis, adv., enuinjh. 
Saturnus, -i, .\I., Saimn. 
saxum, -i, N., ,■„,/., 

scando, -ere, scandi. scansum, 

v. tr., cliiiih. 
scelus. -eris, N., kH;,!,,,^:,, n-im-. 
schcia, -ae, F., Wm,,/. 

scio, scire, scivi, scitum, v. tr 

hiiiw. [,s<.i,.„,.(.| 

Scipio, -onis. M., .V,',>;„. I 



323 



Scipio Nasica. «,„. Scipionis 

Nasicae. .\l., ,v ,/,;„ .v„,,;,.„ 
scribo, ere. scripsi. scriptum, 
v. I,., »■,;?,, [s,,il„.| 
! scriptor, oris. .\l . 

Ii-l-il,i; hisluriilll. 

secundus. a. um, .idj 
, res secundae riii/.^n,;;,,,- 

TtntUSSeCU' ins '.i;,nih/r,ri,„l 
Sed. i-orij , imf, 

sedes, sedis. K, (..,„/ 1. /,„„„.■ 

sedes. pi., «,iiu„„„f. 
semel, ad\- , unn-. 
semper, adv., ti/tnn/n, 

senator, -oris. .\1. («<■)l,I^„■J. 
senatus, -Ds. .\1. [.. «<i/, ]. 
senectus, -iitis, F., ,./,/ a:/r. 
senex, senis, .M., „/,/ ,„„„ ,(;;). 
aa adj., „/,l^ (lump, senior i 
flip, natu maximus. !»l, .^p). 
senior, -us, ni.hr. , 1,1, /■ (s,i. senex). 
seniores. -um, Jl. pi.. ,/,/,,„. 
sententia, ae, F.. ,;,i, . „/,h,;„i,, 
sentio, -u-e. sensi. sensum, V. inti-.. 
fffi, t„„ii: ,/,ii,l; (S...itiiri..|it| 
sepelio. -ire. -ivi. sepultum, v. ir., 

'""■.'/• [Si-pultiin.| 
septem, ind.-.l. ,i,r,|. „„mi. adj.. 



Septimus, ■• 

xinnlli. 
Sequani. orum, M. pi.. 

S.iiwin,. ,1 l;„/li,- ir,l„ . 
sequitur, secutum est, v. Ijhim 

;/ /,.ll,„r.i. 

sequor. sequi. secutus. v. d< 

.Ml„ir, |S,.(,u,.n(i'J 
serma. onis, .M., 

,r,.s,', ,„,:<,', r,nti;r.^,,t',,,i,. 

[.*>eriiiou] 
sero. a.lv., hii, . 
servio, ire, ivi. -itum. 

("■'•(•(■(J (with d;ll , I7i 



-um. ipid. imiii adj , 



iiitr. 
:, i). 



324 



VOfABULAHY 



servo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., 

Servius Tullius (gen. Servi Tulli), 

servus, i, M. ,«/«,-, . [Suif, .Servile] 
seu. ..seu.disj. i-i.m').,irlinlifr...tir. 
sex. indecl. eanl mnn. ailj., s'u\ 
sexag^ta, iiiileol. ciird. ninn. adj., 

Sextus, i, M., A.riiiK. 

sextus. -a, -um, ord. imm. adj., 

■■•ijili. 

Si, eiinj., <y (■-'4!l, -2). 
sic, a<Iv. , thim, ■■«>. 
sicut, eoiij. , 

"s jnsl (iH CioO, 1 ; ■J,"i7, 3). 
Sicilia, ae, K., Sirihj. 
signum, -i, N., Ktamlard. [Hifjn] 
silentium, -i, N, [nihun-]. 
silva, -ae, K., iwoil, fm-exl. 

[Silvan] 
Silvester, -tris. -tre, adj., wauiUj. 
similis, -e. iidj., like (with ,]at., 

ita, .3 ; ciiiii|). similior ; su|i. 

simillimus). 
simul, adv., at the ttm)u' thitv. 
simul, ennj., for simul ac. 
simul ac (simul atque), conj., 

fiH noun «M ('2.59, 4). 

simulo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. ir. , 

l>ril,iiil. [(Simulate] 
sine, pTcp. withabl., iriihout. 
sinister, tra, -trum, adj. , 

Ifft (himd). 
sive. . .sive, ilisj. i^onj., 

vintfti r. . .or. 

socer, soceri, 'S\.,falhir-in-l<iir. 
socius, i, .M., ullij. 
Socrates, -is, M , 

■SinraliH, II O'rirt Pliilum/ilifr. 
sol, solis, iM,, Klin. [.Sol.iil 
solum, adv., oli/if ; 

non solum . . sed etiam. 

not uii/i/. . ./mf iilm. 



solus, -a, -um, adj., nhur (48, 2). 
soror, -oris, K. , .m*;. 
spatium, -i, N. , ill^iaun; time. 
species, -ei, K., tiiipnu-iinre. 
specto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., 
look at, ijiizi' at. (S|)«etaele] 
spero, -are, -avi, -atum. v. tr., 

/"'/"■, lio/K for llTi, 3, 4). 
spes, spei, !•"., Iio/u: 
statim, adv., immi-ilinlilii. 
statuo, -ere, statui, statiitum, v. t r. , 
ileri.li- (■J40, «, 7). [Statute] 
Stella, -ae, R, .tin,-. [Stellar] 
sto. stare, steti, statum, v. intr., 
ntanil : 
per te stetit, 

il ira.i owing to you (248, '.I). 
stringo, -ere, strinxi, strictum, 

v. ti-. , draw {.vrord). 
studium. -i, N., dmirr, zml. 
stultitia, -ae, K., foil,/. 
\ suadeo, -ere, suasi, suasum, 
j v. intr., advinc, iin/r (witli 

dat., I7B, 4). 
I sub. prep, with are. or alil, undi-r. 

subito, ailv., stiddrnli/. 
I Sublicius, -a, -um, adj., (pons), 
Silhlirian hridijf. 
subsidium, -i, N., 

■•<n/tport, reiii/niremi'Ut. 
sub venio, -ire, -veni, -ventum, 
v. intr, rome to tin- aid of 
(with dat. 229, 4). 
sui, reflex, pro., 

ii.f liim.^ill\ hersrif, it.iell\ them- 
.>"Av»(l;fH, 4). 
sui, sudrum, M. pi., of suus, 
hin or thiir nun. 
i sum. esse. fui. v. intr., / mn 
(4.1; nil, 2). 
summus, -a, -um, adj. (»up. of 
superus) ; summus mons, 
to/' if fill- moiinliiin. 
sumo. -ere. sumpsi, aumptum, 
V. ti-., tak''. 



VOCABULAHV 



super, prep, with aoc. or ah]., 
nlmrp. 

superbe, ailv., proutlhi. 

superbus, -a, -um, a.lj., „,„„,/. 

[Svi|M'rli) 
superior, us. adj., 

Ii,<jhir, (conip. ofsuperus). 
supero. are, avi. atum, v. tr., 

nrrrnuitr, miif/it'i: 

super sum, esse, -fui, v. i„tr 

.-•"/■W,r (L>(IS, 7, S). 

superus, -a. -uni..iili.,„/„„v. „,,,„,■. 

<|"ni|i. superior; .sup. supre- I 

musaiiil summus) (!IL', I). [ 

supra, adv., „/„„•,•. j 

supremus. -a, -um, adj., /„V„,,y 
(»i'i- superus), \ 

suscipio, -ere. cepi -ceptum, I 
V. ti-., iii:,/,rM; {\7:i, .-{, 4). I 

suspicor, -ari, -atus, v. ,1,.„ | 

■■■ )>rrt. • j 

sustineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentum, I 
V. tr.. hmi; .. ;„„•<, /„.„,. , ; 
fi'intitxt. \ 

suus -a, -um, reflexive poss 
'"«, /If)-, (V.«, «/ip;,- .■ 
sui,-6rum, .\1, l>\.,lnmrthn,-mr„. 



325 



taedet, -ere, taeduit, v. imners 

t' wrtirh:< (2l'(i, 1, -J, ,S), ' 

talis, -e, adj., m,li ,■ 

talis. qahMs, of /h,-m nil' kt,i,l, 1.1 
(l-»(i, (i, 7). 

tarn, adv., used with adj. or adv 

no. ' ' 

tamen, oonj,, 

.'/I-', III i-rrthi'lr.sa. hoiivvei: 
tandem, adv., „/ /„.,/, „, f,.„,,ih. 
tantus. -a, -um, .idj . .■,„ ,,iu„i ■ 
tantus , . . quantus, »,<' /„,„,'. „, 
(i4(i. 7). 

tardus, -a, um, .idj . .>/„»•, /„/,. 
Tar.«ntum. -i. N., Tun nhim. 
Tarquinius, -i, .\1., „ /v,,,,,,;,, 
Olli- of llii' '/'iii-i/iiiiiil. 



Tarquinius Priscusf«.r,. Tarquini 

PriSCi). .\l., Tl„:ii,ui,h.h;l 
n kiii'j of lloiii. 
tectum i, \., /,„,/,/;„,,. ,/,,,//,„, 
tecum, ii-ifl, ijnii (i:j,s, (i). 
telum. -i, X., ,/,„./,. 

multa tela, -/ «/,„«•,,. „j,i,irt.i. 
temeritas. -atis, I'.. 

<'/.-//«(.,.«, Ininrilii. 
tempero. -are, -avI, atum, v. i„ir., 
'■iiiitriil. lej rain from. 
rieriipcrate] 
tempestas. atis, F., 

it'iriii^ iinitfifir. 
tempus. oris. N., time. 

['i'elMponilJ 

I Tenedos, -i, F., 

1 TriiriInK, nn is/im,/ „p„^ ji^g,^ 

I teneo. ere. tenui, tentum, v. tr.,' 

lio''l. (1. ■riant I 
I tener, -era, -erum, ,i,Ij., [^.„,/,,,.]. 

tergum, -i, N., /,„ri- ,■ 
( terga vertere, 

to liirn Ihrir hrir/.:i, rrlrnil. 
, terra. -ae, F., «„■//,. fTerrertnal) 
I 'efeo.. -ere, -ui, -itum, v. tr 

./riij/ifpii, [ti-rri/ji]. 

j terror, -oris, M.. /n,,/i/. [Terr-nr] 
tertius,.a,-um,..rd. num. adj. ,//„•,.,/. 

! Thebanus. -a, -um, ,idj., T/nhnn. 

; Thebani. -orum. .\I., pi. 7'/„./„„/... 
Tiberis -is (a.e. Tiberim), .M 
Tiber, 

timed, -ere. ui. no am,, v tr 

/;,(,■, lir ofriiiil. 
timidus, a, -um. ,nlj., 

[Iii,iiil\. roirorilhi. 
timor. -oris, il., finr. 
Titurius. -i. .\I., Tiliiriii«. 
tollo. ere. sustuli. sublitum. v tr 

'"A... li/l. i.a-i oini.i : 
ancoris sublatis. 

ii'iKjIilliif illirlior. 

tot. iiid.rl, adj,. s„ mil III, : 
tot quot. 'f.s iiiiiiii, , .,,^ I I4(;^7j 



326 



VOCABULARY 



totus, -a, -um (gen totius). adj . 

irholr, all (48, 2). [Total] 
trabs, trabis, F., ftfam. 
tra duco, -ere, -duxi, ductum, 

V. ir. , If at/ acronx, 
trad5, ere, -didi, -ditum, v. tr., 

hand vi'fr, Htirrt'ii'lfr. 

traho, -ere, traxl, tractum, v. tr.. 

iliiiir. [Traction] 
trans, prtp. with ace, nrronx. 
trans eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, v. tr. 

(-18, 3), ffo acruM, crovn, 
]taH8 htj. 

trans figo, -ere, -fixi. -ttxum, 

V U.,iiierci'tliroiifi/i,[lmii.'<Jij]. 
trans gfredior, -gredi, -gressus, 

V. (Icp., go acfo^n, rroi/i, 

[Transgress] , 

trecenti, -ae, -a, card. mini, adj., 

[thirr] humimi. 
tres, tria, card. num. adj., 

Ihrrf (106, .5). 
Treviri, -drum, M. pi., 

Tirriri, a Otillic Irilie. 
tricesimus, -a,-um, ord. num. adj., 

thirtiffh. 
triduum, -i, N., three dai/a' ^imce. 
trigemini, -orum, M. pi., 

llirci' hrolhm horn at a liirlh. 
triginta, indecl. card. num. adj., 

thirtjl. 
tristis, -e, adj., and. 
Troja, -ae, F., Troy. 
Trojanus, -a, -ura, adj., Trujan. 
tu, tui. pers. pro., thou, mm 

(l.-iT, 1). 
tueor, tueri, tuitus, or tutus, 

V. di'p., in-oti'H, mi/rh. 
Tultius, .sec Servius TuUius. 
Tullus : TuUus Hostilius. 
turn, adv., thru, at that time. 
tunc, adv., Ilien. 
turpit, -e, adj., beui, Jisjracr/id. 



turris, -is (ace. turrim ; abl. turri 
or turre), F., [tower] (&i). 

tuus, -a, -um, adj. pro., 
thi/, t/oiir (sing.). 

u 

ubi, interr. adv., where? 
ubi, rcl. adv., where: 

ibi. ubi, lliere. . loliere {146, 7). 
ubi, conj., when (•i.V.), 4). 
utciscor, -i, ultus, v. dcp., arevi/e. 
ullus, -a, -um, adj., (gen Ulius) 

ail!/{4S, 2; 149, 4). 
ulterior, -us, adj. comp.. farther; 
Gallia Ulterior, Farther Gaul 

(see Gallia), 
ultimus, -a, -um,adj. sup., /ar//iM(. 
umbra, -ae, F. , »/,«(/«■. [L'nil,rclla] 
unde. interr. adv., whence? 

rel adv., whence : 
inde . unde, thence . . . whence 

(146, 7). 
undecim, indecl. card. num. adj., 

eleren. 

undecimus, -a, -um, ord. num. adj. , 

eleventh. 
undique, adv. , from all siden. 
unquam, adv., ever. 
unus, -a, -um (gen. unius), .adj., 

one, alone (48, •>). [Unit] 
universi, -ae, -a, pi. ailj., 
all toi/ether, in a liodi/. 
urbs, urbis, F., city. [Urlmn] 
iisus. -lis, [««■], serrice, ejjierience. 
Usui esse, lie of xerrice (-iiS, 1,L>). 
ut, conj., that, in order that. 
(Final, 197, 2); 
that, m that (Consecutive, '.'0.3, I ); 
that (in Substantive clauses. 

('.'40, '.■) ; 
that not (with verbs of fearini:) 

(■24;), 2) J 
when (2.19, 4). 
uter, utra, utrum (gen. utrlus), 
interr. adj., tchieh (of lwo\ 
(48, 2). 



VOOAnHLAHY 



uterque, utraque, utrumque 

utriusque). ,i,lj., i,„tli 

("fti('v). (4>S, •>). 
utilis, e, .idj , ,„,,/„/ ,„.itl, 

i»3 S), ((,,1111). iitilior: 

utilissimus). 
utinam, adv., wtmlil ihnt (I'l: 
utor, uti, usus. v. t\,i, 

(witli iilil., |;{6, S). 
utrimque, adv., „„ eii/,,,- nhlr 
utrum, ili.sj. oonj., whelhi-,- : 

201, (»l,s.). ' 

uxor, -oris, K, m,/,.. 



(•,'■■11. 
.,„■/, 

dut.. 
sup. 



»4, •■ 



vale, inter']., farrwell, ijooUIn/,. 
vallis, -is, F., n,t/.i/. 
vallum, -i, N., raminrl, wall. 
Varro, -onis, M., 

I itrru, a Noinan ijeiierat. 
vasto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. ti- 

uiij mute, ilfrtulnle. 
vectigal, -alis, N., lax, remiuv. 
veho, -ere, veaci, vectum, v. u- 
rarrif: 
vehor, pass., 

am carried, ride, mil. 
velocitai, -atis, V. , Mriihiean, «,,ml. 
velox (gen. velocis), adj. 

moi/l, jint. 
velum, -i, N., mil. 

venenum, -i, N., /loimn. 

venio, -ire, veni, ventum, v Inti.. 

lOillf. 

ventus, -i, M., «■;»,/. 
V"uus, -eris, K, 

I'flliin, ffoi/dim nf Um . 
ver, veris, N., ^prim,. |V,,,iiall 
verbum, ■!, N'., ,/■,„■,/. (V,.i.|,;,i| 
vereor, -eri, veritus, v. din /;,„ 

(IS-2, 4) ' '■' 

Vergilius, i, .\l.. 



327 

' Veritas, atis, I'., iniih. |\-,.,i,v| 
vero, ;,.iv., Indii. rrrd,/, ,„d,,d- 
y"ni..l.id,l,„n;rn: 

verto, ere, verti, versum. x. i, 

Inrn. 

virus, -a, um, ailj.. h-m: 
vescor, vesci, v. d,p.. /,,,,/ „,,„„ 
(«itli al.l., nii, l)/ '" 

I vesperi, aiiv,<,f vesper, -eris. m- 

■eri, ii-riniKj, in (1,,^ rniiiini 
Id ,r,iiill<l (IIS, .-f). 

Vesta, ae, K., 

'■' *■/'!. i/w/detK of/lir hirtrll,. 

vester, -tra, -trum, i„o. adi 
Uuur. ''' 

vestio, ire, ivi, -itum, i. n 

tlulhr. [Vi.slJ 

vestis, -is, V.. ,i,in,i,i,i. 

veto, -are, vetui. vetitum, v t, 
./'irldd (24(1, .->!. 

vetus (gen. veterisi, adj., „/,/ (So) 
[> eUraill 

via, -ae, F., wai/. 

vicesimus, -a, -um. onl. ii,„i,. adj 

vicinus, -i, M., mi.jhL.r. 
'''^"','J?.' ;»■ ■"ni,adj.,„p;,,/,/„„.,- 

j victor, -oris, M. , [rictor], nmmeror ■ 

adj., nr/iiriuiiH. 
I victoria, -ae. F., rirtorv. 
< victus, a, -um, p p. p. „f vi„c6, 

'•om/wrid. 
I vicus, -i, .\l., rill,,,,,; r„„i„„. 
video, -ere, vidi, visum, v. tr 

"■>■ (\isiiiiij 
videor. -eri. visas, \. dep., 

; vigilia. -ae. F., 

indr/,: l/„ /,',„„„,„, il,-i,U,,,/„. 

iii;ild ii,l,i /„„r „■„/,■/„.., 

vlgiati. indeel. ,.aid. ,„„„ adj 
In;,,/,/. ■<■' 

vincio, -ire, vinxi, vinctum, x . ti.. 



328 



TOCABULART 



vinco, -ere, vici, victum. v. n-. 

violo. -are, avr, -atum, v. ir. 

i"ju.ri, l,r,„k. |Vii)liilL'J 
vir, viri, M., imin. [Viiil,-] 
Virgo, -inis, F., maidn, [myiii]. 
virtus, -utis, K, 

[t'irtt(f>\, rnlor, rounifif. 
vis, vis (laif), R, /ore. , riulnier : 
I'l. vires, -ium, M., 
hintili) xlnnijlh ((i7l. 
Vita, -ae, F., lif,. [Vital] 
vivo, -ere, vixi, victum, v -iti- , 

lii-f. [Vivid] 
vix, aflv., m-arci-ly. 
vobiscum, mi], i/im(\as, 6). 
voco, -are, -avi, -atum, v. tr., ml/. 

[Vocation] 
volo, velle, volui, v. irregl, 

tun wiHimi, will, win/i 

C^HJ, 1, 2). 



voluntas, -atis, F., ,j,„„lwill. 

[\ nlmilnrx I 
voluptas. -atis. F., /,/,,..,«)•<■. 

[\'iilll|)luaiv| 
Volusenus, i. M., 

C'diiiM VuliiM-niii; a lieult'Hiiiit 

v/ Cfitxar. 
vox, vocis, F., rok,: [Vocal] 
Vulcanus, -i, M., 

rul,;,ii, iitiil of Jin: [Volcano] 
vulnero, are, -avi. atum, v. ti., 

irwuiil. [\'ulncral>lc] 
vulnus, -eris, N., icuund. 



Xanthippus, -i, M., XmUhippwi. 
Xerxes, -is, JI , Xirjcei. 



Zama, ae, F., Han 



E\(;jJSIl-LATIX VOCAJUI.AllY 



.•t. 



3, ,ti.-, I 



admonish, 

winiiniii-,. 2, ■miuitil, -„ii,iiil„„i. 

adorn, oni,'., 1 ; Uinrn, |, 
advance, prfnil,;^ 3, .,-,.,.„-, -,-, .,.,„„, . 

Iiriiiimlmr, -i/ruli, ///v .<.,„.« 
adversity, /t". atlm-^nr (K 1,1 

M)i', 6). > ■ 1 . 

advise, mo«.o, •_> ; ,„l„i,„m-,. ■> 

(-M0, 4). 
aifair, jri, )>;, F. (Kd, 2). 

afraid, am. r^m„:\>; ii,n,r,.-2 .„-, 
111. sup. : inniif,. S, .„;, .,;/„„,' 
I am afraid that, rtm,r ,„ ■ 
I am afraid that . . not 
re.rrur ill {2i]>, I ; 04;^^ ^. .j ^^ 

after, prep., ,»,.,/ witli aii-. 

after ten years, /«,..^ ,/,,-,-,« „„„„x 
after, udv., /«,.</ .■ 

ten years after, >lmm annU punt 
(IK), .^), 

after, (-onj., /msl,/,ii,m, /ii,«tm,,(iiim 

(-'5'J, 41 ; r«,„ (L>04, HI : abl. 

alls. (Itio i,/|). 

after (Hit I, a vuiLal lum, .see 

aftei' crmj. 
afterwards, /ni^/n'i. 
again, /■«/■<((.< .• ,v, ,■„,„, 
against, niii/ni wilh ai'c. 

age (tiiii,. of lif,.), nriiis. .,;/;.,, p • 
(dill), .^iiiri-i ,,.■,, .,j/,-.,, 1.-. ' ■ ' 
age of ten, at the, 

ilrrfiii aiiiinx nilliis {\:m, !l). 
ago. ahhiDc : 
ten years ago, 

■hhiiii- ,li.;i,i UHur,., („„,„•„) 



,lr 



. ■■:>. 



't iiff 



abandon, rf/int/m 

lU'tittn ; (/(.W-, 

di'grrtiini, 
ability, iiiijruiniii, -1, x. 
able (am), iiuwim, i„ 

(^('71. 

about, prip. = concerning 
witli alil. ^ 

about, .iilv. =nearly, dirii^r (^^■Uh 
miuiL-rals) ; /„.,. ,„.iil, a.lj. „]■ 
iiilv.); jseriurally placuil aftir 
tJie wonl liniitucl. 
abroad, mil nine (l.)uative Ux 
absent, nbanu (yen. «/w«//.,) 
in my absence, mi ah 
(I5«, 4). 
absent (am), nlmim, -,.w, -j„l .- 

from, (/, ah, with alj. 
abundance, rCijiia, .,ie, K. 
accept, aed/mj, 3, -repi, ■reiilnui. 
acceptable to. t/i-ri/iiM, -a, -urn. 
account of, on, /m/./n- with ace 
account, on no : uri/lu inmlf,. 
accuse, ari-nm, I. 
accustomed (am), .-oiM/K-yv" (2-i((, 3). 
across, lmii.i with aee. 
across, lead, 

tn't {/i-atiit) tll'irfj, ;i, 
-ttuffnm. 

admire, athuJror, I, 
admit, alt, iiii,r nmiir.-. 

(il't, 5). 
admitted 



■'In.,:,: 



roiiMat 



inti'r 



> by all, it is, 

o/«n('« i;}iiMat (L''.'4, .">). 



aid. 



(11(1, 4). 



3l>9 



'(«»«, J", Jf. 



330 



VOCABULARY 



aid, /n-o\,iiii, pnuUaw, iimfiii (vi'nU 

iliit , •2(17, .')) : 
come to the aid of, nulnviiiri, 4, 

-/vn;.-iv/j(Mmwitlnlat.C22!l, 4)! 

inirllm ri-nin with (Int. (228, I ) ; 
be an aid to, '■*« auxUw (228, 1 ). 
aim, I make it my aim to, 

;■/ «;/.'. 11/ (240, S). 
all, *i/nn!i, -t' ; fi'i/n/i, 'ti, -urn. ; 
all in a body, uniwr^l, -af, -a. 
ally, siwiiiM, -;, M. 
almost, /fre ; piienc. 
alone, .so/h-h, -a, -dm. 
alongr (with), riim with abl. 
Alps. A/jftx, -in III, K. 
already, jmn. 
also, I'fiiiiii : 
not only. . but also, 

iifiit mtuiH. . .tfd ettaift. 
allow, /Kttii/r, jiittiy fiiiHiitis. 
allowed, am, mlH licH (223, 3). 
altar, drn, -ai'. F. 
althou?h, ifnniiif/naiii, ftnl with 

iruTiL*. ; i/Ufimvis with suln. 

(2.-).-), ,■)). 
always, xfiitper. 
am, miin, f.iMf,fui (45). 
ambassador, lei/utns, -i, M. 
ambuscade, ambush, 

hiiiiliw, -il mm, V. pi., (.12, G). 
among;, hiti'i- witli iicc. ; apuil with 

iK'c. ; in witli aWi. 
Ancus. Aiicim, I, M. 
and, */, -'jitf; lUqut' (rtf) = and also, 
animal, nnhnnl, -I'llin, N. 
announce, nuiilm, I. 
another, ulins. -a, -ml (48, 2). 
annoyed at, am, 

iiiiih'.sfi: iif'frt^, fjiarihr fern 

(214, .')). 
answer. nxjioiiKuni, i, N.; 
I make no answer, 

nihil nsjui'tttii'i. 
answer, riKiiontl''''- 2, -ifi, -kuih. 



any (nflir nvgativo or virtual 

i\ei'Ative),ijuiiiquam,iittidt/HaiH; 

uUiu, -a, -iim (149, 4); (after 

»(", iiini. III, Hum), iiins (149, 4). 
any one, lest (in tiiial clauses), 

lie tfitin (233, 5). 
any where, uiquam. 
appear, seem, vtdmr, 2, rUus. 
appearance, sp^fien, -<■/, F\ 
approach, itdivutns, -ttt, M. 
approach, a/ipropin'/iin, 1 (with 

(lat. or (ul with ace. ). 
armed, urmdtus, -a, -uni, 
armorbearer, arniif/fr, -eri, M. 
arms, anna, -drnin, N. pi. (,S2, 6). 
army, (in training), 

exfirUitu, -fin, M. ; 
(on the march), iigmen, -iniii, N. 
around, circum >itli ace. 
arrival, adwtdm, -us, M. 
arrive (at), pmmiu, 4, -rrai, 

-ivnlum Uul witli ace). 
arrow, smjitla, -ae, F. 
art, «rj*, artis, F. 
as. . .so, ut. . .sic or iVn. 
as if, as though, iiuaii (257, 3). 
as a gift, </u»o (228, I), 
as long as, dum, donee, nuoad 

(259, 6). 
as many as, tot. . .qmt (146). 
as often as, qnutim, cum (2(i3, 8). 
as soon as, nimul ac (aliine) ; 

cum prlmiim (259, 4). 
as quickly as possible, 

ijmim cclfrrinw (H?*, 7). 
as though, iiuas! (257, 3). 
ascertain, 

roi/niinco, ,3, coijHi'in, coijnitHm. 
ashamed, am, ma jiudct (22(i, 1 , 2). 
ask(a(]Ucstion), ro;/r>, 1 ; intt-rrofju; 

qntifrO, ,3. quactttl'l, qttaeaitum : 

witli iiulireft question (200, 

4, 5) ; witii substantive clause 

(240, 4). 



VOCABULARY 



331 



«ak (re(|iic»t. Ik-;;), r..;/.,, I ; ,„■„, 
I ; /WO, ;), /;,(;(•,■, i^iiluiii : 
ask Caesar for peace, /«<•(. », ,; 

with suhstiimive clause (240, 4). 
assail, oppmjm,, l ; m/orior, 4, „rlu» ; 

"ngrniuii; -i/mdi, -ijrfMiu. 
assault, = assail. 

assemble (tmns. =call together), 
t'onrurO, 1. 
(intraiw. =come together), 
ronrenu,, 4, -reHi, ■ntntiim. 
assist, see aid. 
assure, conjirmO, 1. 
at (of pliiio), lorathv (US, 3); 
=near, ml with act: ; apud 
with lice. : 
he came to me at Rome, 
m/ iiir /Uiiiiam nnit (ll!l, ."i). 
(of time), iihl witliimt a n'reii 
('!«. 1 ; 117, 7). 
at the age of ten, 

(leeem, «««o» natiu (1.36, 9) 
at once, ahitim. 
at last, hiiulem. 
at least, iiuidrm (.ifler the wciiil to 

wiiieh it isattiuheil). 
Athenians, AiheiiieN«i~H,-ium, M. pi. 
Athens, Athemu, -dnim, F pi. 
attack, flee assail, 
make am attack upon the 
enemy, im/w/mw ;„ hustisfurw ' 
attempt, 

co;wr, I : fximior. 4, «/«rf,„. 
a^tumn, nuctuinnHa. -;, M. 
auxiliaries, auxiUo, -urum N nl 

(32, ii). ' , 

avarice, nvdrilki, -ne, F. j 

avoid, to (ir. Older that .. .not), 

'« with Niilij,, 2.).S, ")). 
await, fx^pirio. I. 

B J 

back, lenjiiiii, -,, JJ. I 

turnbacksinflight,(f»v/,, ,vrt^rr. i 

bad, »«»/«.,,.„, .„,„ ,,,:jv„-, /«.„„„.,, ; 



badly, /««/«• (/.■;/,.,. /i^., ,,„„-, us, ;> 

•"KKfge, ii„i,.,lhm.,l„, -m-um 

N. pi. (32, .-.), 
bank, li/di, .,„,, (.-. 

barbarian, Imihmia, -n, -um. 
barbarians, ha,l,„ri, ■Ormii, M. pi. 
barbarous, crwie/is, -, 
base, /urpin, -p. 
battle, 

proi/iiim. -i, N. ; /,«,„„, .„f _ k. 
battle, line of, «,;,,, .,,, k . 
draw up the line of battle, 
aetfiii iittttruu. 
beam, traha, trahU, F. 
bear, nntim, -;, M, 
bear, >,•«, ^Vrr-, /«/;, lr,t„m, 

(-13, 2) ; (carry; ,iorm, I. 
beast, /cm, -,ic, F. 

beast of burden, jumniium, ■;, N. 
beautiful, puHier, -rlira, -rinum; 

(piiMiiior, iiulcUrrrtmiinK 
because, iinal, ,/„ui (2;")2, 2) • 

often traiislateil l,v a part' 

ll'S'(J)'). "' '' ""'''■ ■""• 

(21o, 2). 
beech, /I'lgux, -;, p. 
before, prep. ,„ue nHh acc„ 
before ten days, 

aiitf dire III diiH{l\{i, Ti) ; 
ailv., ante, niitni, 
ten days before, 

iln-em diiliu„ ante (ll(i, j). 
before, conj., 

iiiiln/iiaiii, jiriilm/iiiuii (LM!), 8). 
heg, .sec ask. 

begin, mi/ii, meplHue (2|i) oj. 
iirdiur, 4, (,/■.«»., .. " ' 

'"'■'/"". 3, -.■-•/"". ■'•'■J'l'"" ■■ 
begin a battle, 
/iriielhiM rumiiiilli'i. 
beginning of, at the, 

prlmiu, -I,, .„,„, .„ij ||,j^ -J 

behold, <:,mpiri,-,., :i. -»/„..,■,-, -.,^„,,.,„,„ . 
".V-ia--.- vii/io, 2, ,.,-,/,-, ,■,-„„«. 



332 



VOCABULART 



behind, yxM/ with ace. 
Belgae, lli/f/iw, -,iniin, M. |il. 
believe, nrilf,, 3, nntidJ, crriUlitm 

(with iliii. 17U, 4). 
beloved, cdntM, -a, -urn. 
benefit, fn-mum. priiilfusp, /irnfiti 

(with (lal. 207, ti ; 208, 8). 
beseech, nni. 1 ; with sulmtaiitivf 

L-liiusi; (24(1, 4). 
besiege, nhsiilr,;, 2, ■.«■•/;, ■muHtim : 

ij/t/ini/Hf'i, I. 
best, I'fttliiiHs, -a, -um ; see bonus, 
betake myself, 

m<} i-fcipio, 3, -crpi, -ri-ptinn, 

betray, pri'ulri, 3, -tthli, -ifiium. 
better, adj., meliiir, -HH (ill, 3). 
better, adv., mffiim, (-utiin, of ftt'tif 

(!»8, 7). 
between, uitfr with acci 
bind, nnriO, 4, vinxi, rinctum. 
bird, avh, acist M. or F. 
black, ni'jfr, -gra, -ijnim ; dtn'y 

atro, i'ltntm. 
blame, culpa, -oc, F. 
blame, culpo, 1. 
blind, cueniM, -«, -nm. 
boat, m'lrix, -M, F. 
body, rorpHu, -o?v'^, N. 
bold, auitOx (^'en. niuhlvi^), (84, 2). 
boldly, audactfr {nuducius, itudO' 

cUniutfi). 
book, IVnr, lihrl, M. 
born, am, nnscur, mmci, mttufi. 
both, utffqtte, utraque, utniimne 

(48, 2). 
both. . .and, et. . .et. 
bow, a?vjw, •«.<, M. 
boy, /)«f7-, pueri, M. 
brave, J"- . (w, -f. 
bravely, fortitcr. 
bravery, rirtftt, .ftfh, F. ; 

fortUmtO. imSy F. 
break, franyO, 3, /m/?, /rartnni. 



bridge, ;>f>/M, jtuutU, M. 
brief, ^yrrri-s, ./-. 
briefly, ^n-vmUr ,- 
as briefly as possible, 
quam hrevisnim*'. 
! bring", portfi^ 1 ; 

/fn"*, ftrre, lull, /Otum (213, 2). 
bring back word, rcnuntio, I. 
bring together, atrnportu, 1 j 

romparOy I. 
bring up, Crudio, 4. 
Britain, Brifantiiu, itf, F. 
Briton, HrUnnnmy •/% M. 
broad, Idttm, -a, -um. 
\ brother, /n/irr, -<rw, M. 
I build, aedijio't, 1. 
I building, aedijicmm, -i, N. 
i bum, cremo, 1 ; 

ittcetuid, 3, -//?, -awm. 
burden, ohih, -e^if, N. 
bury, sepeii^, 4, -/ri, ifpidtum. 
business, »■&*, rr-/, F. 
but, ff(/. 
there is no one but believes, 
(247, 3) 
by, expressing agent, «, ah (18, 3, 
(2)); ilat. of agent with gerun- 
dive {188, 4 (/*! ) ; expressing 
cause, means, instrument (18, 
2, (1) ) ; secondary agent, per 
with ae<;. 
by day, iuterdiu, die. 
by night, nocln, nocte. 
by means of, per with ace. 



Caesar, Caesc ris, M, 
call, rttro, 1 

call back, rt-ro . 1 ; 

call together, ronroco, 1. 
camp, atstra, -orutii, N. pi. ; 

pitch a camp, lastra pono. 
can, pusMuin, posse, potul (207, 
Cannae, Vomme, -iiruni, F. pi. 



VOCAIiUI.ARY 



33S 



Cannae, of. <''i,iiirii^}^, .,, imij. ', 
in the battle of Cannae 

*/* f'll'Jttli i'ltnlH-Hsi, 

cannot, mm iiitanilni, i»m.1'', imtn 

c-t):). 

captive, niiiiirux, -I, M., 

cttiitux, -It, -mil. 
capture, •■ir/iin, ,1, r*'/*/, raittntn. 
care, take, riirn, I (I,S7. !t). 
carry, yioiM, 1 . 
carry on war, 

hi Ihtiii ;/fro^ 4, ijen-ti, i/rstifui. 
Carthage. Knftfnh/o, -hiin, V, 
Cassius, Viii-tiiiH, -i, .\I. 
cast, roHJirio^ ;j, -j''f't, •jfciinii. 
cattle, Inn;-:,, .\I. „r F. pi. 
cause, you were the. 

I>er ti' Hli-lit [iiimmiinu) ('248. !)). 
cavalry, (oiilk-ctively) 

eqiiililtux, .fi.-, : , i/HiVr,, .,„„ 
M. pi. 
cavalry (adj), niiiexlrr, -Irix, -Ir,- . 
cavalry battle, /'rur/iiiM n/iuMn-. 
celebrated, eMiui, -a, -um. 
centurion, i-ntirirw, -nni^, .\I. 
certain - sure, rertm, u, um. 
certain (one), a, 

quhlam, qimeiliim '/ituddnm or 
iliiiilihim |14i). 4). 
chance, nint/M, -ifa, M. 
by chance, nUit ; furfr. 

change(i)oliticiil),;v»Hiiivif(IO'-',")). 
charge the enemy, 

ho^ttfx 'I'ji/iri/tor, 'iii'edi, -jfri.-i. 

^tus; uitfH'tHm ill /tfmti'ii/iiciii. 
chariot, fiirruK, -/7x, M. 
chief, priiiripn^ -rifiin, M. 
children, lihtri, ■iiium, .M. pi. 

choose, /«/'',, 3, /riji, Irrllllil. 

Cicero, Cirfrn, -rmiit, M. 
citadel, <iiv, urcin, F. 
citizen, rUv, -is, M. 
city, urhx, iirliiM. F. 
clamor, cli'tmur, -Orii^, .M. 



climb, ■si-iliiifi'i, :i. ^ninili, sninsinu, 

close, iliiiiiln, ;t, itiiiiti. iiiiiiKiiiii, 

clothe. ii.~iii,, 4, 

cloud, iiiili,.<, .;,, F. 

coast, './■</, -Ill , V. ; liliix, -iirin, N. 

cohort. oi/iiii:i, ruhiirlix, V. 

cold, friiiiii, ■.,/•;<, N. 

cold, fi'iijiilnM, 'It. .um. 

collect, iiiinliilfii. I ; 

'""!/", •*, <'<i*i.r'> nitti'/iiiN. 
come, I'l iili'i, 4. niii. ri Ilium. 
come to the aid of, 

■fii/iriiiiii, 4, II' Hi, ri-ii/iiiii (with 
ilal. ±>9, 4). 
command, julnn, '2, jintui, Junniim 
(witli !lcr. anil iiiHri.. ■J40. .">) ; 
imiieiii. 1 (uitli ilat. I7ti; luid 
iifim.i). 
command - be in command of, 
im/nn',, I (witli (lat. I7(>) ; 
I iirucHiim, -r^.«: ./«/ (with ildt. 

i 228, 3) : 

place in command of, 
j imielii-ir,, 3, -Jiri. fn-lum (with 

I ai-o. and dat. •J-JS. 3 ; 22H, 4). 

I command, imjurium. i ,- 

at the command of Caesar, 

Cmmlrr imiirriiiiti' (Kill, (,) ). 

i commander, imjmi'iiur, -nnx, .\l. ; 

' lilLr, ihli'is, M. 

commence hostilities against, 

liflliiiii infill-,, -fern-, -liili, 
iWiliiiii (with dat. •.'•Jit, .'i). 

common people, ii/rln, iilrhii, V. 

commonwealth, 

rix/nifi/lrn, rilintlilictlp. 

companion, 

■<0'''«... -/". M. ; I'umrS, -ilii, M. 

company with. in. 

'■";,/ witli ahl (IS, 2}. 
compel, iii'jii, 3, ciK-i/i, rviirtum. 
complain, qmror, quiri, ijti',itu/f. 
conceal, ii/«/<',, 3, uliiliil,, ahililum. 
concerning, ./. with ahl. 
concerns me, (all), it, 

iiii'ii, {omnium), inlHrenHIX, 4). 



334 



VOCABULARY 



condemn, rtni(tetntn'>, I. 
conquer, finrn, 3, cfi, iviinn 

conquered, rirtm, -a, -u u. 
conqueror, rielor, firvi, .\I. 
consequence of, in : see alil. alw 

(I BOW)). 
consider, iiil>iln>r,\ : ixu/imn, i. 
conspiracy, roiijiinilio, ■oiiU, F. 
conspirator, muji'mitm, -i, M. 
consul, coiiiul, -iiliy, M. 
consulship, in the : »oe ahl. hIjs 

(l">9, 4(«)). 
contented, cuiitentut, o, -um (with 

al>l. 94, .5). 
conversation, sfrmo, -Oiiii, M. 
converse, colloiiuor, -i, -fyiemiu. 
Corinth, Corinth lu, ■!, F. 
com, frnmetUum, ■;, N. 

com supply, ris /ruiiteutdria 

(10-2, 6). 
council, concilium, -i, N. 
counsel, coiuUiinn, •/", N. 

country = native land, iHttria, -ae. 

F. ; 
= State, rfHpuhlica, refpublicae, 

F. ; ciritaa, iilin, F. ; 
=territory, fine.i, -iiim, M. pi ; 

as opposed to town, rm, 

riirin, N. : 
from the country, rare ( 1 16, 4) ; 
to the country, rm (ace. I IB, 4) ■ 
in the country, rfirl (locative. 

l|->, 3). 

courage. ririii:<, atis, F. ; 

furfi/miO, -inifi, F. 
cowardice, ii/ndriu, -ae, F. 
cowardly, ir/narun. -«, -nm ; 

timiUiiK, -((, -itm. 
crime, Hcetim, -rrix, X. 
cross, tranmjrnlior, ■iireiii,-iireiiaiin ; 

tranmo, -ire, i!,' -Hum (217, 2 • 

2IS, 3). 

, citrtina, -af, K. 



cruel. rn-,il,Hs, .,• ; MiirilM, 11. 11)11 ; 

ttfrnj-, (gcii. nlritriM). 
crush, u/^iiriiim, 3, -/,/•( «<(i, -//rrn/tHw. 
cry, c/amur, -nrix, M. 
cultivate, roto, 3, culm, rnllHm. 
Cures, C«)<=», -(»wi, F. pi, 
custom, iiH'is, ninrin, M. ; 

cutttimtihtn, iniM, F. 



danger, /nriniliim, -i, N. 
dangerous, iifriculn^na, a. -urn. 
diire, timlro, 2, «!««« (1,35, 5). 
dark, lUcr, I'llra, illriiiu. 
dart, tt'lum, -i, N, ; 

a shower of darts. mii//<, tr/a. 
date (adapt o indirect ini.stion 

with qiMi:ili;, 2S4, -J). 
daughter, yV;,<, .,„^, K. dlat. and 

ahl. ^X./iUahtis, 12. 4). 
day. difi, ilif-i, M. (or F. ii, sini!. : 

in pi. M.). 
daybreak, /■riinn Ifu- ; 

at daybreak. iJihmi liice. 
dead, mnrtum, -It, -urn (p. p. of 

morior). 
dear, «/™», -«, .um. 
death, mm-A, morti- V. 
deceive, ilffi/iifi, 3, -cipl, -ceptmn. 
decide = resolve. 

ulatm-,, 3, xtaini, stairiliim ; 
nnulitiiu. 3, -Miliii, -MilMuiu 
(240, 6, 7). 
declare war. 

Mliim imlln,, 3. -./(xf, -tliclnm 
(with (lilt. 229, 4, o). 
deed,yl(c(M;/;, -?, N. 
deep. nUun, -a, -um, 
defeat, sn/tfro, 1 ; 

rinco, .3, rici, victum. 
decree, i/rcrmo, 3, -cirrl, -crUum 

(■240. B, 7). 
defend, ilf/rmlr,, 3, -i/i, -mm. 
delay. murm\ 1. 



VWABl'LARY 



asfl 



>}, -ItUfll 



»'rfntu. 



■iim (with 



delight, :lr/erH,, I. 

Delphi, />,//,/„-, .,-.r„m, M. ,,1, 
demand, ;w/«to; (» jti, sulistimti 

I'lause, LMll, 2, 4). 
deny, Hfiifi, I. 
depart, illnmlr,, 3, .rrj,..,, 
ilfrfili't ; iihm, irr 
C-MS, 3). 
desert, di-w,, 3, -«.r«;, 
desire, xindium. -i, N. 
desirous, nij>i,liu 

Kill. ). 
despatch, Wfeme, ■arum, F nl 

destroy, ,/,*«, o, ,/,;/i,,.,_ ,/,,/,,,„,„ 
destroyed, </(;/;/«,, .,r, -«„,. 
determine, »<•<• decide, 
devastate, m^K, 1 ; ,l,-pn/„i/.„; 1 . 

die, i/l'^rior, morl, mnrtutis 

difficult, i/ijfld/is. ;■ (IK), :;). 
difficulty. i/ijfin,!lm, -OIU, V. 
difficulty, with, vix ; a,gre. 
diligence, ili/ii/euiia, -ar, p. 
diligent, (WiV/eiM («eii. dUujeiilu). 
dinner, rPiia, -ae, F. 
disaster, i/ridti, -w, p. 
discourse, «'r/«o, .,-,«m, m. 
discover. ««• ascertain, 
disembark (intr.), 

rj: inli-i {iiiiriliKM) c'/rediiir, 

■ijrid,. .,/,■!. «,,„. 

disgraceful, /;ii/,;.,, .,.. 
distant, am. ahmm, -cw. f,,-, 
am distant from, .d,.,Hnt ,,'h 
(with .ilil.). 

distinguished, i-lnriii, -a, -urn. 
district, rnim, .<■„„■.,, p. 
distrust, -/,:;^,M, .-), ./7,s,„ (I.^-,, .i) 
(with chit,, I ;■), '•_'). 

ditch, _/*M^rt, -rrf, p_ 

Divico, />/-,•,>,-,, -,-,„«, M. 
do, ./Ji/'m. 3. firi, fiirlHiii : ,i,j,-,, 3, 
*■*//, Hf/itni. 



dog, .vi/i;«, -,»_ M or p 
doubt, didiit:',, I (247. 4). 
draw, ^rnAr., 3, Inui. Imrtum. 
drag, si-f draw, 
drive, i>rlh\ 3, /,»■/„,/,-, /„ihum. 
draw up il.,iith.lii,..), 

(<"v^,„) ,„,^™,>, 3, -„/n,ji. 

-.</rnr/nni. 
"•"'yi "Ji'-iiim. i. \. : s,.,. (.M4^ ;|_ 
dwelling, irriiim, ;. X. ■ 

ilidijifiiiiii, ■!. K, 



each, qui^qai; ■iii(i.,/,if, t/indqur, or 

•liiiHlqar (|4!l, 4). 
eager for, miduK, -«, .|,m (with 

eagle, (iqnilu, ar, F. 

ease with which, the, adapt to 
indirici (|iic»ti<)ii with qmim 
Jnrilf, how easily (-234, 2). 

easy,./;tr/7i», .f , (/<in/ii„;/;m/limm). 

easily, ./I.n/,., (/ari/itu, /nnllimi). 

effect, .->>/,-,, 3, ;/?,•;, ./w.,„,„ 
(Hitli suhxtantive ulauiie, 244 

eight, iirio. 

either., or, nut... nut (cxdiKlini! 
the other); ,-,(..., W (yivi,,,, 

elect, (■(■»<■,, 1. 

elected, am, /M, /,«, /,„-tm a„m 

(:il.">, 2). 
eloquent. rh,qii, (j,,.,,. ,-/i,q,i<,dij<). 
embark (intrni ,.), ,„ire:i, Ii„-,i;-m) 
,;„isrn,d,-,, 3. ■mmll, -...>,„„„,. 
encourage, r,»ytv„»-,, I ;,-<//„„y„r,l, 
end, finis, -M, M. ; 
at the end of, o/i ;,i««, ■„, nm 

tai, mnlici,-,, 3, .y;;„- .f,^,,,, 

,Vniu, 4. 
endowed with, /in,rdii„.H. a, -urn 



A:.-.'ii 



3M 



VOCABCI.AHT 



enemy (piililk'), hi,»ilM. .;«, m, ; 

(|)liv;ili)_ hiim'n-iit. .!, M. 
tagige, i-iimirf tt'hir. 'jrr'/i. ■tjrrit.iiis. 
enough, iiiti.i. 
enrol. 

ruimrrilit',, 3, -arriim, ,<rri/:liim. 

enter, h.firiiliiir, -:inili, -.//v. «««».• 
iiif',. -hr, -ii, -Itiiiii C^LS, ;;). 

enter upon, i'm'i, -irr, -U, iiiiii, 
(21S, :i). 

entreat, fit'u, I ; jtrtror, l. 

envy, iiii-iilffi, •_>, -ndi, -iikkhi 

(witli flat. 17B). 
equal, /.«r (yen. y«iW..). 
escape, i-jrunw, .s, -/mji, -/u./iium. 
establish, ronjirmfi, I. 
even, itimn .- 
not even. w. . .i/iiiiliui ((.Mnplia- 
.sizid Honl pliici'd lnuwi^cii). 
evening, rfn/tpr, ■< rit m- -rri, M, ; 

in the evening, najirr}. 
ever, ami nam : 

~ always, nfinpfr. 
every -all, pi. oihiuk. 
exactly, i/ife, ipm, iihiuin (144, (i). 
exhort, Imrtor, I. 
expect I =wait for), cxpirir,, I. 
expel. ej-/ie//i'i, ."<. -jinli, ■jiiiUiiiii. 
extent, ad.tpt to iiidiiuci (luustion 
with qmiiiliiK, -a, -11111 (2.14, 1'). 
eye, oruhis, -i, M. 



fact. 1V1, rii, V. 

fact that, the. luu,/ (■.>44, 2). 

faith. ,lif/r.-, -ii. V. 

fall. r:lilf,, .3, cr/lV/i, n'miim. 

falsehood, tell, niniiii,}-. 4. lufiitUuK: 

tell many falsehoods. 
iiiiillit jiii'titior. 
far. A/»;/.- ; 

far and wide. Inini,' ln/irjKr .- 

far off, /,/■„,/./ 
farmer, ni/rln.in. «#, M. 



farther, nli.riur, .«« .- 

Farther Gaul, U:illi„ flierior. 
farthest. iiirn„,is. .„, -„„i. 

father, /■n/rr. imlrlii. \|. 

fault, <"//«, -lie. i\ 

fear, liunn-. -oris. M ; mitiu, .«.*, 

fear, sec afraid, 
feel, fiftttiit, 4. .,*/M/. fn'iinmii. 
fertility, rii/ii,,, -m\ V. 
few, /tttitri. ■at', -a. 
field, aijfry atjn, M. 
i fierce, artr, lin-iM, t'irri' (SI, 2) 
i f'-rox («cn, fimriK) : 

a fierce battle was fought, 

arritrr piiijiiiilnm r»l. 

fiercely, •irriln- {arrin-i. aferriiiir) ; 

ffvncitt'i' {J\'ruriiiM, ffrurissitHr). 

fight, /'Hi/iin, -ar, F. ; nrijflilllil, -1, 

X. 

fill, itaniili-i,, 2. -/)/<■(■;", -ji/,-ltnii. 
find, huvniii, 4. -»v'H/". .niituiit ; 

ri-i«-rit'i. 4, rijiiur'i, n iwrliim. 
finish, riiiijirin, .t, ./^n", -firtiim : 

fhiio, 4. 
fire. '■;/«;.«. -«. M. ; 
with fire and sword,yV)i-o<7 i;;»i,- 
set on fire, inmif/a, ;f, -</(, -«(,«. 
first, prhtit/.i, -It, -tint. 
first, firstly. I'riititim ; 

at first, ftrhiif'i. 
five, i/iiiitijttf. 
fit, ajttii.t, -It, -ititt ; iiliiiii'int, -a, -Hitt. 

flee, /".'/ii'/. :i, ft'iiii. /tti/iititti. 

flee back, rijiniii'i. 
fleet, rliLssis, -u, V. 

flight, /«;/ir, .«p. K ; 

put to flight, hi/ttt/atit tlti. 
flower. ,rfr«, /,-,i ;.«. M . 
follow, ttiiitor. .1, ftrfiliiK. 
following (iirlj.). /,„^i,fti„, -a, -tim. 
fond of, iti-'titux, -It, .»«((\vitligcn.); 

.■«/,;,/,.■.•, -,,. .„„, (with ^tii.). 
foot, it'-ii, itet/i-i, M. 



VOCABULARY 



foot of, iiHHri^ -a, -tiin : 
the foot of the mountain, 

tHOWt hHHM. 

foot = on foot, ailj , 

IKiliMir, -trin, .In. 
foot-soldier, /..-/,>., .,7,v, m 
for, iliil. of jnilircii ,.l,j,.,.t (|(i, 



337 



fresh. 



-on behalf of, m defence of, \ from, », «/- 



■"•« (tJi'll rr,;„li^) : iiiUyrr, 
•:ira, i/riiiii 
friend, nminm^ .,% M_ 
'■ >ndly, irmi,-,,,, .„, .„,„ 
friendship, nii,,,-:/;,,. .,„, K, 
frighten.y»w,,-,-,.,. -J, .„',-, .',v„„. 



/'"■' Willi al)l, (1«. ■_>) 
forthreeyears,//,-.,,,,,,,,,,, I \u j, 
for the next day, 

ilk inislciiim ilhm (117. (1). 
forag^e, frHmeiilor, I , /hiI,>. or, I. 
force, VIM, V. («:). 
force, rwj,\ 3, r«-,/,-. eiKi.-h,,.., , 
forced march, iVfr n,,,,,,,,,,,,^ 
forces, eij/iinr, -tirii, . I' jj, (3.'.,). 
foresee, /iroriitr,,, -2, --ill: .,■; /,„ 
foreseeing;, 

;»•«*«, (jjeri. jn-mhniM.^^^ i ) 
forget, „l,lin„.;i,; 3. „/,///„, (viitl, 

gi'"-, ITti, 7: 2J0, 3). 
forgave, ««• pardon, 
form a plan. 

cumiliuiiifnn,;,^, fi-ri. Inrliim ■ 

eoimluiHi inn-,, .;,■,, .]-,, .n,,,,,' 
form hne of battle, 

'"•'""' iiflnio, 3, -slriui 

-tlnicliim. 
former, prior, -«x; 
the former ... the latter, 

i/fr. . /lir. 

fortification, mrmiiio, ■</«;.,, k. 
fortify, miiiM, 4. 
fortified, mrnilhi'^, -a, -nn,. 
forum, ,forti m. -/, X, 
found, euiiilo, 3, ci«/,/;,/;, 
fountain, ./;»/.,. yiyn/M, .\|. 
four, '/iiallnor. 
fourth, qiinrliu, -n. ■iim. 
free, tHitr, -mi, ■i-nim : 

free from, lihn- with il,l. (94, nj 
free, /(&■/■,-,. 1 

freely, tih.n- (liU,;,,.^, lii.,rri„„)_ 
frequent, crelKr, -hni, -hrum. 



•■r{\'J, I). 



''oiiiiilUlH. 



front of, in, nntr ulili ace • 

pro wilh ahl. 
hast. j'rhjiH, .,„■«, \. 

full of. /-/.■/,«,. .„, .„,„ („.j,| 

!«. 4). *" 

further, /„«y,«.v (ct.nip. of toiiy,-), 

G 

jfain possession of, 

I'Oliir, -Iri, imliliu. 

Sai.nes, 'i./f, -f",™™, M. pi. 

garden. lo,rtii», .,-, M. 

gate, 'ori,!, .UP, K. 

gather n.unoco, I ; 
! '■'';;'', ■' cofijl, roOi ir. 

i Gaul, dill ,,, .„r, F. 
t Gaul, a. O'. //«.,, .,-, .\i 

gaze at. »/»■<•/«-,, i, 

general, imiM'rolnr, ,,, .■ "i 

f/'(./, ihirl', M. ' 
ger'tle, .../7m, .,.. 
j Gerjnan. Ginminii,:, -n .„,„. 
I Gerr.ians. Omi,,,..-,, .,-„.„,„ j, p, 
get back, ,■,,•,>„-,. :(, .,.,,^„-, .,.,^,(„,„ 
gflt possession of. we gain, 
gift, iloniiiii, ■;, X. 
girl, imrlh, .,„^ y 
gire, ,/.-,, ,/,?,v, ,/„/,-^ ,/,!/„,„, 
give up. ,lf-,l,-,, 3. ,/,T,/,',/,-, ,i,-,ni,m, 
glad, lioiiiH, It, .,„„, 
go. .", (-/v., ;,.? (,,-)_ ,,„,„ ,._,|- .^^ 
go across, 

''■'"■".'''■"'""•. •.'/'•'■'''. -irfwii; 
''""*''• "■', '■'", -'Vww(-I^, :>;. 

go back. »,,„.,/,•„,., .,„.,.,/,, -,,,.,,.„,„'. 



338 



VOCABULARY 



go forward, 

ftrfMjr'tfio}% -tfrrtli, -yreiMUH. 
go into, ititfredior, -'jretit, -tjrfumit; 

ineo, -irt', -it, -ittna (dlS. S). 
go out of, ffjreflior, -gretii, -ureMsiix; 

exe.O, -ire, -ii, -ilum ('218, S). 
g^od, dens, -i, M. 
goddess, dm, -nt>, F. (ilat. und 

.ahl. pi. dti'diiiM, J'J, 4). 
gold, <nn-um, -i, N. 
golden, aiireui*, -a, -um. 
good, 

honus, -a, 'iim (melior, ofitiniVM). 
grtda,/rfimf'Htinii, -I, N. (3'J, 5). 
grain, get, ft-N mentor, \. 
great, ■tnannu'*, -a, -11:11 {mOjor, 

inuximwf). ' 

greatly, 

7na<jnopere {mnt/itt, mfiximi). 

Greece, Grafiin, -o*-, F. 
greedy, aviduM, -o^ -«»*. 

Greek, Graecux, -}, M. ; 

(JrnecHS, -ti, -tint. 
grief, dolor, -oris, M. 
ground, /o"»m, -/, M. ; \i\. Im-a, 

•nruni, N. (32, 7) ; 
from higher ground, 

f; tofo HUfU'riori'. 
ground - earth, humus, ■), F. : 
on the ground, 

hnmi (locative, 118, 3j. 
guard, I'lL^'tof, -odm. M. ; 

firm sitliiim, -i, N. 
g^uard, nuttoiim, 4 ; 

in'(it'<id'n'i sum (-*'2S, 1). 
gUtSt honftf's, -iffi, M. 
guide. dilJ\ dnrl.^, M 
guide, dttf'tt, 3, t/iiji, durtiiin. 

H 

hand, nmnfn^, -ftn, V. 
hand over, tnn/n, H, -ifiit}, ■4fitnin, 
hiii rather, mi'iln. miilh-, uii'ilui 
C-'liii. 



happens, it, 

acntlit, acriiffre, nceidit. 
happy, jy-IU (gen. jTlicii') (84, 1). 
harbor, fortua, -m, M. 
hard press, 

jtri'iHo, 3, ftrettKi, jtrfttnttm, 
hasten, /irojiern, 1 : fenthin, 1 . 
hate, dtii, ««»«■ (219, 2). 
have, hdliffi, 2. 
he, she, it, i», m, id (137, ."{). 
head, mjnii, -Uin, N. 
head of, am at, praemm, -exur, -ful 

(Willi ilat., 229, 4). 
hear, audio, 4. 
heart (feeling), animus, -i, M. ; 

(organ), I'or, cordis, N. 
heavy, tjrtivi^, -e. 

help, firosttm, jtit'idf :<:«', jirufid 

(with ilftt., 2(»7, Ii). 
her, see his. 

hesitate, cunetor, 1 : duhita, 1. 
^rsitation, transliite Uy iuHn., 

(<«'/;(i(ri'(lfi6. ,")). 
hig^h, ttltuA, -a, 'Um. 
hill, rollin, -in, M. 

himself, herself, itself, 

ifist', i/iitit, ijittniH (143, 3); 
«nl (ISC, .')). 

hindrance, iuij»dtnientutit, •>, N. 
his. her, its, miis, ■«, -khi 
(rcUexivi-, 138, .5); (Vllo (gen. 
of M, 1.38, 3). 
hither. rUrrior ; 

Hither Gaul, Hitllia ('itninr. 
hold, tfiifit, 2. -»'. t'liiiiiit ; 
ohtiiuO, 2, ■»/, •i''iitttm. 
home. ./.)»iiM, •->«. !•'. (10^, ii) : 
at home, i/omi (loealive. 118, 3) ; 
from home, dunn'i (al)l.. 1 19); 
(tn) home, dnmtttii, dnnli'M (119). 
honor, lioimr, -I'lrlH. M. 
hope, «/«•«, »/"■', K. 
hope, "/"r", I ; (with fnt. infin., 
173, 3). 



VOCABULARY 



339 



horse, ri/vxx, ■/, .M. 
hostage, oI>»ik, iUin, M. 
hostile, i»imif/tfi, -It, -iim ; 
infetttitu, -a, -um. 

hostilities against, commence, 

Mliim injini (with ilnl., ±J!I, 

4, 5). 
hour, hOra, -ar, F. 
housttUoniUM, -m^F.; tfrhini,-'. X. ; 

netOJirium, -/, N. 
how? qudmottoi' ijuem nthumffiin ^ 
how? (with wlj. or inlv.), tjuttni f 
how great? tjiutntiis, -a, -«/,*.■' 
how large? fjunntua, -a, -mw* * 
how many? t/uut? 
how long (of time)? t/unrndin .' 
huge, ingena (geii. hinmtiH). 
hurl, coHJiciO, S, -jiri, ■jrcliiin. 
husband, eonjunx, conjuijis, M 

I 

i,<-<jo(m). 

1 am, Muw, fiiMe,/Ni (45). 
if. Hi (249, 2) ; if . . not, iiUi, .si. imii 
(24!), 2) : 
=whether, num (201). 
if any. Hi i/iiin (2.")0, Noti'). 
ignorant, ium-'u us (gen, iit.trirnli.s). 
illustrious, cliinu, a, ■nm 
immediately, Httitim ; ron/ftttim. 
immense, imjens (gen. imjfiitit). 

implore, ohHtrrn, I ; iiUftliiru, I ; 

(with substantive cliiusf (240, 
2,4). 

importance to me (to all), it is of, 

mfft {oumiiim) intrirxt (226, 

4, 5). 
in, prep., in with a)il (20. 2) : 
in company with. :■,(,„ wit)i ^il>l. 

(1H(2)); 
exprrNsmg 'time lit wliieli,' alil. 

alone illli, I). 
inasmuch as. •iini (2.'>:i, i',i ; 

C'auiia! l-te!. i/n. (252, 4). 



part. 



mcrease(lr,inR.), 

niiiiti'i, 2, iiiijti, aiirluiii. 
incredible, i»ni'dil>ilis, ■•: 
infantry. (eolle(tivel\ ) 

piiliMliiH, -lu, M'; iieiiUia, -nm 

M. pi. 

infantry (ailj). imlintrr, -IrU, -tre. 
influence, niirhiritO", -liiis, K. 
inform (yon] of. 

{tr) Cfi-tinrfiil fitrit't ./. witli 
alil. (i:;), ,1). 

informed of these things. I am. 

tli- hiH ri'linii t'lTtlor t'ln 

(17.-*, .-)). 
inhabitant, iiien/n. tu . M. 
injure. «o.>r,, 2 («ith<lat.. IT."., 2). 
inquire, 

'/nan-',, 3, gii,ii^,iiri, •iiitiiHilum : 

i'OiJn, I . 

instruct. I'riidio. 4. 

intend to, tnuislati' l>v tut 

ait. (1,52, ()). 
into, ill with ace. (2ii, 2). 
interest of all. it is, oi(.(W.,mi,i«,», 

it is my interest, iii,,i intmsi 

(22(i. 4). 

interrogative particles (4:t, 2, .") : 
44. 4. 3). 

island, in-^nln, -oc. F. 

Italy, iiitlia, iir, V. 

its. see his. 

itself, ij-w, i/mi, i/minl (14S, ;i). 

J 

javelin, ir/uni, -i, N 
join. Jnin/ii. 'A, jiinji.jiiiiriuni. 
journey, iirr, iiiiuiis, N. 
joy, ijtindiitiii, -i. N. 
joyous, IdiiuH, -11, -Hill. 
judge, jiidij;, -irix, M. 
Jupiter. Jiifnin; ./,„■;.<, M. (Oj). 

just, jiiiliis. n. -iiiii. 
just as if, ./"■■., (2."iT, .'(). 



340 



K 



keep from, iimlMro, \> (nitli ace 
anil iiiliri.). 
>t (advi 
tenwt'. 
, httrrj 
iicrhlO, 'A, -cult, -fisHii 



VOCABULARY 

lead, iluni. 3, f/ru i, ductum ; 



I lead back, rrdnrfi .■ 

lead across, trmudfrn-i .- 

k.«<. ( 1 , . ''*<1 out. idftn. 

kept (iulvisii.gi, tninshui- liy ii.ipf. i„j., ; , • .. 
teiwo. J I" leader, (/«.<, (/«<•(«, M. 

kill, hilirjii-ir,, X .firi, -/;,•/,,„,,■ ' •*»Pdown,f/(-«7iV,,4,-»j7i,(-,.,««ft«m. 

"CrhlO, :i, -chli,'-rixii,ii. ' | learn (It.sson), 

kind,tr;u.slaiel.yii„lirf,t.,iicsii„„ <r'-«-o.J,_ didin, >m Mip. ; 

will. ,/"«/«, of whit kind i '^"^'^ 

king, ivj:, ,v-;/m, M. | '^"t, 

(Klip. of 



know, j^fi'o, 4, Mciri, Mnttim 

(iif IV fa.-t) ; nriri. m'lrimr ('219, 2), 

(of ii person) ; 
= feel, sflUm, 4, «(«.<;. xiiisiiiii: 
know not, do not know, 

lltsrin, 4. 

knowing, not, 

knowledge, vi.ntin, ■„. 
without the knowledge of 
Caesar, C'umrf hisi-lm/,, 
(l">!>, 4). 



labor, /«'.(,)■. -0/W, M. 

lacking, am, </<««,</, -....„ ./„,■ 

C-'IW, 7, S). 
land (-oil), /,,.,.„, .,„., K. • wi,r 
":iri. .\I ; ' 

(ii i'otmlry), /< rrn, -<u-, V. ; 
native land. /••ii,-i,i. -m, K. ; 
by sea and land, /n-ni m:iri,in, 
land 

(tlillls), ill l.iniiii 1,1,1,11,1^ :■_ 
■ini'illi, -laisiliiiii ; 

{inlVM\s), iiiiri (i,„rihi(.^),,ir,,/:,„: 
-'J mil, -ijimxii/i. 

large. 

tlllllJIIIIS, .«, .„,„ (liliij,,!-; 

IIHlJlnlKs). 

last, id filling, -a, -nni : 

last night, jmuninld ikWc. 
last, at, Itlnih'iii , dviiiuiu. 

law, /<■,., /.■.,;.«, !■•, . j,i,, j,-„.;,, X 
lay waste. ra»/.,, i. 



niiiiiiiiiin. 



\ ji,irni«). 

leave (al>anilon), 

it/iiiqw-j, 3, rrlh/iii, rrlirlum ; 
Igo out of), p.,w,/,i, 3 -rew, 
-'•c«.»i(/,i (with al)l., or ix ami 
ahl. ); i',iridi'"', ■•jmll, -,irtgimH; 
fjvi<, .(>.., -,/, .iiiiiii cJijj^ ;)) 

left (lianil), niidxlei; -,')•<(, -(ndii. 
legion, /''.'/lo, .,;,il.^, |.. 
less, minor, '((.^(I'uillp at iMrviut). 
lest, /«' (232, I ). 

letter^ (wiitten), liltmir, .drum, 
V. pi. (.')2, .")) , fiiiHlulu, -lie, V. 
liberate, Idu <■,, i . 
lie = tell a falsehood, meiiiim; 4 ; 

= lie down, Jaren, 2, jtirtii. 
lieutenant, liijdtm, -i, M. 
life, riiii, -a,, J". 
light, liij; li'irin, p, ; 
Iftinrii, -initt, N. 
lightning, /«/;/i«-, -«rw, X. 

like,nimdU,-i{ximilii,r:iiliiidliinttii), 
(with ilat. il3, 3). 

line (of liftttlo), (i.vV», - ,-, K, 

lion, fi'ii, leiiiti/i, M. 

little, 

luirriiK. -II, -mil {luiiwr; mimi- 

III 111. !M, 3). 
little, a, too little (adv.). /«,r«w, 

(iniiiHi* ; minimi', 98. 7). 
live, ripo, 3, r'ljri, vlituiii, 
living, ririi.M, -u, -nm, 

load, f>Hrf,-i, rrr.\, N. 



VOCABULARY 



location, irajisliu.- ',v iii.|ir,.ri 
Muc-linri with „,„„,■ ,,„„ ,„ 
/orn (i'f-l, )>). 

long(ii(l.j. of ,li«ui„-,). 

loitlJllK, -ft, ^11,11. 

long (adv. ,if tiini), 

iliii (iliiillii^ : iliHlimiiK). 
long, too, dlniiKH. 

look at, .^Itei-ln, 1. 
look for, erxjirrli-i^ I. 

lord, itniiiiiiiu, -I, M. 

lose, niilll/r,, a, -ill'i.il, ■iilUxiini. 
loud voice, rns iii(i;iii,i. 

love, tiiiif,. I. 

loving, aniniu (giMj. iiinaiUit). 
low, liiiudlu, .c (90, 2), 
loyal, /,A7w, -,-. 
loyalty, >(/fi,, .,.;, K. 



341 



M 

magnitude, iimiriiindu, .ii,;.^, v. 
maiden, rinjf,, -iiiit, F, 
make, furm, Jf-n, fiirtiim : 

= elect, ftifii'i . ',■)■(,',, I ; 

make vnir upon, /«//«„, ,„,; , „ 
(witli (lilt, ■jti'.l, 4, ."i, 6). ' 
man, c/r, ,-;/v, .\|. ; /,„„„-,, .,„,„^ j| 
manner, tr;in.sliit,. i,v iii,|i,.,.,.i 

(|UC8tilill will, ii'„„iilii,lii (If 

gill iimdiiiodK III, how (•J;t4. ^>). 

manners. i«(,)r», .„„,, .\| p| 

manifest, maiii/iMiiK, -u, -um 

many, 

'",""'". ■'". -", i>l. {/.hi, ■ 
I'IflnmiiK, !l|, .S). 

march, iV^c, iiimri-^. S. 

market-place, ./;./•«»,, .,-, X, 

marsh, imlna, .in/i.,, y 

master, ituiniinin, ■!, M. 

matter, /v.-*, n-/, K. 

may. Iriiiislat<i \,y li,;i (•_>•.>(, n, 

messenger. miiitiii.<, .;, .\|. i 

midday, minlifn, -.i, M. 



middle (of ).,,„•,/,■„,>,.„..„,„( I , ;-|_ 

might. I iHllxUtc In /int (224. til. 
mild, /«/(;■.,, .,.. 
mile. Hi/7/, /„/.,,,,, 

two ^iles, ,/„„•„„.„,, -» 

milk, /.?c, /,„v,-.,, \. 
mind, niihiui'., -,, \\ ■ 

intellect. iii,'i,s. n],,,/;.,, \.\ 
mine, mnii, -n, .111,1 (v,„. ,sii|,, \i 
Ml}. "■ ■ ' 

month, utrtii*!,^, -/.s, .\i. 

money, /Hrniii.i, .,„. p 

moon, //"//(.(, -,;. , K, 

"""■« (a'lj). /'''""■ (■■ntiip of inii/i,,,, 

I morning, in the, ni.n,,. 
most (ill I j.), 

Ii/'i-h/n,. ,,/i-nif/,i,: ji/irn,,,,, ■ 
jiliiiiiiii, .,11, .„, 

m<»ther, nnttfr, .fii.^, K. 
mound, ttijijfr, -fri.i, .\I, 
I mountain, ihoiim, nniiiH^, M 

' move, lllorni, 2, lunri, iiinllllil. 

much, 

llllllllIX, .11, .1,1,1 |y,^,-„ . ^,,,-,^;_ 

much time, luul/nm i,i„j„„.i„, 
much 

(adv.), „i„liii,ii {,,/ii.^, ,,/,iri,ii,- 
nr iiliiriiiiiiiii), 

multitude, niiiliiii-itln. -iuU, y 

('-',.), H). 
my, iiuiin. -.,, .„,„. 
myself ((•niipliatii), ij,i„, 

N 
j name, n/i/n. //. .;,//„, \ 
• nation (imIki. „„(,„, .„,„■.., |.-. 

native land. /..(/Wii, -,„, y, 
^ nature, tri.ri»Lit,' l>v indii,-. t n,,,.. 
""" wi-!i 7""'i.v of what 
charactit ri,'?4, 2). 



342 



VOCABULARY 



near (ini'p. ), jirti/H, oil, „r n/m,/ 

with iii'c. 
near, am, wf-situt, .».«,, /)// 

(with il:.!. •JOS, 7, S). 
nearer, ;./■.,,„•„,., .«« (with ihu. m- 

ml with ace). 
nearly, rimter (with minieritl») ; 

nearest, 

I'l-itxitintA, -n, .M,H (Willi fhit. 

or ff(/ witli atfi-. ). 
necessity, hov uxprussud (1S7_ -j). 
need of, there is, oinu Mt{1fiie,, li) 
neighbor, 

J'liiifiitiwt, -/, M. ; *vr(wjfc.(, -i. M. 

neighboring, 

/iiiilimm, -a, -urn; nchini, 
-«, -»m. 

neither (ailj.), mnln; -tm, -Inim 

(4S, 2). 
neither, nor. 

mqiii . , , m qut ; iif'r . . . iiir. 
never, miinptmn. 
nevertheless, lameu. 
new, mintjt, -f(, -urn, 
news is brought, iiiiiUi(iliir( l,")."),.">|. 
next (f(>IIo\^'iiig), ptiitiirut, -11, -niH : 

(in-art'si), projcimHH, -n, •iint. 
night, iiim; nwtU, V. 
no, iii-);ativc answer (14, 4|. 
no one, n: i,if, [mv. m miw m : iM. 

Hi iiiiiit' : ^{'W atuMat iiotustMl); 

iinlliix, -II. iim (4S. •>). 
and no one, an- ./kmi/kh m ( 14!). 4). 
none, mllfuH, -o, -inn (4M. '_'). 
no time, nihil trmiH>riK{W,. Id). 
nor, nrifiu' ; nfr. 
nor (ill liiial ilaitsi'si, lun . inn \ 

(•i:t;t. ."D. 
nor any. mr '/Hijtfftiam ( 1 41*. 4). 

not. li';i : in- (l!i:i. M). 

not yet. noiiflii,,:. I 

nothing, nihil, inilcil.. N. 
nourish, <ih; 3. nlni, iilliiii,. 



now, (iM/ir (ai the |irf.s(iil lime); 

Jnia (already). 
nowhere, nitM/ttntn. 
number, Humerim, -i, M. ; 

traii.slalc l>y imlini i i|ii('Htiiin 

with i/Hvl, how many li'M, 2). 
numerous, 

rrilur, -hni, -hruiii : until). 



O, iiitcrjeiiidii, O : usually •iiiiitte<l 

with vu<;ative ease. 
O that, utiiiam (lit:i, :{). 
obey, /"iiv'5, ^(witliilat. I7<i,;), 4). 
obligation, how < xpresM'il (224,7). 
observe. 

'■iiimpii-ifi, 3, -fiHj-l, g/irrlum; 
iroHxpifur, 1 . 
obtain, luiiiriM'trr, -c/, narltiri. 
obtain a request, im/^rri,, I ; 
(with suliatantivi- ilause, 244 
I (ol). 
ocean, orftinuM, -;, M. 
officer, li'tjiitiu, -i, M. 
often, .in<iii {mr/,i„, : mn/Maimf). 
old (iilil and nil liini,'ur cxiating), 
tiitrKjNiiA, -a, urn ; 
("Id and still t'xiniin^i), 
ri-tttx (geii. wttrt^t). 
old, ixprKsBed by milii.^ ( l;«t, <J). 
old age, AtnertfiM, -Mtiitf K. 
older, Hfiiiur, -itrtf f9l, ,5). 
oldest, inilt'i nnixiiiins (91, ,'>), 
old man, »r«i r, »™w, M (H7). 
on (iif rest ). ill «itli all]., he stands 
on the shore, in Htui-f stnt ; 
(iif niiitiiin). ill Willi ai'i'., he 
makes an attack on the 
enemy, imlu'litm in hiisf> .< fnrit 
(20. 2) ; 
(exiiri'sniiiu 'tinii' at whiih'i. 

alit. without a prep. : 
on hearing this, his nmlitia 
{\M{,1)). 
an arrount of, 

liriii'ti>r or ok with aci . 



VOCAKll.AKV 



343 



once, at, slnrim .■ inu/rxlim. 

oae, «»»<, .,f, -/()// (4S, L'j ; 
the one . theother,. (//-/■. .((//,/■ 
one. . .another, niiiis «/;«.<. 

only, 'inliu. -a, urn (48, 'J). 
only. ■■'Oliiiii (ill I \. I; 
not only . . . but also, 

H"H allium, , .Hill '/iilni 

open. /Hiii/iirlii, 3, -/;,■,, /in-iii,,, .■ 

(|M.s»ivi') 1,1,1, fii,, -^lii-i'i, fm-l,ig. 
opinion, ininslat.- Iiy indiivct 

i(Uf»ii(iii ( wliiii" I tliiiik . 

I •-',•«, •.>(. 
opportunity, umiaii'i, -„„;.,, y ; 
JhrnllifH, I'ltin, V. 

oppose, tiliM,-,, 1, (,i.-(iV( (M-itli dill 

175, •_>), 
or, mil : nl: si,|> either, 
or; whether or, «•!■ whether. 
or not, iitiiii'iH (44, 5) ; 

(IfOlfCJOl, Ol>H.). 

oration, linitio, •nuin^ F. 
orator, onllnr, -uritt, M, 
order, >/«,-,, •>, juaai, ;„x.,„„, 

(with iicc. iirid iiitiii, •J4il. ."n ; 

im/iini, I («itli d;it |7(i, 4 .' 

with siiliisiiiiitivu L-liiusi., •J4I) 

•-', -t). 
Other : the one the other, 

iilli-r iillir : 

some, others, »';, . .„l,i. 
ought, liiiH I'xpii's.Mil (;>'.>4, 7). 
our, iioslir, -Irii, -Iniiit. 
out of, , . ,j- Willi idil. 
over across, 'nma wiili ,i,.|-. ; 

above, lu/nr wiih ,i, f. ,„ id, I. 
overcome. 

11, pit;,, 1 ; rufrii/A, r'li'i, r'nltliii. 

overthrow. . nri,,. .•), -i-ni,. ,,riiiiii. I 

own. i>.,;„.«. (144, li). 

ox, liuK, li,,ri.'. .\1. 1117). I 

P 
pace, panKUH, -us. \|. 
pain, (grief). ,/„(..,■. .,„•,.<. .\1. 
pains to. take. i,/,i, -,1111 ,/., „/ 

witIl«uli«itJlMtiv»:.;l;iu.'*r(24d. .N|. 



panic, /iiiriii-. -.,,;.«. M, ; 

a panic ensued, liijiiilniiin, ,.,/. 
pardon, ;;/».....■.,. :t. ;./,/,„■/. iiiHui-ini 

(Willi liiU. I7(), ;{, 4). 
parent, jKirm... -lis. .\1. or K. 
part. I>iir.t, iiarlh. V. 
' pass the winter, /. ;.»«,, I. 
• peace, jiitx, ^Hh-in, V. 

people ( iiiitiiin), /„i/,iiliix, -}. .\| ; 
inii'ii). Iiiiiiiini:,, .„,„, M |,| J 
the common people, 

i.iiiii,, iiiihu, V. 

perform, /iniijnr. .;, hiintKH 

(with ahl. \'M\. S). 
perish, /n r n'l, .u-i -// -iimn 

C-'l.s. ;i). 
person, in, -/.<. (144, li), 
persuade. 

I" I'lll'lllri'i, '.', -.illiiiii, ■Hiiih.iiiii 

(wiih (hit. 17(1, ;t, 4 ; „jt(, 

snliMtamivi- chiiisi. 2411, M, 4) 
pitch a camp. 

,;iKliif pi, Hi,, ;t, i„,.^,i;. pusilttm. 
pity, iiiisfrni,: 2(wiili j-i-n. I7(i, 7); 

/«<■ mill III ('Mli, 1, 2, .'(). 

place, /(«•.,, I ; ,;,ll,ir,-,_ I. 

place. /"'■«.«, /. M. : 

\>\ lu,;i. -„,„i,i. \. (,12. 7;. 

place, in that Ihm. ;/,;. 

to that iliiilici, ,,,; 

from that wIhihi-. „/„/,. 
place in command. 

)in,i.i,y,. . :), „,,, -/;,./,„„ 

IWitii .I.'.-, iiiiii .hit. -Ji.H ;( 
2--'!). 4 1. 

plain. <■.-,«/«/.. ,, M. ; 

litiiiiUiia. -li, K. 
plan, ■■■iii.iiliiiiii, .-,. \ . 

form pjnn. ';,iiMilii,,„ fm,;,', 
please, /.;<.•.■.„, •.'(wiih, li,i. ;7j, -Ji. 
pleasing. ;//■.(/««. -o, «„,. 
pleasure, riiiii/,iii.t, .„/;.,, k. 
plebs. /././.<, y,/,-/,/.,, K. 
plenty, /•<".(»;(( -,i,, |.', 
plough, ii... I. 
pluck, .■.„•/»., ;), ,,„.^„;, r„i-i,t.m. 



344 



VOCABULARY 



plunder* pmMa, •nf. K. 
plunder, pntfihr. 1 ; 

diriinu, 3, -ri/uii, •ri'ptum. 
poet, jHifta, -iif, M. 
point out, inuusfro, 1. 
poor, pdtififr igeu. jKiuperit) \ 

the poor, pmifMrrs. 
position, tniiislatf hy imljrfct 

fiufstinn (2»4, -i). 
possession of, g:ain. 

/Mifior, -i, potitmt (with aid. 

i:{t). s). 
possible, as great as, 

qiiain imtxiiuuM (88, 7). 
post, l(no, 1 ; culhtri\ I. 
power, potesUls, -tUit, F. 
powerful, poUus (geii. potentix). 
praise, lann, laudiM^ F. 
praise, latuio, 1. 
prefer, 

unilii, mnlhy ma/»/(210 ; "21 1 ,M). 
prepare, paru, 1. 

present, prarsfus (gon. prfUMcntiH). 
present, am, tul sum, -cHsr, .fm 

(with (lat. 20M, 7, 8). 
press hard, 

prviitu, 3, presfilt prfMHiim. 

pretend, sinndo, I. 
prevent, pruhi/m',, 2 ; 
prevent from, prolnin'o, 

with acf. and iiiHn. 
previous, inpt-rior, -ii.s : prior, -h.v. 
prince, priiirrpM, principis, M. 
privilege, /W*^///s. -/rCiw, K. 
procure, compnro, I. 
promise, 

/lullireor, 'J ; prfnuitfu, 3, -mM/, 

•mUiHiH (with fut. iiiHii. 

173, 3). 
prosperity. 

rf'i sfriindae, K pi. (Hh*, 5). 
provide, romjmru, 1. 
province, pt-uriifrin, -{|f»_ F. 
punish, pi'iiiiu, 4. 



purpose, rottMifittm, 'i, N. 
purpose of. for the, 

ut with Kuhj. (1!I7, 2) ; ad or 
rfiMw/ wilhgeniiulori^unniilive 
(183, Vocal..). 

pursue, Mfquor, tequi, nfciitut*. 

put to death, 

intfijirio^ 3, -J»''ri, -fertHVfl. 

put to flight, 

iitfuijaiit ih'i, ilih'f, dftlt, dtUtan. 



quarter ( - iwirt), fxtrx, pnrtin, V. 
queen, n'>j/mt, uf, F. 
question, st-e ask. 
quick, 

fft^r, rf/eris, rrhre ; alacer, 
'Cr'tit, -rre. 
quickly, 

ri'fn'ifer {alfr'niM : rflfrriiiir). 
as quickly as possible. 
quam celfrrittir. 



raise (-lift up), 

tol/i't, 3, ttiMtd/J, Hublatum. 
raise (forces), rom/xtrn, I, 
rampart, ratfmn, -i. N. 
rather, oxpreswcil hv comparative 

(SS. 6). 
reach. 

fternniii^ 4, -*>'«?, -rt'titum +<t>l 

witli lU'v,. 
ready, pnnltun, -a, -tnn. 
rear, nlo, 3, ofn'i. oltttm. 
reason, tt-unslate hy itiiliiect 

(lUfRtion with qiuir*' or riir, 

why (234, 2). 
recall, rerttcn, 1. 

receive, nrnph\ 3, -rr/«% -ceptum. 
recent, vfcrut (j^en. rert ntin). 
regard. /(n6f», 2. 

reinforcements, 

niij-'i'ia, -firiim, N. ]»1. ; 
niifiHidin, -oriim, N. pi. 



VCK'ABULARV 



345 



rdying on, 

fri'tnit, -a, -uih (with alil. 94, a). 
reigii, rfijHn^ I. 

remain, umufOy 2, ludnti^ titnni*tutt. 
remember, 

vtftniin, mdntnUitp ('219, t* ; 
2'JO, .5) ; rt-'inixrot , -(•/, 1 7(i, 7 i. 

Remi, Jlt'mi, -ui-uiu, M. pi. 
renew, rmoro, I. 
request, obtain a, iiujirlri',, I. 
repair, r^«V;.-,, 3, ■/,-,■-,, -jWliim. 
repent, mf. jtwultff, ■f-n', -nl/ 

(2-21), 1, 2, ;)). 
reply, rf-^immlei'i, 2, ■»/; ■'*uiii : 



Romulus, Kfiihulii", -i, M. 
root, rihltj-, -h-'iK, V. 
rose, 7W'», -«^, F. 
rough, iixiifr, -frii, -friim. 
rout, fiiiiilf',, 3, ./■(/■/i, I'fiHiini. 
route, iVfT, iliin'riit, N.; riK, -«*, F. 
ruin, itfi-nicv-it, -il, K. 
rule, rfijfi, 3, »vj-/, rtrtitiH. 



sacred, narcr, -n-a, -frit in 
sad, tn/ttift, •!■, 

safe, iifiiliiniU, -y .- tutitu, -a, -ittn. 
make no reply, niViiV »■.«,„„„/,,-,. [ safety, «<!//«, -(/^m, K. 
repubUc, rf.-<imUica, rn/mhlmi<; K. ' "''■ '■'''«'". '. N- 

(H>J, .')). I sail, nil rh/f'i, 1; m'irem {iiiiii'.i), 

resist, rfMiHto, 3, nstiti, rt-ntittmi ttih'o, 3, «■',/*■/, i<t,!iitiim. 



(with dill. 176). 
rest, '/HiV'/i, ..Vi», F. 
result of this was, the, 

rx i/uO/arlum ml (244, I (/)). 
retreat, 

mf, reeipii), 3, ■r<'/ii, ■rrjitltm ; 

rfijredior, -tjrnit, -yrfitHii/t. 
return, 

redei'i. -irr. -ii, .lliim : 

rfm-tnr, ./, rit't'i'll, ri'rir.iiiiit 

{\3,% H). 
revolution. n~a tmmr, V. pi. ( |(I2, .'i). 
reward, /'ruiinimn, -i, X. 
Rhine, /!lu-,iu.i, •/, M. 
rich, 



sailor, naiita, -III-, M. 

sake of, for the, 'nuw wiiii gun. 
(1S3, Viii-al).). 

same, h/i-m, KUlmi, iilmi (143.21; 

the same ... as, /</• m . . . uhI 
(14«.7). 
say, '//>M, 3, iltj-l, tlir/mii ; hiqtinr, 
■', Ittri'ittu ; 
says (h>.'). iii'iiiii. 
scarcely, rix 
scarcity. 

illii/'iil, -tlf . v.; j,tliirit,i.i, -ufU, 

V. 
school. Krhiila. -,i, . V. 
sea. mnrt\ uniris^ \. 



r/imi (f;cn. ilh-ilis), {.Ih-ilii.r : SCOUt, f.i7(/r„-,i/uc. -..W,,. .\|. 



ilirifissimils). 

riches. ilhui:,f, , ■rinnu. V. pi. (.'W. .'i). 
right (hiind), *./■/. ,-. .^vj. .irnm. 
right, ./"s j«iM, N. 
rise. orUir, ■/*■;, f>?7».s. 
rising, om im (gi-u. tn-it nii.^). 
river, /fimni, -ini*. N. 



rock, Ml. 
Ronuu, 
Rome, AV 



. -f, N. 



'■"/'■■■ 



second. 

.•n't-innltl!*, -«, -'///* ; itlhr. -ir<i. 

■t'riint, 
see. riilin, 2, >■»/!. rMi/in .■ 

(gi't 11 sij{hl ilfl, niilxiiii-if'j. 3. 

■s/fj^i^ 'Hfiertiini. 
seek (a.>^k for). 



tiintiunHt. a, -Nil 



seem, I'Ki 
seize. •»■' 
•elf. ./..... 



"/«■. I. 

i/wfi, if>.^i,,ii ) 143, .31. 



346 



VOCABULARY 



Miiate, MenditUf -UH, M. 

send, mitttt, 3, 7Hi>/, iHtAAHtn. 

send ahead, iiiuimiiiii. 
serve, ii-n-iu, 4 (with dat. 176). 
service, muH, -iix. M. ; 
am of g^reat service, 

Hint/m't I'tmil ttnui ('J*28, I ), 
service, on, miiitiae (118, .3). 
serviceable, am, 

iimii mm ('il'S, IJ; /irofiim, 

liniilrwe, jm'ifiii (with dat. 

a IK. •: 

set out rrolirUror, -pi, proffftUH. 

set ir.il. 

w. ' tjtl, \ ', nili'i-m{m'n'f'i*) )to(ev, 

,S, Holfi Holiititin. 
seven, »epifm. 
seventh, Mff>tiiiiriM, -a, -itul. 
seventy, tiejthu'nynitt'i. 
severCf gniritt^ -c .- acfr, uryi», iirre. 
severely, 

ijriiriler {tjrnniu: iimv'usinv). 
shadow, nmhrtt, -ue, F. 

shames it, t'nttet, -frr^ t»uluU 

(•2-.'6, 1, 2, 3). 
sharp, da-i; tiryU, t'/rre (SI, 2). 
shatter, /<(i»i/r<, 3, /m/i, fraclnm. 
she, Kee he. 
ship, in'inn, -tM, F. ; 

warship, tnh-ix Itnuja ; 

merchantman, ml rift inifrttriti. 
shore, ih-n, -m, F. ; /iliu. -oriH, N, 
short, hriri.^, f. 
should, li(i« tiiiiisliitiMl (224, 7). 

shout. rliiiHor, -it.in^ .\I. 

shout, rlriiiiii, 1. 

show, niniiMrn, I. 

shower of darts, nndia ula. 
shut, ciniiil,,, 3, .-/(iiMi, ,-laii«i(iii. 

sick, m.jir, iivgiii, ,i,,jn(m (;«). 1). 

side, liitiix. ..,,.,. X. ; 
on the right side, 

tl tlrrtif't /tl/fri'. 



sight, roimiirrluM, .,?j,, M.j 
come in sight, 

in coi4jij)*'Ctuin peniti, 
signal, tiiiinitni, -/, N, 
silent, am, lami, 2, -ni. 
silver, urgenlnm, -7, N. 
since, cum (204, 4) ; 

qiiotl, i/iiui, iiumiiam (252, 2). 
sing, r€iiitu^ 1. 
singing, cntUttA, -»«, M. 
sister, noror, 't'lriH, F. 
situation, translate liy iiulireftt 
mi. 



where 



question with 

(!m, 2). 
six, Hfx. 
size, maijniliKln, ■mu, F, j translate 

by inilirei't question with 

qimiitns, how Urge (234, 2). 
skilled in, jxTilm, -a urn (with 

gen. ). 
sky, etielum, -J, N. 
slaughter, cm</.'/t, -m, f. 
slave, «*'?•!'««, -7, M. 
•lay, inler/icm, 3, -./?f7, feetum; 

orciilfi, 3, -r?,/;, -rTnou. 
sleep, tiomiio, 4. 
slender, 

(Itarilu, -e (ijraeilior; gracU- 
timutt), 

sUng, /«H</a, -«f, F. 
small, 

/larnn, -a, -urn (mitior ; 

miHinnttt). 
snatch away, 

ahripUi, 3, -ripul, ■re/itiim. 
snow, nix, tiit'ijt, F. 
SO = thus, ilf. sir : 

=to such an extent, adeo : 

l)efine iidj. iir adv. turn. 
so far from . . . that, 

lanliim iihrMut. . .K<(244, 1(7;) ). 
soldier. miliM, .itin, m. 
some, some one, 

alii/iiiK, -qua, -ijttiit, or -mux/ 

{M9, -1). 



VOTABI'I.ARV 



347 



some. . others, alii. . ulii. 
some who, there are, »««/ «« 

(237, 3). ' 

son, /lliiM, ■-, (24, 4). 
son-in-law, yfitfr, -ert, M. 
son^, cannfH, -i»w, N, 
soon, max; linr! {nc. Inniiore) 
sorrow, dulor, -OrU, M. 
space, H/Hiiiniit, ■!, N. 
spare, ;»i<r.;, .^ i«;«.m, /Hirnluiu 

(with ilat 17li, 3, 4). 
sparrow, paswr, -friit, M. 
speak, )/!cu, 3, (//./i, ,liri,i,„ .- 

lut/iior, i, luriitii^. 

speak falsely, mmtior, 4. 
spear, /ia«<a, -.ic, F. 

speech (conversatinn), »rrmr<, -f-./„»,- 
(«ct speeili), 'ini/io, Onu, V. 
speed, celeritiU, ■(ilin, V. 
spend, 

conaiimu, 3, -ftuiilpHt, -sunqittttiu 
spirited, frrux (gen. ferocin). 
sport (game), 

/«i<i«, -/, M. ; /««„, .,-„_ J] 
spring, ver, m'rix, N. 
spy, expl/irnlor, -Oru, M. 
stand, j*W, K^/r^, Hffti, Htti/niii. 
standard, nigtium, ■}, N. 
star, ttelki, lie, F. 
state, 

riiifcM, -rf(M, F. : rrnpiililua. 
reljiiihlicai-, K. (10, 2, ,'i). 
Station, eulluco, I. 
stay, mnn'O, 2, mau-^i, mansnm. 
still, <»Mh>'. 
stone, /a;iw, -ii/id, .M. 
storm, tfitipfMfU, -aiU, V. 
storm, OfifmifHO, I : 

take by storm, rxpuijm-i, 1 , 
story, Jtihiifa, -III', F. 
strengfth, via, F. ; pi. ri>.-», -,«,/, 

(«7). 
struggle, eerUimm, -mu, N. 



successfully, 

fflinln- y.liniM .- jf/in«Mi,i,-). 
such, tiHU, -r. 
sudden, 

tiihitiiH, -a, -inn ; re/iniliiiHii, 
^ -It, -lliii. 

■■ suffer (nll(iw), /mlior, iKili, /«/«„,«. 
i sufficient, milin ,- 
I sufficient time, •MtU timiH,ri„. 
I suitable, 

ilUlHlllX, -II, .,1,1, ; ,(y,^„„._ .n .„,„ 

\ summer, iteM,u. .,iiu, K. 
summon, raiirm-i',, I. 
sun, W, xo/m, M. 
sunrise, .v.V i/ririi,<. 
sunset, KiihM wruMiiH, -I'lM, M. 
superior, am, mi/ifro, i. 

supper, I'ina, -hi; y. 

supply of com, >va JriimenMrla 

( in-.>, 8). 
support, imfMiiliiim, ■/, \. 
suppose, ;<«^~>, 1. 
sure, cfrtiit, -11, -111,1. 
surrender, dfdiiii,, -im;,,, p. 
surrender, 

nil' ili'ilii, Z, di'iliili, ili-dilliiii. 
surround, 

i-'irr„„i,/i-,. ■,/,;, I, -ilidi, -iliitlliii; 

cwr i '•'>:'■>, 4, -niii, -I'l-iituiii. 

surrounded, 

'•iiritmiiiltus, -a, .„,„ . 

I'lrriimif,,!,,,,, .„, .„,„, 
survive, 

■<iiliermm,-i:i„r,-/iii{vil\,iUt.}. 
suspect, iiLijiii-i,,; I. 

swamp, /HI I fin, -I'lili..,, K. 
I swear, 

Ji'iiO, 1 (with fut. iiitiii. ( I7.'t,3)). 
swift, 

rf'/fr. -rrtM, -rri' ; ii'luj- (gen. 

fr/i'irii}. 
swiftness, n-lrrHiig, -litis, F. 
sword, iilwiiiiH, ;, M. ; 
with iire and sword, 

fi-rrii i-t iijni. 



348 



VOCABULARY 



tAble^ Htfltntl, -af, F. 
take, r.i/.iVi, ;), ,v:^„-, cn/^lum. 
t*** by storm, rxfiHijnO\ I, 
take paint to, o^tt-rnm tlo ut 

(240, 8). 
take part in, intn'tum^ •I'Mnf^ -i',i 

(witii<lat. ). 
take up arms, arma i-aiuu. 
tall, allUK, .11 .11,11. 
Tarentum, TareiUum, -i, N. 
tax, rrethjnl, .,<7i«, N. 
''•Ch, ihirrii, 2, iliifui, dttrlinii. 

teaching - to teach, (/<«v-i, ( \m. .S). 
tell = say, </.<■,;. :t, dlxl. iliflnm ; 

= bid, jlllm-,. 2, J/Mxr, jiMiiii, ; 

— narrate, imt-ro, l. 
tell a falsehood, metuior, 4. 
temple, lemji/iiiii, ■;, N. 
ten, t/i'ff'nt. 

tender, teuer, -t^m, -'mm. 
temfy, pt^rten'fo, 2, 
terrified, pfrtfi-ritnH^ -a, •«»), 
territory, ((yrt, -<;;•«)«, Jl. pi. ; 

J'hii'S, -iuni, M, pi. 

than, with comparatives, see(88, 3). 
that, in Hiial olauwH, iil (197 ") • 
'/"•/ (2:t,S, 4) : 

iiioiuisecutiveflaiiRcs, H/(20.'i, 1); 

with vorlis of fearing, ;w"(243, 2).' 

that not, ill final ilauses,»(;( 198, 6); 

in loiisi^Mitivi- elauses, ut iion 
(20S, 1). 
that (pro.), iVfr, ilia, Wiul (140, ;i). 
thems<:lv-:9 (reflexive), «■ (138, .'i); 

(impliiitie), i/u? (143, 3). 
then. '«/*!, /H/jr. 
thence, imie ,- 

thence whence, imle . . . nude 
(146, 7). 

there, ihl ,- after verljs of motion, 
C", iltfir. : 
there., where, i/.i. . u4i(l46, 7). 



7«o 



thick, dfnim/i, -a, -uin. 
thine, Imhh, -ft -mm. 
thing, ri-M, ret, K. 
think (suppiwe), /ikM, 1 ; 
(reflect), rxMiiiO, 1 ; 
(judge), arhiinn; I, 
third, tertiun, -a, -mrt. 
thirty, trhjihUl. 
this, Ait, /id^r, /i(V (|4o_ 3). 

thither . whither, ro . . 

(I4«, 7). 
thou, In. (Mi (137). 
though, 

quiiiiiqimm. etxi with inilie. ; 
quiuiiiiH with siilij. (i.V), ,15); 
CM/H With suhj. (2.55, Note). 
thousand, mille (KW, 6, 7). 
three, trin, iria (ICHi, S). 
through, per with ace. 
throughout, p^r with ace. 
throw, 

jnrin, 3, jrn. jaeliiw ; conjirift, 
3. ■>''■', ■jirtiim ; 
throw away, tdijicir, ,- 
throw down, dijirio. 
thy, <«««, («a, tuitm. 
till, (/«m, rfoiiM, yaoni/ (2,59, 7). 
timber, lignum, -I, N. 
time, tem}yu», -oris, N. 
to, prep. , dat. or ad with ace. {\n,l ). 
today, huilif. 
tomorrow, eras. 

too = also, ellam, i/nwiue ; niini of 
com p. (88, «). 

top of the mountain, nummtumons 

(93). 

tower, tttrris, .in, F. 
town, oppidnm, -i, N. 
transpiring, these things are, 

Ime ri-i (jerunlur, 
transport, Imnsportu, 1. 
treachery, 

jfrjtdia, -ur, F. ; iiuiiiiae, 

-drum, F. pi. (32, 6). 



VOCABtrtAHV 



349 



tree, artmr^ -nriA^ V. 
txvach, JunAtt , -«#', F. 
troops, riipiilf, ■liriiiii, V, pi. 
tnut, /h/n. H, /■,««/( ; roll/";./,, 

(ir),-!) (with, hit. IT.'i, •_')■. 
truth, vt'rilflA, -ti/i^, K. ; 
the truth, n'ni, .,>,«,„, X. pi. 



used to, IraiisUt.- l.y iiii|H>rf. 

t,'lise. 
useful, iiHHm, -r (Willi ,lat.). 

V 

Talimnt, .'','i'',.«, -r (S'J, -I). 
valley, mtli^, .,;,, F. 



I - , ■ '""^/j ,"1",',, -iM r. 

try, «„„„■. I : „,,,,,„,, 4, .,„,,„,, , ^^^^ ^.. .^ .^ _.^.^ ^ 



turn, ivrM, .■}, ivivi, rrraiin 

turn back, 

rfivi-lur, iviv/'/i, ifi't'Ttl, !•,'■ 
ivi«>(«i (i;t(,, li). 

twenty, rhfinti. 

two, ,/«u, Juu,-, ,/«„ (lot), -,). 

U 

unable, am, 

uncertain, inrrrttift, -it^ -uiu. 
undertake, 

Jiiun-i/iio, .1, -n-j,;, -re/ililm, 
with fut. infill. (173, 3). 

undertakings, iieiiMum, ■>, N. 

unfortunate, iiifili.,- (^i.,,. hi/.-linH). 

unfortunately, iufHicUn: 

unless, nisi (24!l, •!). 

unlike, iti/^nimiUA, -f (with ,l;it *I0 
-'). ' ' 

until, fimti, ttimec, quoad (2ii9, 7). 

unwilling, Ihi-Hhm, ■„. mn. 

unwilling;, am, niila, Hi'illr, w,liii 
C-'MI, •_'). 

unworthy (»fi, UnlhinHx, -n. -111,1, 

(with iilil, 114, .V). 
upon, ill witii acu. witli verhs iif 

intitioll ; 
in witli iihl. with veilm ,if ivst 

(•-•0, ■-'). 
urge, hmlor, 1 ; nilhinini; 1 : 

(with suhstaritiv,; clause 240 

•2, 4). 
use. Blur. I'll!, ,i.v,i., (with alil. 

13(i, 8). 



very, tiaimhltc hy suilf r. (SS, (i) ; 

'/""•, ■", ",11 (144, (i), 
vexed, am, ,i„" /ih/ri (-we, I). 
victory, lirMrin, ,!•■, K. 

view, riin»lrrliu, .„y, .\i. 

view, ^/»-,/,"<, 1. 
vigorously, 

Orriltr (lirritiM ; t'lr^-rrimt'). 
vile, fHi/ii't, .,, 
violence, ri,, (,i,)_ p, ((17). 
virtue, ririiii, .uHa, ¥. 
voice, I'oj", I'lir'tM^ F. 

W 

wage. ;;, ni, H, ,/,.v„i, ijrMliiii,. 
wait for, exiimifi, I. 
walk, (imhiiln, I. 
wall, mOiiis, .,", .M. 

wanting, am, ,/,'(,i(»i -e™,. ./•„ 

(with (lilt, '.fw, 7). 
war, l^fllniii, -i, N. ; 

in war, ',,7/7 (l,„.aiive IIS, :ji. 

""'/ /7"^* '"''' "" " ""• 
warlike, hrllimtuM, .„, .,„„. 
warn, moitm, *J ; ailntnyur, 'J ■ 

(with suhstaiitiv,- , laiisi LMO' 

•-'. 4). 

warship, mhUM tunijti. 

waste, lay, raw<">, |, 

watch (tiiiu), ,i;/i/i„, .„f^ Y . 

/iniiia iuyiUa,'ti-i) p.m.; 

^'■Ttfnda rii/ifia, y-t'J p.m.; 

iTlia vii/iliii, 12.;! a.m.; ' 

qmrta vitjilia, SO am.' 



350 



VOCARri.ARY 



water, tti/mi, •«*•, K. 
wave, 

JInrUu, -ut, M. ; untla, -ae, F. 
waver, rmirtui; I. 

way, viii, -nf, h\ 

we, «ii« (137). 

weak, injiriimjt, -n, -nm. 

wearies me, it = I am wearied, 

mp tartlH (220, I, •!, H). 
weary, /tuMun, -«, ■«»(, 
weather, tfmju'HU'tM, -t'liiM, F. 
weeping, Jtmi (gun. Jtnitiu). 
weight, ptnidiiM, -trin, N. 
well, fti'ne {mftiiiH ; vittimr). 
what, 8ec who or which, 
what kind of, vm/i/m, -p. 
when? (iiuuiT. ), ijiKinilfi. 
when, coiij., cum (204, 4; 2t)l I ■ 
2ti'J). 

whenever, nim, iiimtiia, iil,i, lU 

(■-'(W, S). 
where? u'-i.' 
where, iihi 

whether. . .or, tUrum (or -»<■) n« 

(44, •>; 201). 
which? i/iii, ijiiiif, ijMiii ? (i48_ o) 
which, i/ni, iiiiw, t/nml (145, 1). 
which (of two), iilrr, uliii, iitrmn 

(■*», 2). 
while. iluiH (2">9, r>). 
whither ? i/m; .' 

who? f/'lu, riuile, t/iiltl .' (|4,s, |) 
who, 'I'U, tjUlu, qmnl (Ui), J). 

whoever. 

'JHirilillr/lli , qilnirnmriur, i/iluil- 
niitti/Uf. 
whole, liyim, -a, -um (4,S, 2). 
world, t'i'ltiti tffrt'irn/H, 
worthy (of), 

diijiiKx, -11, .Id,, (witlr alil 
iM, 5). 



why? rHi? ,iii,-,rr ,' tiiuimnlir,^,,, ■ 

Wide. /tUiiJi, .»/, .«,«, 
wife, itj-oi\ ftriM^ K. 
willing, am, eol,\ ,.,.iir, „,/,„■ 

('-•10, 2). 
wind, re,itiiH^ ./, M. 
wing (of a liinh, iiln, .,„, p. ; 

(of mi nrn'v! mrtiii. .««, N. 
winter, hin,,,,, /„v,„;^, y 
winter, pass the winter, /.tVwo. I. 
winter quarters, 

llihinill, .,„■,;„,, N. pi. 

wisdom, mftifttt'm^ -,(,., p^ 

wise, miiuiit (geii. m/,i,i,li,<). 

wisely, M,i/,i,-i,tHr, 

with, tiaiLslate l>y iilil. alom, or 
iiiiH with alil.' (J7, I ; i,s_ o) 

withdraw (intr.), 

ritfo, .'J, rp/(«7, rfHHum ; tli-iu'tio; 

Ml' rrrijii,;, ;j, ,.,;^„-^ ir/iHiiu. 
within (of time), sit- (llo, ;t), 
without, sine witli abl. 
woman, mttiifr, -n-in, F. 
wood ( = forust), si/rii, -w, F. : 

(=tiiiilii'i), /i,/nii,„, .,-^ \. 
woody, K,h,^»tfr, 'frin, -Ir*-, 
word, rrrlntm, -/, N, 

word was brought, wniiiiiiiini ,,/. 
word, bring back, rmiintw, I. 
work, iijiiu^ -friM, N. 
workman, fdlni; ■l,rt, M. 
would that, iilhiam (19,"!, :t). 
wound, t'n/nux^ irin, N. 
wound, I'uhtiru, 1, 
wounded. rulnenUuA, -a, -nm. 
wretched, miii-r. -irn^ -tru/ti. 
write, irriho, 3, gcrijiMi, acrl/iliim. 
writing, ( = to write), gcribere 
(18<i, r,). 



4 
•1 



year, itmn/M, -,, m. 
yes, lioM- i'x|iri'.4si.f] (44^ 
yesterday, hrri. 
yet, not. mutii,,,,,. 

yie'd. '•"'", .'I /, r„.,„, 

you, ''((LIT). 

young (man), >/v«w, 1)1^ 



V(KAIllLAliY 



Y 

', M. 

•ri. 



3ft 1 



your (icf.rriiiu' timn,.), 
'"«», -<i, ■inii : 
(nftrriiiK I" ni,.n. t|,a„ ,„„.) 
'>«(<•/•, trii, -Irnm. 

yourself (r,fl..xiv,). i. , m,(|(H 41. 
(iMi|iliatJi), i/«,. 



JiiniiU (!)1, .■)). 



«eal, M/iiilium, i, X.